5. Baldwin-Steele (10.8 Baldwin-Steele)

Newton Bascum Baldwin and Martha Ellen Steele

Table 5   N. Bascum and M. Ellen (Steele) Baldwin family
Table Name Birth Death Age Born Died Buried Vocation
T10 0 Newton Bascum Baldwin 24 Dec 1862 22 Mar 1919 56 Virginia St. Maries ID Woodlawn Cem ID Restaurateur
T11 0 Martha Ellen (Steele) 14 Oct 1863 27 Apr 1943 79 Jackson KY St. Maries ID Woodlawn Cem ID Wife
1 Sarah Elizabeth (Williams) 27 Mar 1883 29 Jan 1964 80 Kentucky Coeur d'Alene ID Coeur d'Alene ID Nurse
2 Lydia Margaret (Anstine) 1 Apr 1886 31 Aug 1929 44 Annville Jackson KY Seward Co NE Utica NE Farm wife
3 Almeda Jane (Ure) 12 Dec 1888 Nov 1971 82 Kentucky Spokane WA Woodlawn Cem ID Milliner
4 Ida Mae (Wetherall) c Mar 1890 2 Apr 1923 32/33 Corbin KY Orofino ID Woodlawn Cem ID Stenographer
Baldwin-Steele marriage certificate Marriage Register showing union of "Newton B. Baldwin" and "Martha E. Steel" [sic = Martha E. Steele]
as witnessed by relatives and friends, Jackson County, Kentucy, 15 December 1881
Copped, cropped, and composed from Ancestry.com
Baldwin-Steele marriage bond Marriage Bond for "Newton Baldwin" and "M. D. Settle"
also spelled "Martha E. Steel" [sic = Martha E. Steele]
McKee, Jackson County, Kentucy, 5 December 1881
Copped and cropped from Ancestry.com
Baldwin-Steele portrait Baldwin-Steele family about 1905
Probably before leaving Kentucky, possibly after arriving in Iowa
Baldwin sisters Almeda Jane Ure (3rd), Ida Mae Wetherall (4th),
Sada Elizabeth Williams (1st), Lydia Margaret Anstine (2nd)
Parents Newton Bascum Baldwin (Baldwin-Howard), Martha Ellen Steele (Steele-Grubb)
Scan by Patricia Flint of original photo in her family collection
(Patricia is a great-great-granddaughter of Ellen Steele and
a great-granddaughter of Ellen's 2nd daughter Meda Baldwin)
  1. Newton B. Baldwin and Martha E. Steele were "bonded" in marriage on 5 December in McKee, Jackston County, Kentucky, and registered the marriage in Jackston County, Kentucky on 15 December 1881. The registration record states that the marriage took place "at the residence of the bride's father" but Ellen Steele's father Jonas Steele died in 1868. "Father" appears to be an error for "brother", most likely "William D. Steele", the first listed witness, followed by his younger brother "John Steele" and others, ending with Newton's older brother "Wm. Baldwin". The "marriage bond" includes spelling errors like "Steel" for "Steele" and "Neuton" for "Newton" among several others.
    Following Bascum's death in 1919, Ellen lived for a while with her daughter and son-in-law Meda and Clifford Ure in St. Maries (1920 census), and later with her daughter Lydia Anstine's family in Nebraska, where she continued to live for a while after Lydia's death in 1929 (1930 census).
  2. Sarah Elizabeth was "Sada" in my father's memory, though she was usually "Sadie" or "Sadie E.". My father called her "Aunt Sadie" and that is how I and my brother and sister also knew her. A transcription of a 1940 Social Security record shows "Sadie Baldwin Williams" but she was usually "Sadie E. Williams". She married Charles F. Williams (or Ambrose Powell Williams) around 1903 (or 1902). Apparently they had 4 children, of whom 2 -- Faye and Claude -- survived (1910 census).
    Faye M. Williams was born in Iowa on 4 October 1906 and died in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho on 25 November 1995. Claude J. Williams was born in Nebraska on 28 November 1907 and died on 25 November 1977. They and their mother were living with the Baldwin's in St. Maries in 1910 according to that year's census. The Baldwins were living in Spokane in 1908 and 1909.
    Sadie is buried at Coeur d'Alene Memorial Gardens in Coeur d'Alene, Kootenai County, Idaho.
  3. Lydia or "Lydie" (Liddie) is also reported to have been born on 1 April 1883. The 2 April 1883 date is based on her death certificate. Ida, too, was born on 2 April.
    Lydia married Charles (aka "Charley " and "Chas") Anstine, in Lincoln, Nebraska on 12 February 1908. Charley was a Nebraska farmer she met while the Baldwin family was living in Lincoln (See Table 5.2).
  4. Almeda or "Meda" ("Danny" to some in her family) -- also worked as a telephone operator. She married Clifford Ure, a St. Maries barber, on 15 March 1911. By the 1920 census he was a mailman. She and Clifford or "Cliff" -- like N. Bascum and M. Ellen Baldwin, and like Ida Baldwin Wetherall -- are buried at Woodlawn Cemetery in St. Maries.
  5. Ida's death certificate states she was born in 1888. The 1900 census states March 1891, and the 1920 census states she was then 36, which implies she was born in 1888-1889. Her 1 June 1910 marriage certificate says she was 20 as of her last birthday, which implies she was born in 1890, and her tombstone says 1890.
    Ida married William Riley Wetherall in Seward, Nebraska, on 1 June 1910. Their wedding portrait is the work of a Seward photographer. Ida's oldest sister Sada Williams was working at a mental asylum in Seward at the time. Her 2nd older sister Lydia Anstine was living with her family on a farm in nearby Utica. And their mother, Ellen Baldwin, made frequent visits to Nebraska to see her grandchildren.
    The circumstances of Ida's life, after her marriage to William Riley Wetherall in 1910 and the birth of William Bascum (later "Bascom") Wetherall in 1911, were tragic (see below).

See Chronology of Baldwin-Steele family for an overview of the origins of the Baldwin line in the Baldwin-Steele family and a fuller account of the family's movements and life.

See Chronology of Steele-Grubb family for an account of the Steele-Grubb family.

See 4th cousins X removed: Steele-Grubb connections with David Crockett for a look at the possible crossing of paths of the Steele line of the Baldwin-Steele family with an offshoot of the Crockett ancestors of Davy Crockett.

Bosoms trump breasts

Compare the clothing the Baldwin sisters are wearing in the circa 1905 family portrait to the right, and those they are wearing in the circa 1907 portrait below. Sada and Lydia are wearing the same outfits. Ida, too, appears to be wearing the same or very similar blouse and belt. Only Meda's dress is clearly different.

The object of female fashions then -- in the age of virtue and modesty -- seems to have been to exaggerate the bosom rather than accentuate the breasts. A large bosom alludes to fertility and motherhood, while shapely breasts suggest sexuality and womanhood. The body, then, was not only covered -- but layered -- with clothing designed to hide a woman's actual figure -- except her waist, which was cinched as tight as possible.


N.B. and Ellen (Steele) Baldwin (Grandma Baldwin)

N. Bascum Baldwin -- also known as "N. B. Baldwin" but socially as "Bascum" -- married Martha Ellen Steele in Kentucky. The couple eventually settled and built a home in Saint Maries, at the confluence of the St. Joe and St. Maries Rivers, in Idaho. Bascum was known as a "Dealer In General Merchandise".

William B. Wetherall said in 2010 that his maternal grandparents had married and started their family in Kentucky, but later migrated to Saint Maries. He said his grandfather, N. B. Baldwin, had been a merchant and businessman, and at times owned a restaurant, general store, and laundry.

N. B. Baldwin   In his very small collection of Wetherall-Baldwin family detritus was a yellow business card showing the following information. I transcribed the card when my father showed it to me in a shoebox with other family detritus. The card has been lost.

N. B. Baldwin
Dealer In General Merchandise
St. Maries, Idaho
St. Maries at confluence of St. Joe and St. Maries Rivers

Ellen Ellen (Steele) Baldwin, circa 1940
Probably in St. Maries where Ellen died in 1943
Wetherall Family Collection

Judging from the 1880 census, Bascum and Ellen married in their teens as children in neighboring families in Kentucky. All the men in the families were laborers, presumably on the family farm.

The 1900 census shows them farming in another part of Kentucky with their 4 daughters. The oldest was "Saddy" (17) or "Sally" depending on how one reads the corrected scribble, and the youngest was Ida (9). All 4 of the Baldwin sisters were at school.

Sometime around 1904 or 1905, some of the Baldwin-Steele family members leave Kentucky. N.B. Baldwin appears to be living with Sadie and her husband C. F. Williams in Kansas in 1905 (see 1905 Kansas census below).

By 1907, N.B. and Ellen are resident employees at the insane asylum in Lincoln, Nebraska. He is working as a meat cutter, she as an assistant cook. Lydia was apparently studying at a business college in Lincoln. Meda and Ida were probably also living there. Circa 1906-1907, Lydia married Charles Anstine, a farmer in Utica in Seward County.

By 1908, N.B. and Ellen, and Meda and Ida, had moved to Spokane, Washington, where Ida (and apparently also Meda" attended business colleges, and N.B. and Ellen ran a restaurant. Lydia remained in Nebraska with her new family. In 1909, Meda and Ida are living with their parents in Spokane, Ida still enrolled in a business college, Meda working as a cashier at the restaurant.

By 1910, N.B. and Ellen are running a restaurant and boarding house in St. Maries, Idaho. Meda is living with them while working as a milliner at her own shop.

A photograph probably taken in St. Maries early in 1912, of William B. Wetherall on a boardwalk in St. Maries, shows a restaurant and boarding house that may have belonged to N.B. Baldwin. See Wetherall-Hardman family (Bill and Orene) page for details.

N.B. lived in St. Maries until his death in 1919. The 1920 census shows Ellen living in St. Maries with Meda, Meda's husband Clifford Ure, and their daughter Greta. Lydia underwent surgery for a colostomy in 1927 and died in 1929, and the 1930 census shows Ellen living with Charles Anstine and his and Lydia's daughters on the Anstine farm in Utica. The 1930 census shows Sadie also living and working in Seward. The 1940 census shows Sadie and Ellen living together in St. Maries, where Ellen died in 1943.

So Ellen spent a good part of her life supporting her daughters in their trials and tribulations, both marital and medical. She helped Sadie and her children when Sadie's marriage floundered. She went to Iowa to help Ida deliver William B. Wetherall (my father) in 1911, and then took in my father when Ida was committed to an asylum. She was helped by Meda after N.B. died but reciprocated by helping Meda raise first Greta and later Dale. She helped Lydia in the late 1920s when Lydia had cancer, and remained with Charley and the girls for a while after Lydia died. Her visits with my father in Iowa when he was going to school there during the 1920s inspired him to return to St. Maries, where he lived with Meda's family, but also Ellen and Sadie, during his college years.


Baldwin sisters Baldwin sisters about 1907
Lydia → Meda → Sadie ↓ Ida
Probably taken in Lincoln, Nebraska
(Wetherall Family photo)

Baldwin sisters

William B. Wetherall's mother and aunts

N.B. and Ellen Baldwin had 4 daughters in the span of 7 years from 1883-1890 -- Sadie, Lydia, Meda, and Ida. As adults they led very different lives, and some had hard times.

Sadie lost the first 2 of her 4 children in death in their infancy, separated from her husband while the 2 surviving children were still very young, and raised them alone with occasional help from her mother.

Lydia lost her 1st daughter, and then shortly after the birth of her 4th, she underwent a resection and colostomy operation. Two years later she died, leaving her husband with three daughters, the youngest only 2 years old -- and three years later he also died of cancer.

Meda would live the longest and most stable life of the Baldwin sisters.

Ida would live the shortest and most tragic life. Confined in an asylum about 8 months after her son, William B. Wetherall, my father, was born, she died in confinement 12 years later, probably a victim of what today would be called post-partum depression. In her time, she was just crazy.

Only Lydia and Meda are buried with their husbands. Lydia and Charley Anstine are buried with their eldest daughter, Velma Anstine, in Utica, Nebraska. Meda and Clifford are buried in the Baldwin plot in St. Maries, Idaho, with N. Bascum and M. Ellen Baldwin. Ida Baldwin Wetherall is also buried in the Baldwin plot with her parents and the Ures. Sadie Williams is Coeur dAlene, Idaho.


The portrait to the right was most likely taken in Lincoln, Nebraska, around 1907, which appears to have been the last year the Baldwins and their daughters were living close together. By 1908, N.B. and Ellen, and Ida and apparently also Meda, were in Spokane, while Lydia was in Nebraska, where she had married. Sadie, who married around 1903-1904, had given birth to her Faye -- her 3rd (and 1st surviving) child -- in Iowa in 1906, but Claude -- her 4th (and 2nd surviving) child -- was born in Nebraska in 1907.

The 1910 census shows all the Baldwins except Lydia and Ida -- namely N.B., Ellen, Meda, and Sadie and her 2 children -- living together in St. Maries, Idaho. In 1910, Ida married William R. Wetherall of Iowa in Seward, Nebraska, where Lydia lived, then lived in Iowa, where in 1911 she gave birth to William B. Wetherall. Ellen came to Iowa to be with her when she gave birth, at which time Sadie was in Medical Lake, Washington.


5.1 Williams-Baldwin

Sadie (Baldwin) Williams (Aunt Sadie)

Table 5.1   Sadie (Baldwin) Williams family
Table Name Birth Death Age Born Died Buried Vocation
0 Ambrose Powell Williams ?
Charles F. Williams ?
Railroad flagman
Railroad fireman
T5 0 Sarah Elizabeth (Williams) 27 Mar 1883 29 Jan 1964 80 Kentucky Coeur d'Alene ID CDA Memorial Cem ID Nurse
n Unknown child net 1902 nlt 1904 "Sallie" or "Sally" (Baldwin) Williams appears to have lost two children in infancy before leaving Kentucky by 1905, as there are stories of least one child in a cemetery near where she grew up in Kentucky (see below).
n Unknown child net 1902 nlt 1904
3 Faye Marguerite (Mathews) (Nelson) (Rebenstorf) 4 Oct 1906 25 Nov 1995 88 Knoxville IA Coeur d'Alene ID CDA Memorial Cem ID Teacher, Accountant
4 Claude Jennings Williams 28 Nov 1907 25 Nov 1977 69 Lincoln NE Spokane WA WA State Vets Cem Carpenter

Portrait of Sadie Williams, circa 1920s
Gumbel Studio, Seward, Nebraska
Wetherall Family Collection

Sadie Williams as Nurse

Sadie Williams as nurse (left), circa 1910s-1920s
(Wetherall Family photo)

WBW could not recall where or when this picture was taken
and did not recognize the woman on the right.
He said Sadie had once worked at a home for unwed mothers
and might have been its director.
She was, in fact, the head nurse at such a home
in Seward, Nebraska, according to 1930 census.

Sadie Williams

Sadie Williams
Place and date unknown
(Severns Family photo)

Sadie may have posed for these mugshots at a photo booth
in a Greyhound terminal during one of her trips.

Wanted: Sadie Williams
"Nurse, mother, fearless traveler.
Don't mess with her on a bus.
If you're lucky enough to sit with her, though,
she'll tear off both of your ears with
amazing tales of adventure and survival."


Sadie Williams' death certificate
Copped from Ancestry.com

Informant "Mrs. Faye Rebenstorf" was Sadie's daughter
Sadie's father was "N.B." or "N. [Newton] Bascum" or "Bascum"
Her mother was, as stated, "Ellen" or "M. [Martha] Ellen"

Certificate says Sadie was "widowed"
1910 census says "M" (married)
1930 census says "D" (divorced)
1940 census says "Wd" (widowed)

  1. Sarah "Sadie" E. Williams was "Sada" in my father's memory though he and others in the family generally called her "Sadie", the name most commonly found on census and other records. She is "Sally" on the 1900 census, "Sallie" on 1902 marriage record, "Sallie" on a 1905 Kansas census, and "Sarah" (once "Sara) or "Sadie" on most other records.
  2. "Ambrose Powell Williams" -- aka "A.P. Williams" -- is the father-on-record of Sadie's daughter Faye (below). On 19/20 September 2019, Find a Grave contributor Peter Joseph ("PJ") Braun kindly informed me that Sadie Baldwin had married Ambrose Powell Williams, in Jackson County, Kentucky, on 18 October 1902. This was a very valuable piece of information for me, for at the time I had not seen any records of Sadie's marriage, and was unable to substantiate the claim made on a delayed birth certificate in 1942 that Faye's father was Ambrose Powell Williams (below). I later learned that "PJ" was instrumental in discovering the cremains of Sadie's son Claude J. Williams (below), and I realized that he had contacted me after seeing my in the course of investigating Claude's family history through Ancestry.com.
  3. "Charles F. Williams" is the father of Claude Williams accoring to Claude's Lincoln, Nebraska birth certificate. He is also listed as a "railroad fireman" (locomotive engineer) in a contemporary Lincoln directory. He is "C.F. Williams" on the 1905 Kansas census showing him with "N.B. Baldwin", "Sallie Williams", and a boy named "Oscar", who C.F. Williams appears to have brought from a previous marriage.
  4. The identities of Sadie's first two children, possibly twins, are not known. Presumably she bore and lost them between her 1902 marriage and migration to Kansas before the state's 1905 census.
  5. Sadie had lost 2 children according to the 1910 national census, by which time she was in Idaho. The census states that she had been married for 6 years, and she had had 4 children of whom 2 survived, namely Faye and Claude.
  6. Lois McWhorter, a 3rd cousin in Kentucky, reported in 2018 that her mother, Hazel (Baldwin) Gill, had heard that an infant child of Sallie Baldwin was buried in a cemetery associated with Gabbard family property, which might have shared a border with, or once been part of, Baldwin property along today's Baldwin Branch Road south of Annville (see Baldwin-Steele homes below).
  7. Faye married L.J. Mathews in February 1934 and in December a daughter, Marilyn, was born. Faye had divorced by the 1940 census. A marriage certificate filed in Missoula County, Montana on 28 October 1944, records a marriage performed in the town of Missoula on 26 October 1944, pursuant to a license issued the same day, between Wisconsin-born "Howard C. Rebenstorf" and Iowa-born "Faye M. Nelson" (mother Sadie E. Baldwin, father A. P. Williams). Rebenstorf informally adopted Faye's daughter Marilin A. Mathews, but Marilin remained legally Mathews to the day she married Norman K. Disrud (see below). Faye also went by "Faye Marjorie Williams" (apprently on a Social Security document dated December 1936). Faye was "Fay M. [sic] Williams" (single) on the 1910 census for St. Maries, Idaho, and the 1930 census for Lincoln, Nebraska, and "Faye Mathews" (divorced) on the 1940 census for Spokane, Washington.
  8. "Claude Jennings" was usually just "Claude" or "Claude J." Williams. He appears to have never married (according to Darci Severns).

Sadie's husband and children

Sadie's marriage, motherhood, separation, and divorce are shrouded in mystery. She had 4 children, of whom 2 -- Faye and Claude -- survived. Both Faye and Claude were slightly older than Sadie's nephew, this writer's father William Bascom Wetherall, who partly grew up with his aunt and 1st cousins in the Baldwin household in St. Maries until he was about 6 years old. Sadie and her children -- especially Faye -- remained close to Bill and his family throughout their lives.

The 1900 census for Pond Creek in Jackson County shows what looks most like "Sally" (17) [Sarah, Sadie, Sada] living in Kentucky as the oldest daughter of "N.B." or "B." Baldwin (38), who is engaged in farming, and Ellen (36). Her younger sisters -- Liddie [sic = Lydie, Lydia] (14), "Almedie" ["Medie"?] [sic = Medie, Meda] (11), and Ida (9) -- are also listed. The census states that everyone in the family was born in Kentucky, Sadie in March 1883, her father in December 1861. Sadie is single and at school.

18 October 1902   "A.P. Williams" married "Sallie Baldwin" in Jackson County, Kentucky (Ancestry.com record, transcription).

The 1905 Kansas census for Parsons, in Labette County, enumerated on 1 March 1905, shows "N.B. Baldwin" (44), residing in a home with "C.F. Williams" (28), "Sallie Williams" (22), and "Oscar Williams" (6). C.F. Williams and N.B. Baldwin were born in Virginia, and Sallie and Oscar were born in Kentucky. C.F. Williams came to Kansas from Tennessee, while Sallie and Oscar Williams, and N.B. Baldwin, came to Kansas from Kentucky. C.F. Williams is described as a "Hospital attendant".

Who did Sadie Baldwin marry?

Oscar, if 6 as of 1 March 1905 in the Kansas census, would have been born on or after 2 March 1898 and no later than 1 March 1899, when Sallie was 16 and C.F. Williams was 22. In other words, Oscar was born about 1 year before the 1 June 1910 census showing "Saddy" or "Sally" Baldwin as single -- and 3 years before "Sallie Baldwin" is said to have married "A.P. Williams".

The above Ancestry.com record -- a transcription rather than an image -- shows a marriage between a "Sallie Baldwin" and an "A.P. Williams" in Jackson County, Kentucky, on 18 October 1902.

The 1900 census for Kavanaugh Precinct in Jackson County, Kentucky, shows "Ambrose Williams", 22 years of age, born in Mar 1878 in Virginia to Virginia-born parents, with his wife "Margaret" age 28, born in Sept 1871 in Kentucky to Kentucky-born parents, and a son "Oscar M." 1, Sept 1898. The household includes 4 other children, all bearing the family name "Powell" -- step-daughter "Maud" 8, June 1891, step-son "Leslie" 6, Dec 1893, step-daughter "Lella" 3, July 1896, and adopted "Ella" 14, Apr 1886. Ambrose and Margaret have been married 3 years, and Margaret has had 4 children, all of whom are reportedly still alive -- presumably Oscar with Ambrose Williams, and the 3 step-children with a man named Powell, implicity Margaret's deceased or divorced previous husband. Ambrose is farming on a farm he rents.

Margaret "Maggie" A. Coyle married Larkin Powell on 29 July 1890 in Jackson County, Kentucky.

"Maud Lee (Powell) Clemmons", born on 27 June 1891, died of tuberculosis on 2 July 1922 in Sand Gap in Jackson County.

Frank Leslie Powell, born on 8 December 1893 in Sand Gap, Jackson County, died in Cincinati, Hamilton County, Ohio, on 19 January 1968.

The identities of "Ambrose Powell Williams" and "Charles F. Williams" remain unclear. It doesn't make immediate sense that in 1902 Sadie (Sallie) married "Ambrose Powell Williams" (A.P. Williams), who may have had a son named Oscar -- then shows up with "C.F. Williams" and a child "Oscar", and her father N.B. Baldwin, in a 1905 census -- then in 1906 gives birth to a daughter whose father appears to be "Ambrose Powell Williams" -- then in 1907 gives birth a son whose father appears to be "Charles F. Williams" -- unless "A.P." and "C.F." Williams are the same men -- or unless they are different men with the same family name, possibly brothers, with whom Sadie had on-and-off relations.

If "Ambrose Williams" the father of "Oscar" and step-father of several Powell children in the 1900 census is the "A.P. Williams" who "Sallie Baldwin" married in 1902 -- and if this "Sallie Baldwin" is the "Sallie" married to "C.F. Williams" in the 1905 Kansas census that includes "Oscar" and "N.B. Baldwin" -- and "Sallie Baldwin" aka "Sallie Williams" is otherwise N.B. Baldwin's daughter "Sadie Baldwin -- then we have to wonder if C.F. Williams and A.P. Williams are the same person, in which case C.F. Williams brought Oscar to his marriage with Sadie Baldwin from his marriage with Margaret (Coyle) Powell.

At this point, nothing can be ruled out. Even if we leave aside the apparently contradictory marriage and census records, we are left with a delayed Iowa birth certificate for Faye stating that her father was "Ambrose Powell Williams", and an actual Nebraska birth certificate for Claude stating that his father was "Charles F. Williams". That "Ambrose Powell Williams" might be right for Faye does not mean that "Charles F. Williams" is wrong for Claude. It is not impossible that Faye and Claude were half-siblings. Both A.P. Williams and C.F. Williams appear to have been born in Virginia. That Sallie and Oscar Williams and N.B. Baldwin came to Kansas from Kentucky, while C.F. Williams came to Kansas from Tennessee, is not a problem if they came to Kansas by different routes from the same place in Kentucky.

1906   Sadie gave birth to Faye on 4 October 1906 in Iowa. Faye's obituary states she was born in Knoxville, Iowa. A delayed birth certificate issued by the Division of Vital Statistics, Iowa State Department of Health, on 23 March 1942, states that she was born in Knoxville, Iowa, on 4 October 1906 to "Ambrose Powell Williams" and "Sarah E. Williams" ("or Sadie" is printed below Sarah).

1907   Sadie gave birth to Claude on 28 November 1907 in Nebraska. Claude's birth certificate states he was born in Lincoln, Nebraska, to "Chas. F. Williams", a [locomotive] fireman, and "Sarah Elizabeth Baldwin".

The 1908 Lincoln Nebraska Directory shows Williams Charles F fireman C B & Q res 720 Q. Williams is apparently a locomotive fireman for the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad. The same directory shows Lydia Baldwin living at the same 720 Q address, which suggests that Sadie and Faye are also living there. Charles Anstine, who Lydia would soon marry, is living practically next door, on the same street, and is also working as a fireman for C B & Q.

The 1909 Lincoln Nebraska Directory shows Williams Charles F fireman C B & Q res 1113 Q. Williams, still working for the railroad, has moved. Lydia Baldwin and Charles Anstine are no longer listed in the directory.

The 1910 census shows Sadie E. Williams (26) living with her Baldwin parents and second younger sister Meda (21) in St. Maries, Idaho, and her children Faye M. Williams (3) and Claude J. Williams (2). The census states that she had been married for 6 years, and had had 4 children, of whom 2 survived. This implies that she had married about 1904 (actually 1902), and that Faye was born in 1906-1907 (actually 1906) and Claude in 1907-1908 (actually 1907). Newton B. was born in Virginia, his father in Tennessee, his mother in Virginia. Ellen was born in Kentucky to parents born in North Carolina, according to this census. Meda and Sadie were born in Kentucky. Faye was born in Iowa, Claude was born in Nebraska, and their father was born in Tennessee -- consistent with the "Tennessee" origins of "C.F. Williams" in the 1905 Kansas census.

Where and when did Sadie lose 2 children?
If Sadie was the "Sallie" in the 1905 Kansas census, and if "Oscar" was her biological child, then presumably he is 1 of the 2 children who were no longer alive in 1910. Faye and Claude, born in 1906 and 1907, are too closely spaced to consider the birth of any children between them. Did Sadie lose a child between 1908 and the 1910 census? Or before the 1905 Kansas census?

1920 census   I have not found Sadie, Faye, or Claude in the 1920 census. However, stories conveyed to me by Darci Severns, a great granddaughter of Lydia Anstaine, Sadie's sister, who lived in Utica in Seward County, Nebraska, suggest that Sadie was working as a nurse in Nebraska around that time.

Stories handed down by Lydia and Charley Anstine's descendants, through their daughters Lennie and Aura, suggest that Sadie, Faye, and Claude were living in Seward, Nebraska in the late 1910s and early 1920s. Darci Severns reports hearing from her grandmother, Lennie, that her (Lennie's) mother's (Lydia's) sister (Sadie) was a nurse and had seen the appendix removed from that her (Lennie's) older sister Velma, who died in 1919 from an infection. This would put Sadie in Seward in 1919, and Faye and Claude, then in their mid teens, would have been with her. See Darci's full account about Velma's death in "Anstine sisters" below.

The 1930 census shows Sadie (46), divorced, born in Kentucky, father in Virginia, mother in Kentucky, residing and working at the Nebraska Industrial House, a home for unwed mothers in "P" township in Seward County, Nebraska, as its resident nurse. She is said to have been 19 when she married, which implies that she married about 1902 (the 1910 census stated that she had been married for 6 years, which implies she married around 1904). Fay [sic = Faye] M. Williams (23), single, born in Iowa, father in Virginia, mother in Kentucky, is a teacher at a school (Temple) in Lincoln, Nebraska. I have not found Claude in the 1930 census.

The 1940 census shows Sadie Williams (57), head, and Ellen Baldwin (76), mother, living together at the Baldwin home in St. Maries. Both are said to be widowed and Kentucky born. The education box shows Sadie with 2 years of college and Ellen with 8 years of grade school. Sadie was living in Spokane, Washington on 1 April 1935, but Ellen was living in the same home. At the time of the 1940 census, Faye Mathews (33), divorced, no children, 2 years of college, born in Iowa, was working as a bookkeeper in Spokane, Washington, and she was living at the same place on 1 April 1935. Claude J. Williams (32), single, 2 years of college, Nebraska born, was working as a carpenter in building construction in Spokane, Washington, and he too was living at the same place in 1935.


Sadie's old Kentucky home

Uncle Clay's southern hospitality

September, 1947. Ellen Baldwin has joined Bascum Baldwin in Woodlawn Cemetery in St. Maries for nearly five years. Among their 4 daughters, only Sadie Williams, going on 64, and Meda Ure, then 58, survive them.

Sadie's own children have grown up and are approaching middle age. Her daughter Faye, 40, has remarried and her granddaughter, Marilyn, 12, now has a father. The war is over and her son, Claude Williams, 39, still single, is out of the Navy and working.

Sadie has an itch to see her childhood home in Kentucky. And on the way she'll pass through Nebraska and Iowa, where she had given birth to Faye and Claude and lived for a while after leaving Kentucky when she was 20. On her back to Idaho, she'll swing through San Francisco to visit her nephew, William Bascom Wetherall, and his family. Hopefully Meda will come down from Washington to join them.

In Des Moines, Iowa, where William B. Wetherall went to high school, Sadie buys several postcards of city landmarks. She sends 4 cards to "1922 24th Ave / San Francisco 16 / Calif." -- in 2 batches about 10 days apart -- the 1st from Des Moines, the 2nd from Kentucky -- and twice spells Wetherall "Weatherall".

The plot thickens with each card.

"I came 3 days ago and 2 chickens have died"

Southern Hospitality Southern Hospitality
Des Moines, Iowa, 10 Sep 1947, 8:30 PM Annville, KY, 22 Sep 1947, A.M.
Card 1
Des Moines River,
Des Moines, Iowa

W.B. Weatherall
6 pm, Wed, Sept. 10
Dear Bill & Bug & Babies
Have you been over
this bridge Bill?
Just had dinner
here and my bus
will leave at 630
Be in Bloomington Ill
at 1155 tomorrow
     Love Auntie
Card 2
Roosevelt High School,
Des Moines, Iowa

Wm. B. Wetherall
No time to
write more
Card 3
Lincoln High School,
Des Moines, Iowa

W.B. Weatherall
Don't know if these
cards I picked up in
Des Moines will ring
a bell in your memory
or not. Didn't have
time to get them all
out in Des Moines.
I expect to be in
S.F. in two weeks.
Will try to write you
when I leave here.
I wanted Meda to meet
me there but don't know
if she will.
     Love Sadie
Card 4
Iowa State Capitol Building,
Des Moines, Iowa

Mr. & Mrs. W.B. Wetherall
Sunday am
Sept. 21, '47
Just seen a chicken die
and Uncle Clay is in the
sweet potato patch which
means fried chicken and sweet
potatoes for dinner with the
usual hot biscuts.
I came to uncle's three
days ago and two chickens
have died. I don't want a
fuss made over me but
the southern hospitality
of my childhood hasn't
changed. I know I
won't have time to see
all that I want to see.
Haven't seen the old home
place yet but will do that
this week.
     Love Sadie


Henry Clay Baldwin Henry Clay Baldwin
With laundry, circa 1947-1948
(C.W. Baldwin Family photo)
Henry Clay and Linda Baldwin Henry Clay and Linda Baldwin
With Linda in yard, circa 1947-1948
(C.W. Baldwin Family photo)

C.W. Baldwin, who provided the above scans of photographs in his family collection, is a 3rd cousin of this writer and his siblings. We have crossed paths on Ancestor.com, but have met only through email, in which he related to me the following story behind the photographs (24 January 2014).

The attached pictures were taken around 1947-1948 by my mother during a visit to meet Henry Clay & Linda Baldwin. So it would have been around the time frame that Sadie Williams made her visit. However, I asked my mother if she remembered the name Sadie Williams and she said she did not.

I would guess that Henry Clay and Linda -- with the many children and grandchildren and even great grandchildren they had by that time -- to say nothing of their surviving siblings and cousins, and nephews and nieces -- were busy showing their "southern hospitality" to lots of relatives paying their respects to the grand old former representative and his wife. Barring a massive Kentucky reunion, very few members of the extended and far-flung Baldwin-Howard family would have had an opportunity to meet. And few would not have heard or known much, if anything, about descendants of collateral families.

C.W. Baldwin's great grandfather Henry Clay Baldwin (1867-1950), and my great grandfather Newton Bascum Baldwin (1862-1919), were brothers -- sons of our common great great grandparents, John R. Baldwin (1829–1909) and Margaret Howard (1835–1912) -- who of course knew each other. His paternal grandfather, Dewey Herbert Baldwin (1899-1980), and my paternal grandmother, Ida Mae (Baldwin) Wetherall (1890-1923), were 1st cousins, who probably met as very young children in Pond Creek, Kentucky, before Ida's Baldwin-Steele family headed west around 1904. His father, Orville Richard Baldwin (1925-2000), and my father, William Bascom Wetherall (1911-2013), were 2nd cousins, but they would have had no reason to meet, or even to know of each other's existence.

Uncle Clay

Henry Clay Baldwin (1867-1950)

"Uncle Clay" and his wife Linda would both die three years after Sadie's visit.

Uncle Clay was a younger brother of Sadie's father, N. Bascum Baldwin. Both were sons of John R. Baldwin and Margaret Howard (see 10. Baldwin-Howard below for details).

Clay was born Henry Clay Baldwin on 5 November 1867 in Laurel County, Kentucky. He married Malinda "Linda" ("Lindy", "Lindie") H. Abrams on 14 February 1898 and they had at least 8 children.

Though a farmer all his life, H. Clay Baldwin, like his namesake, was also a politician, and served as a representative in Kentucky's State House of Representative (see the "Baldwin-Howard gallery" below).

H.C. Baldwin, as he was also known, died in Annville, Jackson County, on 7 March 1950, of a heart attack. Linda, who was born on 18 August 1880, died on 16 May 1950, just 10 weeks later, from cancer. Both are buried at Medlock Cemetery in Annville (see 10.11 Henry Clay Baldwin and Malinda Abrams in the "Baldwin-Howard" section for details).

Slaughtering chickens

When I was growing up in San Francisco, most of the food I ate came out of neighborhood grocery stores and butcher shops. In earlier years, milk was delivered to our door in glass bottles. Chickens were bought headless, even feetless, dressed and plucked (thus actually undressed), and eggs came in gray pulp paper cartons. Though San Francisco prides itself on fresh fish, many were sold headless and icy.

If you went to Fisherman's Wharf, the crabs might be moving a bit, and some shellfish might also still be quick, but practically everything else was still and dead. In Chinatown, you saw tanks and cages full of live fish, chickens and ducks, a turtle or two, and other critters, destined for dinner plates in local homes and restaurants. Tourists unfamiliar with Chinese markets might have thought they were in an aquarium or zoo, but local people knew.

I learned how to clean a fish when five or six years old. I went trout fishing with a family in the neighborhood whose daughter was born a day before me in the same hospital. Our mothers had been in neighboring beds in maturnity ward. We fashioned poles from limbs and baited hooks with salmon eggs. I can't recall how much thought I gave to the fact that, to eat a fish, you had to catch it. Lure it, hook it, pull it from the water. Let it suffocate, then behead it and gut it.

About the same age, when visiting my maternal grandparents in Peck, Idaho, I witnessed my grandfather, Owen, kill a chicken. The Hardmans kept a number of hens and roosters in a pen behind their home on a lot that included a small field, barn, and outhouse. Owen cornered a rooster it seems he had named and lopped off its head. I particularly recall helping my grandmother and mother pluck its feathers. They talked while they plucked, and they fussed over the smaller feathers, which didn't come out easily and took a lot of time and patience.

I can't remember eating the chicken or how they cooked it. But I remember frying and eating the eggs we collected in the morning before breakfast. I remember the thrill of finding the eggs, some naturally brown, a few soiled by chicken poop. I never looked at clean, white, sized and sanitized store-bought eggs the same way.

The Hardmans, by then, had no cows. Their milk came directly from the dairy behind the small grocery store at the bottom of the hill, which bottled most of the milk produced on Peck's small farms. Farmers brought their raw milk to the dairy in steel cans, and the milk was run through a cream separator, pasteurizer, and homogenizer. The dairy was operated by the family that owned the store and lived in the adjoining home. They also had butter and ice cream churners.

I always associated eating in Idaho with "real butter" as opposed to the stuff we called "butter" in San Francisco. My mother used real butter only when baking, and on special occasions such as Thanksgiving, when there were usually guests for dinner. Otherwise, "butter" in our family referred to imitation butter. Some American butter producers had objected to the selling of white oleomargarine colored to look like butter, so the United States had passed a law forbidding the selling of yellow margarine. My earlier childhood memories include helping my mother mix the packet of powdered food coloring that came with margarine. During the 1950s, the laws were changed to permit manufacturers to color margarine, and the margarine-butter wars resumed. But no matter how much margarine makers tried to make their products taste like the real thing, "real butter" remained a real treat in the Wetherall-Hardman family.

Bus travel

Sadie made her pilgrimage back to Kentucky in the days when people thought nothing of busing around the country. Greyhound and other lines had thriving stations in all major cities and towns, and numerous stops between. The milk runs, and even some long-distance buses, would stop to pick you up or let you off at unscheduled places along their routes.

From about the 1970s, bus service began to both decline and deteriorate, as more freeways were built and more people owned and drove higher quality automobiles, and as air travel became faster, more convenient, and even cheaper, through airports with long-term parking facilities and rental car agencies. Many Greyhound stations became endangered species in the older parts of large cities, which were left to the poor when those with more means moved to newer urban neighborhoods or the suburbs.


Sadie's 1947 letter to nephew William B. Wetherall

Kentucky roads, family homes, growing old, being remembered

Sada "Sadie" Elizabeth (Baldwin) Williams (1883-1964) was about 64 in the summer of 1947 when she set out from Idaho to visit her Baldwin and Steele relatives and friends in Kentucky, where she was born and raised, and may have left the grave of a child that didn't survive. The 8-page letter she wrote to the Wetheralls, her nephew and his wife, my parents, on 7 October 1947 -- overviewing the trip she partly described in postcards she sent them en route (see above) -- bears the weight of the 40-plus years that had passed since she left Kentucky, barely in her 20s, no later than 1904 or 1905, on a trek that would take several years, first to Parsons, Kansas, then to Knoxville, Iowa where she bore Faye, then to Lincoln, Nebraska where she bore Claude, then to other localiteis in Nebraska and Washington, and finally -- via St. Maries, Idaho, where Ellen and Meda settled -- to nearby Coeur d'Alene, where Faye and her family settled. Her remarks about the roads and family homes in Kentucky (pages 4-6), and her thoughts about aging and being remembered (pages 6-8), are especially amusing and moving.

Wetherall Family Collection
Click on pages to enlarge

See Baldwin-Steele homes (below) for images of
photographs that may have been enclosed with letter

Sadie's letter
Sadie's letter 1 Sadie's letter 2 Sadie's letter 3 Sadie's letter 4
Sadie's letter 5 Sadie's letter 6 Sadie's letter 7 Sadie's letter 8


5.2 Anstine-Baldwin

Lydia (Baldwin) Anstine (Aunt Lydie) and Charley Anstine (Uncle Charley)

Table 5.2   Charles and Lydia (Baldwin) Anstine family
Table Name Birth Death Age Born Died Buried Vocation
0 Charles Andrew Anstine 27 Dec 1883 12 Nov 1932 48 Seward Co NE Seward Co NE Utica NE Farmer
T5 0 Lydia Margaret (Baldwin) 2 Apr 1886 31 Aug 1929 43 Annville Jackson KY Seward Co NE Utica NE Farm wife
1 Velma Marie Anstine 30 Nov 1908 27 Mar 1919 10 Seward Co NE Seward Co NE Utica NE
2 Lennie Lee (Severns) 9 Apr 1910 24 Sep 1997 87 Seward Co NE Centralia WA Claquato Cem WA Teacher
3 Aura Ellen (Dey) 2 Feb 1912 4 Jan 1985 62 Seward Co NE Riverside CA Teacher
4 Imogene Joyce (LeBaron) 5 Sep 1926 11 Sep 2005 79 Seward Co NE Federal Way WA WA
Lydia portrait

Lydia Baldwin, circa 1904
For Ida -- Lydia's younger sister -- penciled on back
Among Ida's keepsakes saved by her mother Ellen
Given to Ida's son William B. Wetherall by
Ellen, his aunt Sadie, or cousin Faye
Wetherall Family Collection

  1. Lydia ("Lydie") and Charles ("Charley" aka "Chas") married in Lincoln, Nebraska on 12 February 1908.
    Some reports say Lydia was born on 1 April. The 2 April date is based on her death certificate. Her youngest sister Ida was also born on 2 April.
    1. Lydia reportedly suffered from a long illness. Her death certificate lists the causes of death as "Carcinoma Liver / Secondary to carcinoma of sigmoid flex colon" and states that she had had a "Colostomy & resection" in 1927. Her funeral was conducted by Rev. Miller of Milford, which is about 12 miles south of Seward. She is buried at Utica Cemetery, about 14 miles west of Seward. The Anstine farm was at Utica.
    2. Charles died of stomach cancer. A home funeral was conducted by Rev. Miller of Milford. He was buried at Utica Cemetery with Lydia and Velma. His death certificate, signed by the same physician who attended Lydia, stated the cause of death as "Carcinoma Stomach" and noted that a "Gastroenterostomy" operation had been performed in February 1932, or 9 months before his death on 12 November 1932. Other particulars show that he was born on 27 December 1883 to "R.D. Anstine" of Macomb, Illinois, and "Helen Clites" of Pennsylvania. He was described as a white, widowed man who had been the husband of "Lydia Margaret". The informant was Archie Severns of Seward, Nebraska, Rt. 4.
  2. Velma was 10 when she died in 1919. She was "Thelma Anstine" on her death certifiate, but is "Velma" in all known family accounts, and apparently she is "Velma" on her headstone in Utica Cemetary.
  3. Lennie was 19 when her mother died, at which time Imogene, who was 2 or 3 at the time, became "mine" to raise as she writes in an autobiographical account of her life (see below).
    Lennie attended the University of Nebraska, became a teacher, and taught in a one-room school for three years.
    In 1931, a year before her father's death, Lennie married William Archie Severns, who she had met in high school. Archie was also from Utica, and their two children, a son Tex Lee (1934) and a daughter Billie Rae (1936), were born in Utica.
    Archie ran the Anstine farm after Charley died in 1932. They took Imogene with them when they moved to Washington in 1937.
    The 1940 census shows them living in Skookumchuck in Lewis County. William A. is 33, Lennie is 30, Tex Lee is 6, Billie Rae is 3, and Imogene Anstine -- described as the head's sister-in-law -- is 13. William A. and Lennie had finished 4 years of high school (H-4) and Imogene had finished 1 year (H-1). William A. is the owner of a general store and Lennie as a store helper.
    Archie, born 12 November 1906, died 2 January 1991 in Centralia. Lennie died 6 years later, also in Centralia. Both are buried at Claquato Cemetery in Chehalis, also in Lewis County, Washington.
  4. Aura married George M. Dey, who was also from Seward County, Nebraska.
    For a while in the 1930s, they lived in Goehner, a tiny town in Seward County near Utica (Darci Severns, email, 18 December 2013). Aura and George were living in Utica, Nebraska in 1940, in Idaho (probably in Coeur d'Alene) by 1942, in Coeur d'Alene in the late 1940s, and in Spokane by the mid 1950s. They spent some time in Riverside, California, where Aura died in 1985, but their permanent address was in Spokane, where George reportedly died. Both Aura and George are said to have been cremated.
    1. Aura's grand niece, Darci Severns, related to me that "George Dey, blind in 1987, rode a Greyhound bus alone from Spokane to Seattle to deliver to me her wedding ring on my high school graduation" pursuant to Aura's will. Darci added that she has worn the ring ever since. (Email, 23 October 2013)
  5. Imogene or "Imie" was raised by her grandmother Ellen Baldwin after Lydia's death in 1929.
    The 1930 census shows Ellen living with the Anstine family. Most likely she had been living there during Lydia's bout with cancer.
    The 1930 census shows Sadie Williams also living in Seward, at the Nebraska Industrial Home for unwed mothers, where she was the resident nurse.
    Lennie also helped raise Imogene after her mother's death, and raised her as part of her own family after their father died in 1932.
    Imogene graduated from Centralia High School, in Centralia, Lewis County, Washington, in 1943. On 3 March 1945, she married Keith Roger LeBaron of Centralia. The "Marriage Return" states that the marriage license was issued on 2 March 1945. It describes Imogene as 18, "White" and a "Spinster". Roger is 19, "White", and a "Bachelor". She was an "O.P.A. [Office of Price Administration] Clerk" and he was a "meat Cutter".
    The LeBarons lived in Centralia until at least the late 1940s, in Seattle from no later than the mid 1950s. Around 1990, they spent some time in Hemet, Riverside County, California. In the mid 1990s they were living in Federal Way, King County, Washington, where Imogene passed away. Keith, born on 2 May 1925, died on 21 July 2011 in Seattle.
    The LeBarons had two daughters, Sherrie and Deborah. Sherrie Kae was born on 22 April 1946 in Centralia. She married a man named Wene and died in Seattle on 15 August 1988. Deborah "Debbie" Anne was in 1949. She married Tacoma-born Gorden Matthew Hearst in Seattle on 10 August 1968 (license 5 August 1969). Sherrie K. Wene was one of the witnesses.

German-French migration of Anstine line

Charles Anstine was the 4th of 10 children and the 3rd of 7 sons of Douglas Richard [or Richard Douglas] Anstine and Helen Belle Clites. His father, born on 1 April 1857 in Industry, Illinois, and his mother, born on 24 June 1852 in Tipton County, Pennsylvania, married on 25 December 1877 in Emmerson, Mills County, Iowa.

Charles's parents died in Seward County, Nebraska, within a few years after his death, his mother on 15 April 1937, his father on 29 January 1939. Richard D. and Helen B. Anstine share a common headstone in Utica Cemetery in Utica in Seward County, Nebraska.

Charles was a 5th-generation descendant of Sigesmund (Simon) Anstein (counted as the 1st generation) through Simon's 1st wife, Dorothy Anstine (maiden name uncertain), who he married in 1787. Simon was born on 4 November 1763 in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, and died on 22 February 1849 in York County, Pennsylvania, Simon himself was a 5th-generation descendant of Nicholaus Anstein (counted as the 1st generation), who born between 1630–1640 in Germany, and Anna Barbara Buerg.

Charles thus represents the 4th generation of his line to be born in North America after Simon Anstein's migration to Pennsylvania from France, and the 8th generation in succession from Nicholaus Anstein, the line's known German progenitor (counted as the 0th generation).

One of Nicholaus Anstein's sons, Johann Michael Anstein (1663-1746), migrated to France in the late 17th century and married Catherine Bürger. Simon's paternal grandfather Johannes Anstein (1706-1789), and his father Johan Jürg Anstein (1735-1799), were born and raised in France. His father migrated from France to Pennsylvania in 1751 and sired as many as 13 children, including 8 sons, from whom several lines of Ansteins branced as Anstines, Enstines, and Onstines. Simon was Johann's and Catherine's 8th child and 5th son.

Source: Anstine / Enstine / Onstine Family [www.anstinefamily.com], "Outline Descendant Report for Nicholaus Anstein", 2012, 4 pages.

Anstine migration to Seward, Nebraska

Nebraska -- especially Seward County -- is full of Anstines. Charles Anstine's parents moved to Seward County, Nebraksa, from Mills County, Iowa, between 1881-1883. Charles's two older brothers and possibly his older sister were born in Iowa. He was thus the 1st or 2nd of Richard's and Helen's children to be born in Nebraska.

Uncle Seth and Aunt Maude

Charles's 2nd younger brother, Seth Richard Anstine, and his wife Maude, were known as "Uncle Seth and Aunt Maude" to the Anstine sisters. Seth, born on 3 May 1888 in Seward, Seward County, Nebraska, married Ethel Maude Hackworth (b1888), his 2nd wife (his 1st wife was Maude McGrew), on 22 December 1909 in Seward County. Seth stated on his 5 June 1917 World War draft Registration Card that he was a self-employed blacksmith in Stablehurst in Seward County and sufferred from deafness in his left ear. Maude died in 1954, Seth on 6 July 1973, and they share the same headstone in Seward Cemetery. Apparently they had no children.

Sources: (1) Darci Severns, (2) Anstine / Enstine / Onstine Family [www.anstinefamily.com], "Outline Descendant Report for Sigesmund (Simon) Anstein", 2012, pages 2-7 of 38 pages, (3) and Ancestor.com.


How Lydia Baldwin met Charles Anstine

Marriages, even when arranged, begin with a boy-meet-girl encounter. Where and why Lydia Baldwin met Charles Anstine can be conjectured from the few footprints they left in the 1908 Lincoln, Nebraska city directory.

Lennie Severns, Lydia's and Charley's 2nd daughter, began her family saga, published in 1985 (see below), with this recollection of how her parents met.

My parents [Lydia Baldwin and Charley Anstine] met in Lincoln [Nebraska] when both were rooming at mom's sister's [Sadie (Baldwin) Williams] home. Daddy was a railroad engineer and mom was attending [Lincoln] Business College. Their courtship was brief. The Baldwin family was moving to Spokane, Washington, and refused to let mother stay there because she was not married, even though [in 1907-1908] she was 21 years old. My, how times have changed!"

Lennie's story, like other such stories, was based on what she heard over the years, perhaps in part from her parents while they were alive, and probably in part from Aunt Sadie, if not also from Aunt Meda and even Grandma Baldwin, after her Lydia and Charles passed away. Most such stories are inevitably mixtures of fact and fiction, the products of selective and possibly faulty memory, romantic imagination, and other agents of alteration and embellishment that change or distort a story each time it is told.

1907-1910 Lincoln Nebraska directories

Like most such stories, however, Lennie's account of how her parents met is probably essentially true. As it turns out, her account is on the whole substantiated by listings in the Lincoln Nebraska Directory, Compiled and Printed by Jacob North & Company, Printers and Binders, Lincoln, Nebraska.

The 1907 Lincoln Nebraska Directory shows "Ellen Baldwin" and "Neuton B. Baldwin" [sic = Newton] both working and residing at the "Asylum" -- referring to the Nebraska Hospital for the Insane (see details below).

Charles Ansttine, about 24 in 1907, is not listed, presumably because he is working elsewhere.

Lydia Baldwin, then around 21, is not listed, supposedly because she and her sisters -- Meda 19 and Ida 17 -- are living either with their parents at the insane asylum, or with their sister Sadie Williams and her husband, Charles, in Iowa.

Charles Williams is not listed because, in 1906, when the 1907 directory was compiled, he and Sadie were living in Iowa. Sadie gave birth to Faye Williams in Knoxville, Iowa, on 4 October 1906.

By 1907, when the 1908 directory was compiled, Charles Williams, and Sadie and Faye, are living in Nebraska. Sadie gave birth to Claude in Lincoln, Nebraska, on 28 November 1907.

Lincoln Business College The Home of the Lincoln Business College, Lincoln, Neb.
Postmarked LINCOLN, NEB. / AUG 21 / 730 PM / 1909
4th floor, Oliver Theatre Building
SW corner 13th and P streets
(Yosha Bunko collection)

Locomotive firemen

The fireman on a steam locomotive shoveled or stoked coal into the firebox of the boiler, made sure the coal was properly distributed and burning and that there was enough water in the boiler, and otherwise kept the boiler at an optimum level of power. The engineer controlled the locomotive by throttling and braking the engine, and the fireman assisted the engineer, who gave orders, in other aspects of operating the locomotive, signalling, and keeping an eye on the track ahead. The fireman's job was dirty, hot, even dangerous, and required more brawn than brain. But a fireman needed to know how to keep a boiler safely fired up, and engineers generally apprenticed as firemen in order to master these skills. Many young men who became firemen aspired to be engineers, who had more status and better pay.

The 1908 Lincoln Nebraska Directory shows the following three listings.

1908 Lincoln Nebraska Directory

Anstine Charles, fireman C B & Q, res 726 Q
Baldwin Lydia, stu Lin Bus Col, res 720 Q
Williams Charles F, fireman C B & Q, res 720 Q

The 1907 directory (but not the 1906 or 1908 directories) lists the following boarding houses in the classified business directory section. This would have been the edition available to people looking for accommodations in late 1906 or early 1907.

1907 Lincoln Nebraska Directory
Classified Business Directory
Boarding Houses

Cook William C, 720 Q
Culp Stacy, 726 Q

Charles Anstine, about 25 in 1908, is a locomotive fireman for the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad. He is residing at a boarding house a block away from the passenger depot.

Charles F. Williams, also a fireman for C B & Q, is residing at a boarding house right next door. Presumably, Sadie Williams and their infant children, Faye and Claude, are also living there.

Lydia Baldwin, then around 22, is living at the same boarding house as Charles F. Williams. She is attending Lincoln Business College, about 5 blocks directly east of the boarding house.

N.B. and Ellen Baldwin are not listed because they have moved to Spokane with Meda and Ida. Apparently they have left Lydia with Sadie.

The 1908 Spokane Washington Directory shows N.B. and Ellen Baldwin, and Ida and apparently also Meda, living and studying there. So presumably they left Lincoln sometime in 1907 -- and Lydia remained with Charles and Sadie Williams, who had come to Lincoln, Nebraska from Knoxville, Iowa, after Sadie gave birth to Faye in 1906.

The 1909 Lincoln Nebraska Directory shows the following listing.

1909 Lincoln Nebraska Directory

Williams Charles F. fireman C B & Q res 1113 P

Presumably Sadie and the children are living with him at what appear to be better accommodations. The address is found in the "Furnished Rooms and Lodgings" section of the classified pages of the 1908 directory, which shows Kynett Mrs Agnes, 1113 P as the landlady.

Charles F. Williams is not listed in the 1910 directory. The 1910 census shows Sadie and the children -- but not Charles -- living in St. Maries, Idaho, with the Baldwins and Meda.

720 Q Street boarding house

The neighborhood immediately around Lincoln station had many hotels, boarding houses, eateries, bars, and other such accommodations for railroad hands and people in transit. The blocks to the east of the station, south of the college campus, had many vocation schools and more hotels, boarding houses, and furnished rooms and lodgings for students and others in need of places to live.

Q Street runs parallel to R Street, which originally marked the southern boundary of the University of Nebraska Campus (today parts of the campus extend as far as Q street).

The 700 block of Q Street is in today's "Historic Hay Market" area a couple of blocks southwest of the university. The block is immediately north of the Lincoln Station Building, formerly the passenger depot of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, on 7th between P and Q streets.

Lincoln Business College was in the Oliver Theatre Building on the southwest corner of 13th and P streets, about 5 blocks directly east of 720 Q and the station.

Editing Lennie's story

Lennie Severns's story of how her parents met turns out to be essentially true. It is difficult to verify such stories, after the passage of so much time, when the principals have long gone, and even those who heard them from the lips of primary witnesses have passed away.

"Fact checking" is limited to available independent sources of information. The 1908 Lincoln Nebraska Directory is hardly an infallible source, but it sheds new light on a number of details in Lennie's account.

The 1908 directory, compiled in 1907 and probably published late that year, reflects 1907 circumstances. We know from other sources that Charles Anstine and Lydia Baldwin married on 12 February 1908, and that Velma, their 1st daughter, was born on 30 November 1908 in Seward County, Nebraska.

We also know a bit about the lay of the land -- the geography of Lincoln at the time they were living there -- where they lived in relation to where they worked or sent to school. We also know more from the city directory than we do from Lennie's account about the nature of Charley Anstines relationship with the Williams and Baldwin families and their residential arrangements.

Based on everything we can conjecture about Lydia's circumstances in 1907, Lennie's story could be edited like this.

My parents, Lydia Baldwin and Charley Anstine, met in Lincoln, Nebraska, when Lydia was rooming with mom's sister, Sadie Williams, and her husband, Charles Williams, and their two infant children, Faye and Claude, at a boarding house in a rather wild part of town near the train station. Daddy, who was rooming at a boarding house next door, and Sadie's husband, Charles, both worked as firemen for the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, and mom was attending Lincoln Business College a few blocks away. Their courtship was brief. The Baldwin family was moving to Spokane, Washington, and refused to let mother stay there because she was not married, even though she was 21 years old. My, how times have changed!"

In 1912 and 1913, just 5 five years after Lydia and the Williams family left the boarding house, 720 Q Street became the stage for a number of incidents involving prostitution, disturbing the public, and assault. The following articles, clipped from the Lincoln Daily News, speak for themselves.

720 Q Street, Lincoln, Nebraska

Five years after Sadie Williams and Lydia Baldwin lived there

Lincoln Daily News
Saturday, July 27, 1912
Page 3

Lincoln Daily News 1912-07-27

Lincoln Daily News
Thursday, August 22, 1912
Page 8

Lincoln Daily News 1912-08-22 Lincoln Daily News 1912-08-22

Lincoln Daily News
Tuesday, July 22, 1913
Page 6

Lincoln Daily News 1913-07-06

The writing represents a very high quality of courtroom reportage, in the days when journalists learned how to write without the constraints that regulate news style today. Most newspaper editors today would probably insist that parts of these article be recast in a drier, more mechanical style, and reflect present-day standards of "political correctness" regarding the treatment of race. Only the tabloids would possibly tolerate, if not encourage, the dramatic affect that yesteryear's writers regarded as essential to a good story.


5.3 Ure-Baldwin

Meda (Baldwin) (Aunt Meda) and Clifford Ure

Table 5.3   Clifford and Meda (Baldwin) Ure family
Table Name Birth Death Age Born Died Buried Vocation
0 Clifford Melvin Ure 1887 3 Jul 1953 65/66 Iowa Spokane WA Woodlawn Cem ID Postman
T5 0 Almeda Jane (Baldwin) 12 Dec 1888 Nov 1971 82 Kentucky Spokane WA Woodlawn Cem ID Milliner
1 Greta Ava (Lemmer) 15 Jul 1912 9 Oct 1999 87 St. Maries ID Spokane WA Hope Cem East Hope ID Office clerk
2 Herbert Dale 22 Dec 1928 3 Jul 2004 75 St. Maries ID Spokane WA Advertising
Ure Clifford Melvin Ure
Image copped from Ancestry.com tree of
Clifford's great granddaughter Patricia Flint
Ure Meda Jane (Baldwin) Ure aka "Danny"
Photo received 12 January 2017 from
Meda's great granddaughter Patricia Flint
Ure Mailman delivers letter to his wife
Photo received 14 February 2014 from
Clifford's and Meda's grandaughter Lois Slater
Ure Clifford M. Ure's obituary
The Spokesman-Review, 6 July 1953, page 6
Clipped from Newspapers.com
Ure Meda Ure's funeral notice
The Spokesman-Review, 23 November 1971, page 18
Clipped from Newspapers.com
  1. C.M. Ure, 24, a barber, and Meda Baldwin, 22, no occupation given, married in Spokane, Washington, on 15 March 1911.
    Clifford was born in Iowa to John Ure, born in Illinois, and Adella Miller, born in Iowa.
    Meda was born in Kentucky to N.B. Baldwin, born in Virginia, and Ellen Steele, born in Kentucky.
  2. Greta Ava is "Greta A." on both the 1920 and 1930 censuses. Her 1st cousin, William B. Wetherall, called her simply "Greta". She married William Harlan Lemmer, and they had 2 children, a son Harlan Eugene or "Gene", and a daughter Lois. William Harlan, born on 13 September 1904, passed away in Spokane on 1 May 1985, and they are buried together in Hope Cemetery in East Hope, Idaho, where they had a summer home.
  3. Herbert Dale is "Dale H." on 1930 and "Herbert D." on 1940 censuses. However, he was generally called just "Dale" or "H. Dale". He married Carol Louise Trappe and they had 4 children. Carol died on died 9 April 2010, apparently also in Spokane. See Dale's and Carol's obituaries below.

The 1908 city directory for Spokane, Washington shows a "Madge Baldwin" boarding at the same address with "Ida M. Baldwin" while attending North West Business College. "Newton B. Baldwin" is shown running a restaurant. The 1909 Spokane directory shows both "Meda Baldwin" and "Ida M. Baldwin" living at the same address as "Newton B. Baldwin". Ida is attending Blair Business College and Meda is a cashier at a restaurant, presumably her father's, which is next door to their residence.

The 1910 census shows Meda living with her parents in St. Maries, Kootenai County, Idaho and working as a milliner at her own shop. She is still single. Clifford Ure is living by himself in Fernwood, Kootenai and working as a barber at his own shop.

The 1911 St. Maries directory shows Clifford Ure, a barber, and Meda Ure, an operator for the Interstate Telephone Company, at the same address.

The 1916-1917 directory shows Clifford Ure working for Ure and Lawing, possibly a barbershop.

The 1920, 1930, and 1940 censuses shows Clifford Ure working as a mail carrier in St. Maries. By 1945, however, he and Meda were residing in Spokane, Washington. The 1945 Spokane city directory lists his occupation as creamery worker. The 1950 and 1952 directories do not show an occupation. By 1950, their son H. Dale Ure and his wife Carol L. are also residing in Spokane but at a different address.

Clifford died in 1953, Meda in 1971, both in Spokane, but they are buried together in St. Maries. Greta and her husband Harlan Lemmer died in Spokane, Harlan in 1985, Greta in 1999, and they are buried together in East Hope, Idaho. See the section below on Baldwin-Steele graves for details.

Baldwin-Steele and Wetherall-Hardman families meet in Idaho

Several of William B. Wetherall's Baldwin-Steele relatives met his future mother-in-law, Ullie Hardmen, and very likely also his future father-in-law, Owen Hardman, sometime between 1936 and 1938, when he and my mother, Orene Hardman, were courting in Idaho. Shortly after my left for San Francisco to work as a clerk for the 9th District Court, my mother went to San Francisco to marry him. The marriage, which had the blessings of Orene's parents and WBW's relatives, was witnessed by only a few of my father's local friends. No relatives from either side were present.

WBW's first job after graduating from law school and passing the Idaho bar in 1937 was in Orofino, on the Clearwater river a few miles upstream from Peck, Idaho. His mother, Ida (Baldwin) Wetherall, had been committed to the insane asylum in Orofino around 1912 and had died there in 1923. Orene was born at the Hardman ranch on Central Ridge though the birth was recorded in nearby Peck. She was raised on the ranch, and when in her teens in Peck, where Ullie and Owen had settled after selling the ranch in the mid 1920s. Orene graduated from high school in Peck then went to college in Moscow. From 1935 to 1936 she taught at Yellow Rose School, a one-room all-grade elementary school on Little Bear Ridge near Deary. In 1937, however, she taught at Pierce, which is near Orofino, a bit further up the Clearwater from Peck.

St. Maries photo

The following two pictures record what was probably the first meeting of the Baldwin-Steele and Hardman-Hunter families after WBW and Orene declared their intention to marry. The choice of where to meet would have been Peck (where the Hardman-Hunters lived) or St. Maries (where the Baldwin-Steeles lived).

My mother's recollection was that the photographs were taken in St. Maries. Interestingly, Ullie Hardman, who was in the photographs, wrote identifications on her copies of the prints -- on two different occasions three or so decades later in her life, probably in the mid 1960s and early 1970s -- in which which she makes a number of mistakes, suggesting that she was experiencing the sort of memory loss that, by the mid 1970s, led to her move to a convalesent home, where her dementia continued to worsen.

WBW, a Wetherall-Baldwin, was raised by his mother's Baldwin-Steele family for the first several years of his life in St. Maries, Idaho, then by his father's Wetherall-Beaman family in Knoxville, Iowa, and finally by his father's new Wetherall-Van Houton family in Des Moines, Iowa. While going to college in Idaho, however, he lived with the Ure-Baldwin family of his maternal aunt, Meda, in St. Maries. His maternal grandmother Ellen Baldwin, and at times also his maternal aunt Sadie Williams, also lived in St. Maries, as did Sadie's daughter (WBW's 1st cousin) Faye Mathews (later Faye Rebenstorf) and Faye's daughter Marilyn Mathews (later Marilyn Disrud).

Neither Owen Hardmen (Orene's father, Ullie's husband, my grandfather) nor Faye Mathews (Sadie's daughter, WBW's 1st cousin, my 1st cousin once removed) are in the photographs, which appear to have been taken in turns WBW and Orene Hardman. At the time the pictures were taken (1936-1937), WBW was living in St. Maries with the Ures. According to the 1940 census, Ellen was in St. Maries in 1935. Sadie was in Spokane, Washington, in 1935, but by 1940 she was with Ellen in St. Maries. Faye and Marilyn were living in Spokane, and Ullie Hardman was in Peck, Idaho.

Marilyn was born on 22 December 1934, and I would guess that the photographs were taken in 1937 rather than 1936. Sadie was probably carrying for Marilyn, who was not yet of school age, while Faye, by then a single mother, worked. I would guess that Owen, too, was probably working.

Ullie Hardman with Baldwins Ullie Hardman with Baldwins

Meeting of Hardman-Hunter and Baldwin-Steele families in St. Maries, circa 1937
Left Photo by Bill Wetherall showing Orene Hardman on right with her mother Ullie and WBW's Baldwin-Steele family
Right Photo by Orene Wetherall showing Bill Wetherall on right with his Baldwin-Steele family and Orene's mother Ullie
Wetherall Family photos

Left to right
Clifford Ure (1887-1953) -- Meda's husband
Dale Ure (1928-2004) -- Meda's and Clifford's son, WBW's 1st cousin
Meda (Baldwin) Ure (1888-1971) -- WBW's maternal aunt
Ellen (Steele) Baldwin (1863-1943) -- WBW's maternal grandmother, mother of Sadie, Lydia, Meda, and WBW's mother Ida
Ullie (Hunter) Hardman (1891-1980) -- Mother of WBW's fiancee, Orene Hardman (1913-2003)
Sadie (Baldwin) Williams (1883-1964) -- WBW's maternal aunt
Marilyn Mathews (1934-2013) -- WBW's 1st cousin once removed, daughter of Sadie's daughter Faye (Williams) Mathews, later Rebenstorf
Left photo Orene Hardman, later Wetherall (1913-2003) = LOH, Bill's fiancee, Ullie's daughter
Right photo William Bascom Wetherall (1911-2013) = WBW, Orene's fiance, Ullie's future son-in-law

Ullie Hardman with Baldwins

Lois (Lemmer) Slater, the daughter of Meda and Clifford Ure's daughter Greta Ava (Ure) Lemmer, confirmed my tentative identifications of Clifford, Dale, Meda, and Marilyn. She characterized her Ure grandparents -- and Claude Williams, Sadie's son and Faye's brother, and my father, WBW -- as follows (email, 13 February 2014, [bracketed remarks] mine).

From left to right Clifford (Daddy Cliff, my grandfather), Dale, Almeda Jane (Danny, my grandmother), the next two people [Ellen Baldwin and Ullie Hardman] I do not know, then Aunt Sadie and Marilyn. The one on the right is your father then? What a handsome man!! I thought maybe it was Claude but he wasn't as good looking.

Of interest here is that, in the mid 1960s or so, when Ullie sat down and identified the people in many family photos, she wrote on the back of her copy of the print to the left -- "At St. Maries / Bill's family / Aunt Meda, husband & son / Grandma Baldwin / myself / Aunt Sadie / Marilyn / Claud [sic = Claude]". However, on the front of her copy of the photo to the left, which was found in the small red album she carried in her purse, she wrote "Stanleys -- early 50's" -- and on the back "In Calif. -- / The Stanleys / early 50's".

In the first case, she recognized that she was looking at "Bill's family", and recalled the names or relationships of most -- but took her (future) son-in-law "Bill" for his 1st cousin, Claude, Sadie's son and Marilyn's uncle. In the second case, she associates the place with California, and the people with the Stanleys -- perhaps someone she knew in Idaho who had moved to Califoria -- apparently not wondering why she and her daughter Orene look too young to be in California in the 1950s.

Lois's testimony was the first I had from anyone in the Baldwin-Steele family on the identity of people in Baldwin-Steele photographs. But Lois, my 2nd cousin, did not recognize her maternal (and my paternal) great grandmother Ellen Baldwin.

Lois, born in 1939, undoubtedly met Ellen Baldwin before Ellen died in 1943 -- when Lois was only 3-1/2 years old. I probably also met Ellen and Sadie, and Meda and Clifford, in the summer of 1941, when I was only a few months old. My parents brought me to Peck that summer to meet my Hardman grandparents and Hunter grandfather, and I can't imagine my father not taking us to St. Maries, which is not far away, to show me to his Baldwin-Steele kinfolk there, who were directly responsible for his upbringing. . But of course I have no memories of that summer other than those created by the numerous photographs that were taken of me in Peck.

It remains unclear as to whether Faye met Ullie on the occasion the above photograph was taken. However, she clearly got to know Ullie, well enough in fact to drop in on her when she visited Lewiston from Coeur d'Alene later in Ullie's life. Faye also knew my maternal aunt, Ullie's older daughter Babe, who lived in various communities in eastern Idaho and western Washington, and was entirely at home in the larger Spokane, Coeur d'Alene, St. Maries, and Lewiston-Clarkston area.


5.4 Wetherall-Baldwin

William R. and Ida (Baldwin) Wetherall

See Wetherall-Baldwin-Van Houton and related families page for details.


5.1 Sadie's children

5.13 Williams-Mathews-Rebenstorf

Faye (Williams) (Mathews) (Nelson) Rebenstorf (1906-1995)

Table 5.13   Faye's marriages with L.J. Mathews and Howard C. Rebenstorf
Table Name Birth Death Age Born Died Buried Vocation
0 Faye Marguerite Williams 4 Oct 1906 25 Nov 1995 88 Knoxville IA Coeur d'Alene ID CDA Memorial Cem ID Teacher, Accountant
0 L.J. Mathews Washington
1 Marilyn Anne Mathews (Disrud) 22 Dec 1934 21 Jul 2013 78 Spokane WA Coeur d'Alene ID Riverview Cem CDA ID
0 Nelson At the time of this writing, nothing more is known about Faye's 2nd husband.
0 Howard C. Rebenstorf 30 Aug 1898 27 Sep 1966 Wisconsin Coeur d'Alene ID CDA Memorial Cem ID Grocer
Faye Williams Faye Williams

Above and right
Faye Williams, portrait and card, circa 1925
Gumbel Studio, Seward, Nebraska

Above right
Faye Williams, portrait, circa 1930
That Man Gale Studio, York and Aurora, Nebraska

Wetherall Family Collection

Faye Williams Faye Williams

Faye Williams in 1920s with 1st cousins Lennie and Aura Anstine, 1920s
Appears to be in Seward where Sadie was working
Wetherall Family Collection

Faye Williams

Faye Williams with dog, 1920s
Probably taken in Seward, Nebraska
Wetherall Family Collection

Bill Wetherall and Faye Williams

Faye Williams with 1st cousin Bill Wetherall
Probably St. Maries, Idaho, early 1930s
Wetherall Family Collection

Faye Mathews Faye Mathews

Click on images to enlarge
Faye Williams marries L. J. Mathews in Spokane on 10 February 1934
Witnessed by brother Claude J. Williams and mother Sadie E. Williams
Left Return filed 15 February 1934 shows ages and marital statuses of newlyweds
and names Faye's father as A.P. Williams, born in Morristown, Tennessee
Right Marriage certified and recorded on 19/20 February 1934
Copped and cropped from Ancestry.com

Faye Mathews

Faye's Delayed Certificate of Birth
Iowa State Department of Health
Vital Statistics Division
23 March 1942

Born: Knoxville, Marion county, Iawa
Name: Faye Marguerite Williams (first signed)
Name: Faye Williams Nelson (oversigned)
Father: Ambrose Powell Williams, born Tennessee
Mother: Sarah (or Sadie) E. Baldwin, born Kentucky
Copped and cropped from Ancestry.com

Faye Mathews

Faye (Baldwin) (Mathews) Nelson marries Howard Rebenstorf
Missoula county, Montana, 26 October 1944
Residents of Coeur d'Alene, Idaho
Copped and cropped from Ancestry.com

  1. On 10 February 1934, Faye M. Williams of St. Maries [sic = Kootenai] County, Idaho, married L.J. Mathews of King County, Washington, in the presence of her brother Claude J. Williams and mother Sadie E. Williams, in Spokane, Washington. The signed license was returned on 15 Feburary and certified and filed on 19/20 February 1934. She was 27 and single (1st marriage), and he was 35 and a widower (2nd marriage). They appear to have separated a couple of years later and divorced by 1940.
  2. Marilyn Mathews, who was born on 22 December 1934, appears to have been partly raised by her grandmother Sadie Williams, possibly with the help also of her great grandmother Ellen Baldwin, in St. Maries, Idaho, during the late 1930s and early 1940s while Faye was working in nearby Spokane, Washington.
  3. The 1940 census shows Faye as the head of a household in which she is the only member. She is divorced. Marilyn is divorced with Marilyn.
  4. By the mid 1940s, Faye had married Howard C. Rebenstorf, who became Marilyn's stepfather at least informally. Howard, too, had been married and divorced, but apparently he had no children from his previous marriage. Marilyn's legal family name appears to have remained Mathews, her name at the time she married Norman K. Disrud in 1957.

Faye in censuses

Faye was born in Knoxville, Iowa, according to her obituary (see below).

The 1910 census shows Fay [sic = Faye] M. Williams (3), living with her mother Sadie E. Williams (26), and her brother Claud [sic = Claude] J. Williams (2), in the St. Maries, Idaho, with her maternal grandparents, Newton B. Baldwin (47) and Martha E. Baldwin (46),

I have not found Faye, or Sadie or Claude, in the 1920 census. But stories passed down by descendants of Sadie's sister Lydia Anstine, who lived in Utica in Seward County, Nebraska, have Faye and Claude living with Sadie in Nebraska.

The 1930 census shows Faye working as a teacher in Lincoln, Nebraska.

The 1940 census shows Faye living in Spokane, Washington, as Faye Mathews (33), divorced, a book keeper at a bus transportation company. She was living at the same place in Spokane in 1935.

Faye Williams

Christmas card from Faye Mathews
Wetherall Family Collection

Faye in city directories

Faye is listed as a student in the 1928-1930 Lincoln Nebraska city directories. She is not listed in the 1927 or 1931 directories.

Both the 1928 and 1929 Lincoln Nebraska Directories show Williams Faye stu r1541 S.

The 1930 Lincoln Nebraska Directory shows Williams Fay [sic = Faye] stu r341 N 12th apt 2.

The 1930 directory was compiled in 1929. Presumably Faye completed her normal school education and was teaching by the time of the 1930 census (see above).

Note that neither Lennie nor Aura Anstine are shown in the 1928-1930 Lincoln directories. They, too, would have been enrolled in teacher training courses, presumably in Lincoln, about this time. Perhaps they commuted to the city by bus or by car. They may also, at times, have stayed with Faye. In the meantime, Sadie was the resident head nurse of a home for unwed mothers in Seward (1930 census).

Spokane directories show Faye as "Mathews" in 1937 (Faye), 1938 (Mrs Faye M), 1939 (Mrs Fay M), 1940 (Mrs Faye), and 1941 (Faye M). She is typically described as a bookkeeper for Auto Interurban, a bus transportation company.

A 1947 Idaho city directory shows her living and working in Coeur d'Alene as the wife of Howard C. Rebenstorf, who apparently she met and married in the early or mid 1940s.

Faye and William B. Wetherall

The 4 Baldwin sisters bore 9 cousins, 8 of whom survived their childhood.

Baldwin sisters Cousins
Sadie Williams (1883-1964) Faye (Mathews) (Nelson) Rebenstorf (1906-1995)
Claude Williams (1907-1977)
Lydia Anstine (1886-1929) Velma Anstine (1908-1919)
Lennie Severns (1910-1997)
Aura Dey (1912-1985)
Imogene LeBaron (1926-2005)
Meda Ure (1888-1971) Greta Lemmer (1912-1999)
Dale Ure (1928-2004)
Ida Wetherall (1890-1923) William B. Wetherall (1911-2013)

William B. Wetherall (WBW) was partly raised by, or lived in the same household with, all of his aunts -- Sadie, Lydia, and Meda -- and he had a practically sibling relationship with Faye and Claude, who were a few years older, but also with Lennie and Greta, who were the nearest to him in age.

Faye seems to have been WBW's closest cousin in terms of how much contact they continued to have during their adult lives, both in terms of correspondence and visitations. Faye and Claude were also the only cousins whose names were familiar to WBW's children, including this writer. Their mother, Sadie, as also the most familar "aunt" in our family, and we have more photographs of Sadie, Faye, and Claude.

Faye visited us a number of times in both San Francisco and Grass Valley, usually in conjunction with trips she made to California related to her work and other activities. During one such visit, all members of WBW's family, except my sister Mary Ellen, met Faye in San Francisco while she was attending a convention in the city. Faye taped a conversation we had over dinner in Chinatown -- her first encounter with Chinese food. And after her death, her daughter Marilyn sent the tape to my father. I now have the tape, which includes gossip about the extended Baldwin-Steele family.

Faye's obituary

Faye died on 25 November 1995 in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, where she had lived most of her adult life. She is buried in Coeur d'Alene Memorial Gardens Cemetery, Kootenai County, Idaho (see below). The following obituary is a reformatted version of an obituary published in The Spokesman-Review on 28 November 1995. The [bracketed] clarifications and red highlighting are mine.

The Spokesman-Review
[Tuesday] November 28, 1995 in Idaho

Faye Rebenstorf
Coeur d'Alene [Idaho]

A private service and burial was held for Faye Rebenstorf, 89, who died Saturday [25 November 1995].

Mrs. Rebenstorf was born in Knoxville, Iowa. She attended the University of Nebraska [in Lincoln, Nebraska] and Kinman Business University [in Spokane, Washington].

She taught in elementary and secondary schools and in college.

She and her late husband, Howard [Rebenstorf], started Howard's Market and Nursery, now known as Duncan's Garden and Nursery [in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho].

She held many accounting positions in Coeur d'Alene and also held a real estate license.

Her memberships included Coeur d'Alene Bible Church, Christian Business and Professional Women's Club, the American Society of Women Accountants, the Idaho Retired Teachers Association and the National Council of Senior Citizens. She also was past state director of the American Association of Retired Persons.

Her husband died in 1966.

Mrs. Rebenstorf's survivors include her daughter, Marilyn Disrud, one grandson, Todd Disrud, and one great-grandson, Nathaniel Disrud, all of Coeur d'Alene.

Memorial contributions may be made to Coeur d'Alene Bible Church or the Alzheimer's Association, North Idaho Chapter.

Howard C. Rebenstorf (1898-1966)

Howard C. Rebenstorf was born on 30 August 1898 in Wisconsin. A Bonner County, Idaho marriage record shows that he married Hedwig H. Weiss, in Sandpoint, Idaho, on 20 September 1920. Bonner County and Sandpoint are immediately north of Kootenai County and Coeur d'Alene, which are just west of Spokane County and Spokane in Washington. Hedwig H. [Helene] -- who appears in most other records as "Hattie" or "Hattie H." -- was born in Wisconsin on 11 June 1898 to Austrian-born parents.

The 1930 census shows Howard and Hattie, both then 31, but 22 when married, living in Coeur d'Alene, apparently without any children. He is a laborer working for the state highway department, and she is a switchboard operator at the telephone company.

The 1938 directory for Coeur d'Alene shows Howard and Hattie living together at 207 N 10th. He is working for Potlach Forests, she at the Tenth Street Grocery. The same directory shows a "Cora Rebenstorf (wid Edgar B.)" living at 818 Garden Avenue. Cora was his mother (Cora Stella Rudsell), and Edgar B. had been his father ("Ed" Rebenstorf).

I have not found either Howard or Hattie in a 1940 census record. But the 1940 Coeur d'Alene directory shows Hattie living as "Mrs. Hattie H. Rebenstorf" at the same 207 N 10th address and still working at the same grocery, while Howard is listed immediately below her as a millworker residing at 502 Foster Avenue. Apparently they are separated.

The 1947 census shows "Mrs. Hattie H. Rebenstorf" living at the same address and working at the same grocery store. Immediately below her is "Howard C. Rebenstorf (Faye M.)" residing at 1033 N 2d. No occupations or places of work are noted for either Howard or Faye.

The 1949 directory shows Hattie at the same address and place of work. Howard and Faye are residing at 902 N 4th, and Faye is said to be working at the Camp Joy Grocery.

The 1952 directory shows Hattie at the same address and place of work. Faye and Howard are separately listed, she as "Mrs. Faye M. Rebenstorf" working as a bookeeper for Hall Plumbing and Heating, he as "Howard C. Rebenstorf" working at Howard's Market, his own store. Both Faye and Howard are residing at 1928 N 4th -- yet another address.

Howard died in Coeur d'Alene on 27 September 1966. Faye died on 25 November 1995, also in Coeur d'Alene. Both are buried in Coeur d'Alene Memorial Cemetery. Howard's headstone has a simple cross above his name, and shows his rank and occupation as a "World War I" veteran. Faye's headstone refers to her as "Beloved Mother, Grandmother, and Great Grandmother" and has strongly Christian motiffs."

A "Hattie Hel Rebenstorf" died on 12 July 1982 in Monument, Grant County, Oregon, according to a transcribed Oregon death index. She is buried at Monument Cemetery, where her headstone name is Hattie N. Rebenstorf and she is memorialized as "Aunt" in quotation marks.

Assuming that the Hattie Rebenstorf who died in Orgeon is Howard's 1st wife -- and she seems to be -- the significance of the different middle initial on the headstone is unclear. The "quotation marks" around "aunt" suggests that she was an "aunt" by address but not by blood or law to the person(s) who buried her.

Marilyn A. (Mathews) Disrud (1934-2013)

Marilyn Anne Disrud was born Mathews in Spokane, Washington, on 22 December 1934. Legally, at least, she appears to have remained Mathews when her mother remarried in the 1940s, and she became Disrud when she married in the 1957. She died in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, on 21 July 2013 and is buried at Riverview Cemetery there. Her headstone, which also has strongly Christian motiffs, includes the name and date of birth of her surviving husband, Norman K. [Kenneth] Disrud -- 13 April 1929.

An obituary, possibly posted by her husband or their son, Todd Lee Disrud, states that she was "preceded in death by her parents Howard and Faye Rebenstorf".

Norman Kenneth Disrud (1929-2016)

Marilyn's husband, born 13 April 1929 in Fosston in Polk County, Minnesota, passed in Idaho on 9 June 2016 at age 87. He was buried at Riverview Cemetery in Coeur d'Alene in Kootenai County, Idaho, with Marilyn.

  1. Howard and Hattie, living in Coeur d'Alene in 1930, had no children after 9 years of marriage.
  2. Howard and Hattie are still living together in Coeur d'Alene in 1938 but are residing at separate addresses in 1940.
  3. Faye married L.J. Mathews in Spokane in February 1934.
  4. Marilyn was born in Spokane in December 1934.
  5. Faye appears to have separated by 1937 but she continued to work in Spokane until at least 1941.
  6. Marilyn is with Sadie in a set of circa 1936-1937 photographs with other members of the Baldwin family, and Bill Wetherall and his fiancee, Orene Hardman, and her mother, Ullie Hardman (see above). The photographs were taken in St. Maries, where Ellen Baldwin, Sadie (Baldwin) Williams, Clifford and Meda (Baldwin) Ure, and Bill Wetherall, were then living.
  7. On 23 March 1942, an application for a delayed certificate of birth in Knoxville, Iowa, in 1906, signed on 19 March 1942 by Faye Williams Nelson and notarlized in St. Maries, is recorded in Iowa.
  8. On 26 October 1944, Faye M. Nelson marries Howard C. Rebenstorf in Missoula in Missoula County, Montana. Both had been married and divorced, and both were then residing in Coeur d'Alene.
  9. By 1947, Faye and Howard living in Coeur d'Alene.
  10. Marilyn A. Mathews married Norman K. Disrud in [Coeur d'Alene] in Kootenai County, Idaho, on 24 August 1957.
Marilyn's family history work

In December 1973, the Wetherall family spent a few days in Lewiston, Idaho for a Christmas reunion with Orene's relatives. On Christmas day, Faye, Marilyn, Norman, and Todd drove down from Coeur d'Alene to visit with the Wetheralls at their motel for a couple of hours. Orene's mother Ullie, who also knew Faye and had met several other relatives on Bill's Baldwin side, and Orene's sister Babe, who had met Faye, were also there.

Marilyn kept in touch with the Wetheralls in Grass Valley after Faye's death in 1995, and until sometime after Orene's death in 2003. Around 1979, she sent my father some family information that survives among his papers. I have not yet had an opportunity to see it. It may answer some questions and raise others. It may partly account for the extent and quality of the information my father conveyed to me about his ancestors when talking to me about them in 2010 and 2011.


Claude Claude Jennings Williams birth certificate
Mother Sarah Elizabeth Baldwin, father Chas. F. Williams
Scan of copy in Wetherall Family Collection
Claude Claude J. Williams, circa 1926
Grumbal Studio, Seward Nebraska portrait
Wetherall Family Collection

Claude Jennings Williams [Draft] Registration Card
D.S.S. (Department of Selective Service) Form 1
Local Board, St. Maries, 16 October 1940

Duplicate issued 10/11/45   Discharged
typed in top margin of card

Card states that Claude was unemployed

Find a Grave memorial states
"Enlistment Date: 15 February 1942"
"Release Date: 1 October 1945"

Images copped from Ancestry.com


Claude J. Williams (1907-1977)

Claude Williams has left relatively few traces of his existence. Like Aunt Sadie and Faye, he was well known to the Wetherall-Hardman family in both Idaho and California.

My father, William Bascom Wetherall, partly grew up with Claude and Faye when the three children were living with their Baldwin grandparents in St. Maries, Idaho, during the early 1910s.

Faye was born in Knoxville, Iowa, where the Baldwin-Steele family lived for a while after leaving Kentucky. Ida Mae Baldwin met William Riley Wetherall, my future paternal grandparents, during this stay in Knoxville in 1906. Claude was born the following year in Lincoln, Nebraska, the next stop on the Baldwin-Steele northwest migration.

Both Faye and Claude later lived with their mother in Seward, Nebraska, near Utica, where Lydia Margaret Baldwin had settled with her husband Charles Andrew Anstine. The Anstine farm was a sort of midwest port for Baldwin-Steele family members. Martha Ellen Baldwin stayed with Lydia for a while and helped care for the Anstine girls for a while after Lydia died in 1929, and my father worked on Uncle Charlie's farm during summers while going to high school in Des Moines in the mid 1920s.

My father remained in touch with the Anstine sisters later in life. Claude, too, was close to his Anstine cousins and is known to have visited them during his travels.

After serving in the Navy during the Pacific War, Claude lived mainly in Spokane, where he had partly grown up. Spokane is geographically close to St. Maries, where my father lived with Aunt Meda's family, and with Grandma Baldwin, while attending college in Moscow, Idaho. After my father began courting my mother, who he met at college in Moscow, his Baldwin relatives in St. Maries, and Aunt Sadie and Faye and Claude, who were then in Spokane, had opportunities to meet my mother and her parents and relatives, who lived in Peck and elsewhere in the Lewiston-Clarkston area, which is close to St. Maries, Coeur d'Alene, and Spokane.

Claude appears in a number of photographs in the Wetherall family collection in California, and in photographs in the possession of Lydia Anstine's great granddaughter, Darci Severns, in Washington.

Claude's military service

Several photographs in the Wetherall and Severns family collections show Claude the uniform of a U.S. Navy sailor. The Severns Family Collection includes photographs he took in China after the end of the Pacific War. The Wetherall Family Collection includes a novelty souvenir associated with China (see Baldwin-Steele Galleries below).

Claude registered for Selective Service in St. Maries on 16 October 1940 (right) and appears to have enlisted on 15 February 1942. He seems to have served until sometime in October 1945 -- a month or so after Japan formally surrendered in Tokyo on 2 September 1945, and 2 months or so after 15 August 1945 when Japan agreed to surrender and ended hostilities. U.S. and other Allied warships began entering Chinese ports during late August, and it appears that Claude was able to go ashore.

The nature of Claude's service in the Nave is not clear. He was reportedly involved in construction with a Seabees unit. However, I have seen no military records.

Claude's death

When beginning to flesh out this family history after my father died in 2013, I was able to confirm the date and place of Claude's death but not the disposition of his remains. Baldwin-Steele cousins I crossed paths with in Washington, who had either known him or heard of him, and had seen photographs of him in their family albums, said they didn't know where he was buried.

Then on 4 March 2021, I found a Find a Grave memorial that had been created on 11 September 2019 by Peter Joseph ("PJ") Braun, a U.S. Navy veteran and member of MIAP -- Missing In America Project -- the mission of which is to locate unclaimed cremains of veterans and render them proper military honors. MIAP volunteers found Claude's cremains "sitting on the shelf" in the "Community Storage" vault in Seattle's Lake View Cemetery, and facilitated their transfer to a columbarium at Washington State Veterans Cemetery in Medical Lake in Washington. See Baldwin-Steele graves (below for an image of his memorial plaque and other particulars.

Claude Williams with Orene Hardman Claude Williams with Orene Wetherall
Picnic outing (unknown place and date)
(Wetherall Family photo)
Claude Williams with Aura and Lennie Baldwin-Steele 1st cousins
Claude Williams with Aura (L) and Lennie (R) Anstine
On leave mid-1940s (place uncertain)
(Severns Family photo)
Claude China novelty Claude China novelty

Claude Williams (1907-1977), funny man

Photo booth strip photo and "Jewish Navy" membership novelty sent to nephew William B. Wetherall after the Pacific War
Claude served the U.S. Navy and his ship docked in a Chinese port shortly after hostilities ended
The "valentine" from "Pekin" was among my father's collection of Baldwin-Steele family detritus
Wetherall Family Collection

Claude cards

Claude's personal cards
The first card is associated with
the circa 1926 portrait (above)
Wetherall Family Collection

Claude San Francisco Claude

Claude visits Wetheralls, February 1951
1558 33rd Avenue, San Francisco
Jerry (left), Claude holding Mary Ellen,
Billy (this writer) in back
Wetherall Family Collection


Snapshop of Claude circa early 1970s
Claude's "Richard Burton" caption on back
Claude died in Seattle in 1977
Wetherall Family Collecion


5.2 Meda's children

Greta and Harlan Lemmer

Greta and Harlan Celebrate 50th Anniversary
The Spokesman-Review, Sunday, 30 August 1981, C4
Clipped from Newspapers.com

Greta and Harlan Lemmer

50th anniversary portrait
Image from granddaughter Patricia Santa Rosa-Flint

Greta and Harlan Lemmer

50th anniversary portrait
Scan of print in Wetherall Family Collection

Greta (Ure) Lemmer (1912-1999)

Greta Ava Ure, born and raised in St. Maries (see Table 5.3), married Harlan Lemmer, whose parents had also settled in St. Maries during the 1920s.

William Harlan Lemmer (1904-1985)

William Harlan Lemmer was born on 13 September 1904 in Antigo, Langrad County, Wisconsin, to William F. Lemmer and Lina L. Freese.

The 1910 and 1920 censuses show the Lemmers, including Harlan's older sister Cecilia, living in Hope, Bonner County, Idaho, where William Lemmer, the father, is working as a saw filer at a lumber mill. The 1930 census shows Harlan's parents, William Lemmer (57) and Lena L. Lemmer (49), living without their children in St. Maries, Idaho, where Harlan's father is working as a saw filer in logging. The Lemmers were born in Wisconsin, he to a German father and Pennsylvania mother, she to a German father and German mother.

The 1930 census, enumerated in April, shows Harlan as William H. Lemmer (25), married at age 18, working as a saw filer at a lumber mill in Emmett, in the South Precinct of Gem County, Idaho. He and his parents were born in Wisconsin, and he was boarding at a boarding house.

Greta's marriage

A marriage return filed in Asotin County, Washington, certifies that, on 7 September 1931, Greta Ava Ure (19) -- a spinster stenographer, born in St. Maries, Idaho, to Iowa-born C.M. Ure and Kentucky-born Almeta [sic = Almeda, Meda] Baldwin -- married William Harlan Lemmer (26) -- a divorced salesman, born in Intiago [sic = Antigo], Wisconsin, to W.F. Lemmer and Lena Freese, both born in Wisconsin. He signed "Harlan Lemmer" and she signed "Mrs. Harlan Lemmer".

The 1939-1940 city directory for Rexburg, Idaho, shows Harlan Lemmer (spouse Greta A.) working as a chauffeur for the Shell Oil Company.

The 1940 census shows "Wm. H. Lemmer" (35) and Greta (27) living in St. Anthony, in Fremont County, Idaho, where he was working as a salesman of gas and oil, and she as a clerk at a county agency. At the time they had two children, a son Harlan (6) and a daughter Lois (6/12). William had completed 3 years of college and Greta 4 years of high school. According to the census, the Lemmers were living in St. Maries in 1935, but had moved to Fremont County by the time Lois was born in 1939.

By 1950, Greta and her family were living in Spokane, where they are listed in the city directory at an address next door to Greta's parents, Meda and Clifford Ure. Later, Greta and [William] Harlan would reside on Hawthorne Street in the northern part of Spokane with their children, Harlan E. [Eugene] "Gene" Lemmer (see below) and Lois C. Friedlander (see below).

The 1950 Spokane directory shows Mrs. Greta Lemmer working as a bookkeeper for Soft Water Service Co., and Harlan Lemmer (Greta) working as a clerk for an unspecified employer. She is residing at 723 [sic] Knox Avenue, and his (her) home is at W. 733 [sic] Knox Avenue. [Presumably the two Knox addresses are meant to be the same.] Clifford M. Ure (Meda J.) are listed as living [apparently] next door at W. 731 Knox Avenue. H. Dale Ure (Carol L.), a clerk for an unspecified employer, are living at E. 1311 Bismark Avenue.

By 1955 or 1956, Greta and Harlan moved into a home at 4928 N. Hawthorne Street, where they would live the rest of their lives.

The 1960 Spokane directory lists Mrs. Greta A. Lemmer as an office manager for Soft Water Service, and as the spouse of William H. Lemmer (Greta A.), a salesman for Headlight Oil. Meda (Baldwin) Ure is residing at S. 206 Post. Lois C. (Lemmer) Santa Rosa is listed as a typist for Pacific Telephone, and as the spouse of Arth [Arthur Anthony] Santa Rosa, of Santa Rosa's Body & Fender Works, which is separately listed as a shop owned by Arth Santa Rosa. The Santa Rosas are residing at E. 1207 Rich Avenue. Arther Anthony Angelo Santa Rosa, born in Idaho on 21 June 1936 to Italian immigrants, passed away on 30 April 2016.

Harlan's stroke

William Harlan Lemmer appears to have suffered from a serious stroke or a series of strokes in the late 1960s or very early 1970s, according to Faye Rebenstorf, Greta's 1st cousin. Faye described their difficulties in some detail in a coversation over dinner at a restaurant in Chinatown in San Francisco on 5 September 1973, with my parents, William B. and L. Orene Wetherall, my brother, me, and my then wife Etsuko. Faye's daughter, Marilyn, sent the tape to my parents after Faye died in 1995, and I digitized it in 2013.

Faye related that Harlan was able to hear and understand everything you said to him, but he couldn't speak well enough to make himself understood. Apparently he'd get angry when people didn't understand him and become beligerent toward them. He'd gotten to the point that he didn't like seeing anyone, didn't want people to come to their place, and didn't want to go any place. He shuffled around with the help of a cane but couldn't use his right hand very well. Fortunately, though, he was left-handed.

Faye occasionally had business in Spokane and would have liked to take Greta out to lunch. But Greta, who had a full-time job, went home every day at noon -- a five-mile drive -- to make Harlan's lunch. And Faye said, in 1973, that frankly she did not want to visit Greta when Harlan was there because of his belligerence.

Faye also said, in 1973, that she had last visited Greta and Harlan at their summer home in a resort town on the other side of Lake Pend Oreille, about 60 miles from Coeur d'Alene (where Faye lived), and 100 miles from Spokane (where Greta and Harlan lived). Greta had put in a garden there and drove up every weekend to see that everything was watered. The home was in the vicinity of Hope in Bonner County, Idaho, where Harlan had grown up and worked after his family moved to Idaho from Wisconsin.

50th anniversary

Greta and Harlan celebrated their 50th wedding anniversary in 1981.

Harlan passed away in Spokane on 1 May 1985. Greta passed away on 9 October 1999. They are buried at Hope Cemetery in East Hope, Bonner County, Idaho, on the northeastern shore of Lake Pend Oreille.

In 2000, their son Harlan Lemmer (Harlan Eugene "Gene" Lemmer), and the Greta A. Lemmer Estate, granted a quit claim deed on the 2-bedroom, 1-bath house and 6,200 square-foot lot at 4928 N. Hawthorne Street in Spokane, where Greta and Harlan had lived out their lives. They had moved from their Knox Street home to the Hawthorne Street home in 1955 or 1956.

Harlan Eugene Lemmer Gene Lemmer, 1951
Scan of color version of
high school yearbook portrait
Image from his niece Patricia Flint
Harlan Eugene Lemmer Gene Lemmer, 1951
North Central High School
Spokane, Washington
(Tamarack 1950-1952 yearbook)
Harlan Eugene Lemmer Gene Lemmer, 1959
State College of Washington
Pullman, Washington
(Chinook 1959 yearbook)

Gene Lemmer (1933-2014)

Harlan Eugene Lemmer was born on 4 September 1933 in St. Maries, Idaho. The 1940 census shows him living in St. Maries with his parents, Greta and Harlan Lemmer, and his sister Lois.

Gene graduated from North Central High School in Spokane in 1951. The Tamarack 1950-1951 yearbook states that he liked math, had transferred from Coeur d'Alene, and played football and belonged to the Spanish Club among several other activities (page 54). He graduated from the State College of Washington in Pullman in 1959 with a degree in mechanical engineering (Chinook '59 yearbook, page 81).

In the conversation she taped while dining with the Wetherall family -- in Chinatown, San Francisco, on 4 September 1973 -- Faye Rebenstorf said that Gene and Pat Lemmer and their 5 children had visited Greta and Harlan that summer. She characterized Gene as a good son.

William B. Wetherall, who also knew Greta's son as Gene, said during the 1973 conversation that he had never met Pat. He knew they were settled in southern California and asked Faye if Gene was working in electronics. Faye didn't know but thought he was working for Kaiser, and she said they were doing well.

Orene Wetherall, who had a talent for connecting disparate dots in casual conversations, observed that, with 5 kids, it's good to do well.

Gene and Patricia settled in Upland, California. They celebrated their 50th wedding anniversity in 2013. Patricia reported that Gene had been in California for 54 years and had worked for Kaiser Steel, and that they had 5 children, 14 grandchildren, and 2 great grand children (email, 21 January 2014).

Gene passed away on 14 December 2014 after a long bout with Parkinson's disease.

Eugene Lemmer Gene Lemmer


Harlan Eugene (Gene) Lemmer
September 4, 1933 - December 8, 2014

Gene Lemmer, 81, passed away on December 8, 2014. He is survived by Pat, his loving wife of fifty-one years, his children Cindy (James), Debbie (Steve), Chere, Jim (Deborah) and Sam (Jim), as well as fourteen grandchildren, two great-grandchildren, and his sister, Lois.

The family would like to thank the VNA Hospice, who were a great source of comfort to Gene and the family in his final days.

Services will be held at St. Joseph's Church at 12:00 p.m. on Saturday, January 10, 2015.

In lieu of flowers, Memorial donations may be made to VNA Hospice of Claremont.

Published in Inland Valley Daily Bulletin on Jan. 6, 2015.

Lois (Lemmer) (Santa Rosa) Slater

Lois, Gene's sister, was born on 17 October 1939 in St. Anthony in Fremont County, Idaho. Washington marriage records show that she married Arthur A. Santa Rosa on 16 November 1957 (license 15 November, recorded 22 November) in Spokane. The signing witnesses were Marilyn Disrud and Edward Santa Rosa. Marilyn, nee Rebenstorf (originally Mathews), was Faye (Williams) (Nelson) (Mathews) Rebenstorf's daughter, hence Lois's and this writer's 2nd cousin.

Lois reported to this writer that she married Arthur A. Santa Rosa in 1957 after graduating from high school at age 18, and between 1959 and 1966 they had 4 children -- Brenda, Shelly Ann, Bret Anthony, and Patricia Sue. Lois later married a man named Friedlander, then in 1990 she married Jerry Slater, who had a daughter Bonnie and a son Warner. Lois has 12 grandchildren, including those of Warner's 2 children (email, 8 February 2014).

Lois Slater is my 2nd cousin. Her daughter, Patricia Sue Santa Rosa, a 3rd cousin of my children, married Roger W. Flint in Spokane, Washington, on 22 August 1987 and they have 2 children, Michael and Ashley, who are 4th cousins of my grandchildren.

DNA connections

On 26 December 2020 I received email from my son, Tsuyoshi Sugiyama, with an attachment of a "DNA Ethnicity Estimate & Health Report", the result of a "My Heritage DNA" test. I had not had such a test and had never discussed such tests with him. He did this on his own. Out of curiosity, I immediately ordered a similar test.

Then on New Years Day 2021, in Japan where live, Tsuyoshi sent me a screen capture of a message he had received from "Patricia Santa Rosa", apparently sent on New Years Eve 2020, from America where she lives. The message began like this -- "Dear Tsuyoshi, / I was happy to see a dna match from Japan this morning. I knew immediately that it was likely you or your sister." Patricia then introduced herself as "Patricia Santa Rosa-Flint" and said she was a "distant cousin" -- which translates straight-up 3rd cousin, though as relatives they are also an ocean and generation apart.

I sent Tsuyoshi a summary of the parallel lines of descent in his and Patricia's branches of the Baldwin-Steele family. I have also been in touch with descendants of the keeper of the family history keys in the other two lines -- Todd Disrud and Darci Severns -- as follows.

0.    Baldwin-Howard              Steele-Grubb
   John R. ___ Margaret        Jonas ___ Elizabeth
   Baldwin  |  Howard          Steele |  Grubb 
            |                         |
            |     Baldwin-Steele      |
1.       Newton                    Martha
         Bascum __________________ Ellen 
         Baldwin        |          Steele
      |             |             |             |
2. Sada          Lydia         Almeda        Ida         
   Elizabeth     Margaret      Jane          Mae
   Baldwin       Baldwin       Baldwin       Baldwin
   (Williams)    (Anstine)     (Ure)         (Wetherall
      |             |             |             |
3. Faye          Lennie        Greta         William
   Marguerite    Lee           Ava           Bascom 
   Williams      Anstine       Ure           Wetherall
   (Mathews)     (Severns)     (Lemmer)         |  
   (Nelson)         |             |             | 
   (Rebenstorf)     |             |             | 
      |             |             |             | 
4. Marylin       Tex           Lois          William
   Anne          Lee           Cecelia       Owen
   Mathews       Severns       Lemmer        Wetherall
   (Disrud)         |          (Santa Rosa)     |
      |             |          (Friedlander)    |_____________
      |             |          (Slater)         |             |
      |             |             |             |             |
      |        Baldwin-Steele 3rd cousins       |  Siblings   |
      |             |             |             |             |
5. Todd          Darci         Patricia      Saori         Tsuyoshi   
   Lee           Eileen        Sue           Orene         Owen 
   Disrud        Severns       Santa Rosa    Wetherall     Wetherall
      |             |          (Flint)       Sugiyama      Sugiyama
      |             |             |          -> Ogawa 
      |             |             |          -> Sugiyama
      |             |             |          -> Kasubuchi
      |             |             |             |_____________ 
      |             |             |             |             |        
6. Children      Children      Children      Anri             | 
                                             Ogawa            | 
                                             -> Sugiyama   Tatsuki
                                             -> Kasubuchi  Kasubuchi

A century ago, descendants of families that didn't migrate might actually have known some of their 3rd cousins. When I was growing up, I barely knew my 1st cousins. A few years ago, I began to cross paths with various degrees of cousins I had never heard of, but might have known had our grandparents and parents now scattered all over the map and fallen out of touch.

DNA tests appear to be credible as measures of possible genetic connections down lines of biological descent. 3rd cousin matches seem to be fairly reliable, and reliability increases up the kinship chart, to the point that matches with half and full siblings, and parents, approach 100 percent certainty.

But contrary to the claims of companies that market DNA tests for ancestry purposes, DNA is not a measure of "ethnicity" or "heritage" -- which are social, not chemical, conditions.

See Tsuyoshi's misleading "Ethnicity Estimate" under DNA tests in the article on Cherokee blood, below,
which looks at claims of Native American ancestry in the quagmire of "identity politics".


Herbert Dale Ure (1928-2004)

H. Dale Ure, William B. Wetherall's 1st cousin, married Carol Trappe on the evening of 30 April 1949 (Spokane Chronicle, Saturday, 30 April 1949, page 14) at St. John's Lutheran Church in Spokane. The bridegroom was described as the son of Mr. and Mrs. C. M. Ure, W731 Knox Street, Spokane. The ushers included James Trappe (a brother of the bride), and Gene Lemmer (Harlan Eugene Lemmer, Dale's nephew, then about 15 years old). Those assisting at the reception included Mrs. Harlan Lemmer (Dale's sister Greta) and Miss Lois Lemmer (Greta's daughter, Gene's sister, and Dale's niece, then about 9 years old).

Dale and Carol visit San Francisco

In May 1950, a year after they married, Dale and Carol visited the Wetherall family in San Francisco. A picture postcard showing "The Golden Trail, Scotch Broom in Blossom, Oregon Coast Highway" is addressed to "The Wetheralls' / 1558 33 Ave. / San Francisco / California". A standard green 1-cent Washington stamp is postmarked Florence, Oregon, 20 May 1950. Carol wrote the following message.

Memories of California
Dear folks, Sat.
    Tonite we sho
be thru Portland anyhow
(Just my luck . . . no more
ink.) Now we are
anxious to get home.
Everything we now
see seems very insignificant
with the memories of
S.F. still so fresh. We
surely hated to leave
Calif. yesterday. No doubt
some day we will be
living down there
somewhere if we have
our say. We have been
making fine time and
the weather is as sunny
& clear as can be. The
scotch broom is out just
like that as well as
masses of rhododendron.
Will let you know
as soon as we reach home.
    Love, Carol & Dale
Memories of San Francisco
Memories of San Francisco

Picture postcards

Picture postcards were the contemporary equivalents of text messages with attached images -- except that postcard messages were anything but instant. You needed, first of all, a postcard. And a pen with ink or a sharp pencil or both. And a proper stamp. And then you had to find a post box -- and trust that the card would be picked, routed, and delivered in two or three days -- rain or shine, snow or sleet.

This writer began to collect picture postcards, beginning those I got from my maternal grandmother and parents, in my early teens, growing up in San Francisco during the early 1950s. I usually wrote my name "Bill Wetherall" at the tops of cards I added to my collection with the intention of keeping them. I did this to make sure that other people, particularly classmates and neighbors with whom I traded stamps and postcards, knew who they belonged to. I never got higher than a complimentary "C" in penmanship. After learning the art of printing in high school and college drafting classes, I lost the ability to write in longhand other than to sign my name. Notes and memos I write for myself are always odd mixtures of printing and cursive.

Dale's and Carol's obituaries

Dale and Carol would live the rest of their lives in Spokane.

The following is a cut and paste of an obituary re-posted by Ancestor.com from SpokesmanReview.com. The obituary reportedly appeared in the 10 July 2004 edition of the paper but the copy on the website shows 9 July 2004. It was probably run in the classifieds on both days.

The Spokesman-Review
Friday, July 9, 2004

Dale Ure

Memorial service for H. Dale Ure, 75, will be at a later date. Heritage Funeral Home is in charge of arrangements.

Mr. Ure, who died Saturday, was born in St. Maries.

He worked for 40 years in various aspects of advertising for Cowles Publishing Co. He was advertising sales manager for the Northwest Unit Farm Magazines when he retired.

Mr. Ure and his wife worked in Lutheran Marriage Encounter for many years.

He was also an avid Scouter for 35 years, including service as Explorer post adviser in Great Falls and scoutmaster of Boy Scout Troop 313 in Spokane.

He received the Silver Beaver and Order of the Lamb awards for his work with youths.

Survivors include his wife of 55 years, Carol; 4 children, Doug Ure of Salem, Ore., Diane Richards and Jan Christensen, both of Spokane, and Wendy Davis of Spangle; and six grandchildren.

Memorial contributions may be made to Beautiful Savior Lutheran Church.

Dale's wife, Carol Louise (Trappe) Ure, born on 6 November 1928, apparently in Spokane, passed away in Spokane on 9 April 2010. Her obituary was published in the classified ads section of The Spokesman-Review from 14-15 April 2010, according to the following Legacy.com version. The portrait was published with the obituary. The caption below the portrait, and the portrait's approximate date, are mine. The date is based on information in the image's file name.

Dale and Carol Ure Dale and Carol Ure
Circa 1988

The Spokesman-Review
April 14-15, 2010

Carol L. Ure

URE, Carol L. (Age 81) Now with her Lord, Christ Jesus as of April 9, 2010. She was preceded in death by Dale, husband of 55 years. Wife, mother, homemaker, journalist and elementary teacher, she is survived by their four children and six grandchildren. Memorial Service 10:00 AM Saturday April 17, 2010 at Beautiful Savior Lutheran Church, 4320 S. Conklin St., Spokane 99203. Flowers accepted and donations in Carol's name should be made to Beautiful Savior Lutheran Church or Lutheran Marriage Encounter.

The 4 surviving children as of the time of the above obituary were Douglas Ure of Salem, Oregon; Diane Richards and Janice (Jan) Christensen, both of Spokane, Washington; and Wendy Davis of Spangle, Washington.

Douglas Ure (1950-2014)

Douglas Ure, born on 31 July 1950, died on 28 January 2014. He had been an instructor at Chemeketa Community College in Salem, Oregon. He taught courses in life sciences, and his research interests were vertebrate biology and terrestrial and forest ecology.

Douglas Ure Douglas C. Ure

In loving memory

Douglas C. Ure
July 31, 1950 - January 28, 2014

SALEM – Douglas C. Ure, a lifelong teacher, died due to complications with cancer on Tuesday, January 28, with his family at his side.

He was born July 31, 1950, in Spokane, Washington. He was preceded in death by a son, Andrew, and his parents, Dale and Carol Ure. He is survived by his wife, Susan, and two additional sons, David and Jamie, and three sisters, Diane Richards, Janice Christensen, and Wendy (Steve) Davis.

Doug taught 17 years at Chemeketa Community College, teaching a variety of science classes; his favorite was the non-majors biology. His lifelong love of scouting led to a personal achievement of Eagle Scout that he also helped his sons to achieve. He became a Cub Master for younger scouts, then a Scout Master, thus giving 17 years of service in Salem. He also helped start a community garden in Salem. He was active in his church and especially loved acting in a variety of religious plays. In the summer time, he and his family vacationed at Flathead Lake in Montana.

In lieu of flowers, the family requests donations to the Boy Scouts Troop 108 or Marion County Food Shares. Services for Doug will be at 2:00 PM on Sunday, February 16, 2014 at Our Savior’s Lutheran Church, 1770 Baxter Road SE. Arrangements by Virgil T. Golden Funeral Service.


5.3 Lydia's children

Anstine sisters

William B. Wetherall's 1st cousins

Lydia and Charley Anstine had 4 daughters -- Velma, Lydia, Aura, and Imogene -- between 1908 and 1926. Velma, Lydia, and Aura were spaced about two years apart. Imogene came 14 years later. Their lives reflect the difficulties of a farming family that didn't own its own land, had only daughters, and more than its share of early death.


Velma would die when she was 10 years old. Darci Severns sheds light on the circumstances surrounding Velma's death (email, 16 November 2013).

My mom and I both recall Lennie [Velma's younger sister, Darci's paternal grandmother] referring to an Aunt Sadie. We never heard Sally. I strongly believe Aunt Sadie was present when Velma had her appendix removed. As I recall grandma said, "Mother's sister was a nurse and saw that Velma's appendix was small, pink, and healthy. It had been removed unnecessarily. Velma then died from an infection she received due to the surgery." So tragic!

Velma was "Thelma Anstine" on her death certificate. The place of death was Seward City in Seward County in Nebraska. The medical certificate of death, signed by B.E. Morrow, M.D., stated she died at 12:30 [12:20?] am on 27 May 1919 [Tuesday]. The cause of death was "Ether pneumonia" and the contributory (secondary) cause was "Acute apendicitis". The personal and statistical particulars describe her as a white, single female who was born in Seward County on 30 November 1908 to "Charlie Anstine" born in Nebraska and "Lydia Baldwin" born in Kentucky. She was 10 years 3 months and 27 days old at the time of her death. The informant's name was "Charlie Anstine" of Utica, Nebraska. She was buried on 28 May 1919 in Utica.

"Ether pneumonia" and "ether bronchitis" -- also called "operative" pneumonia and bronchitis -- are possible side effects of ether when administered as an anesthetic in especially abdominal operations, or when inhaled in an industrial plant. Ether, and the sort of impurities that commonly found in ether in the past, can irritate the bronchial membranes and reduce pulmonary resistance to viral and bacterial infections.

Lennie and Aura

Lennie and Aura, having lost their older sister when they were 9 and 7, would go to college in Lincoln, Nebraska, and become teachers. Darci Severns, Lennie's granddaughter, says this about her great aunt Aura's academic standing (email, 19 November 2013).

Aura graduated from high school 5/29/29 [29 May 1929] from Seward High. She was the pick of the school.

Imogene was born a year before Lydia had a colostomy for colon cancer. She was going on 3 when Lydia died in 1929, and had turned 6 shortly before Charley died in 1932. She was then raised in Lennie's family.

Lennie married Archie Severns in 1931, and Archie moved into the Anstine family to help his father-in-law run the farm. Lennie, who had been helping raise Imogene after their mother (Lydia) died, continued to raise her with her own children after their father (Charley) died. Lennie and Archie took Imogene with them when they left the farm in Nebraska in 1937 for an entirely different life in Washington.

Aura married George M. Dey, also from Utica. The 1940 census shows them still living in Utica, where both were employed in government work, he as an "over-seer" in road construction, she as a "clerk" at the post office. By 1942 they were living in Idaho, probably in Coeur d'Alene. They would later live in Spokane, Washington, and also in Riverside, California.

An Army enlistment record shows that, on 21 January 1943, George M. Dey, born in Nebraska in 1907, then residing in Kootenai County, Idaho, enlisted in Spokane, Washington. He is said to have had 3 years of high school, been employed as a foreman in construction, been married, and was 70 inches tall and weighed 146 pounds. The nature of his military service is not clear.


Imogene Anstine had completed 1 year of high school (H-1) by the 1940 census, when she was 13 years old and living with Lennie and Archie Severns in Washington. She graduated from high school around 1943, and by 1945 she had married a local boy, Keith R. LeBaron (1925-2011), and they would have two children. She passed away in 2005, and he died 6 years later.

Darci Severns reported that Aura and George Dey resided in Spokane, while Imogene and Keith LeBaron were denizens of Seattle and then Federal Way. They were snowbirds, she said, hence their occasional stays in Southern California. (Email, 16 November 2013)

Only Velma is buried with Lydia and Charley in Nebraska. Lennie is buried with Archie in Washington. Imogene is also buried in Washington, presumably with Keith. Aura died in California, apparently during one of their sojourns there, and George reportedly died in Spokane. Apparently Aura and George were cremated, and presumably their ashes are in Washington.


Educating daughters

Lennie (Anstine) Severns wrote in the early 1980s that, after high school, she attended the University of Nebraska, received a teaching certificate, and taught 3 years in a one-room country school while also teaching piano and violin on weekends. The 1930 census shows both Lennie and Aura as public school teachers when they were respectively 20 and 18 years old. However, the 1940 census shows that they had completed only 4 years of high school.

1930 census shows Charles Anstine (46), widowed, his daughters Lennie (20), Aura (18), and Imogene (3 6/12), and his mother-in-law Ellen Baldwin (66), also widowed, living on the Anstine farm in Utica. Both Lennie and Aura are still single, and both are teachers in a public school.

1940 census shows William A. Severns (33), head of household, with Lennie (30), his wife, their two children, Tex Lee (6) and and Billie Rae (3), and Imogene Anstine as Archie's sister-in-law. They are living in Skookumchuck, Lewis County, Washington, were Archie is the owner of a general store and Lennie is a store helper. The census states that that they living in Utica, Seward, Nebraska in 1935. According to the census, Archie and Lennie had completed 4 years of high school (H-4).

1940 census shows "George Day" [sic = Dey] (32) and Aura (28) living in Utica in a non-farm home they rented for 12 dollars a month. They were living in a different home (or in different homes) in Seward in 1935. Both were employed in government work, he as an "over-seer" in road construction, she as a "clerk" at the post office. He earned earned 1,200 dollars and she 600 dollars a year. George had completed 3 years (H3) and Aura 4 years (H4) of high school.

This does not rule out the possibility -- or likelihood -- that Lennie and Aura completed a series of teacher-training courses of a normal school at the University of Nebraska.

Nebraska, like other more recently settled states with numerous sparsely populated communities in many counties, had many 1-room and 2-room schools to which local farm children commuted fairly long distances. School buses made commutes somewhat easier and also facilitated the building of larger schools to serve larger areas. Teacher education varied from county to county, but as in most states, high school graduates were able to became teachers with relatively little formal training.

At the time, there were a variety of normal schools in the state. Some programs ran as short as 6 weeks, others 1, 2, and even 4 years. Possibly the program Lennie and Aura completed did not qualify as "college education" for census purposes.

Lennie, already very busy during her mother's illness and after her mother's death in the late 1920s, would have been even busier as a farm wife after marrying in 1931. She was then 21, and if she had been teaching for 3 years before she married, then she would have been 18 when she began teaching -- the same age as Aura was when said to have been teaching in the 1930 census. Thus suggests that the two girls graduated from high school when 17 or so, then completed short teacher certification courses.

Lennie and Aura didn't teach for long in Nebraska, and they didn't teach after for the Northwest. Had they wanted to teach in Washington or Idaho, they would probably have need to localize their credentials. Even today, credentialing standards considerably vary from state to state, like practically all other standards. Like lawyers and doctors, and people in many other regulated vocations, migrating teachers usually have to satisfy local standards before they can practice their trade.

Reflecting the importance of education in Lennie's own upbringing, though, both of her children became certified teachers in Washington, where they were entirely schooled.

Education in the Steele-Grubb and Baldwin-Steele families

Lydia Anstine appears to have continued the tradition, established by her Baldwin parents, to invest as much as possible in her children's educations -- presumably to give them an edge in life. Census data clearly shows that education became increasingly important in the lives of Lennie's and Aura's ancestors -- as it did, in fact, for most families in the United States and other industrializing and urbanizing countries.

20.0 percent of people 14 years old and older in the United States in 1870, according to data compiled from that year's census, were illiterate. The rates for 1880, 1890, and 1900 were 17.0, 13.3, and 10.7 percent.

Over 25 percent of all people over the age of 10 in Kentucky were unable to read or write in 1870. By 1900, Kentucky's illiteracy rate was down to 16.5 percent -- which made the state the second most literate state in the south following Texas. Still, about 1 in every 5 eligible voter could not read or write.

The Steele-Grubb family that produced Ellen Baldwin, Lydia Anstine's mother, appears to have been less literate than the average Kentucky family at the time, but may have been more literate than the average family in their neck of woods.

The 1850 census classified Elisabeth Steel [sic = Elizabeth Steele] (30), Lydia's maternal grandmother, as a "Person over 20 y'rs of age who cannot read & write". At the time she was raising the first 5 of the 10 children she would have before her husband, Jonas Steele, died in 1868.

The 1870 census classified Elisabeth [sic = Elizabeth] Steele (50), as a person who "Cannot write" but not as a person who "Cannot read". Apparently over the years since the 1850 census, Elizabeth (Grubb) Steele she had learned to read. In 1870, as the widowed head of her family, she was keeping house for the 7 children still living with her, including all of the youngest. The 1870 census shows that 4 of the children -- George (23) and James H. (21), both farmers, Nancy E. (15), and John W. (12), a farm hand -- could neither read nor write. Sarah H. (17) appears to have been literate. Mary J. (9) and Martha E. (6) -- the future Martha Ellen Baldwin, Lydia's mother -- were probably attending school, but appear to have been too young for the literacy items on the census.

For some reason, the "Attended school within the year" (Item 15) column on the two census sheets that included the Steele family is blank for everyone on the sheets. The "Cannot read" (Item 16) and "Cannot write" (Item 17) columns are blank for everyone under 10 years old. The two sheets include a few entirely illiterate families, in which both parents and all children over 9 were unable to either read or write.

The 1880 census oddly shows that Elizabeth Steele (59), keeping house, and Martha (15), at home, are unable to either read or write -- while the "Cannot read" and "Cannot write" columns remain unchecked for John W. (22), laborer, for whom both were checked in the 1870 census. On the same sheet, living apparently next door, Nancy E. Steele, now Nancy E. Brewer (24), keeping house for her laborer husband and their infant daughter, can still neither read nor right.

The 1900 census for the family of N.B. Baldwin (38) shows that everyone in the family -- himself (38), Ellen (36), and all 4 Baldwin sisters, ranging in age from 17 to 9 -- can both read and write. I cannot find our "John W." in the 1900 census.

Notwithstanding the inexplicable discrepancies in the above and other late-19th-century Steele-Grubb censuses, the sands of literacy in the family are shifting toward higher levels of literacy among the younger generations. By the middle of the 20th century, the average level of educational achievement for descendants of the family appear to be at par if not above the national average. Practically all descendants of Ellen Steele are finishing high school and going to vocational schools or colleges.

The 1940 census shows that Ellen Baldwin (76) had completed 8 years of schooling. The same census census shows that Sadie (Baldwin) Williams (57) had completed 22 years of college, while Meda (Baldwin) Ure (50) had finished 3 years of high school. Sadie had become a nurse. Meda, like her younger sister Ida, may have attended a business college.

So-called "business colleges" were vocational schools for training bookkeepers, accountants, typists, stenographers, office clerks, and cashiers. Such schools offered courses in subjects germane to such vocations, including business arithmetic, commercial law, typing, shorthand, penmanship, letter writing, English, spelling, and even geography. Most students completed programs at such schools in their early years were men, but by the start of the 20th century, the majority of typists and stenographers were women.

Whatever the conditions that prevented so many of her siblings from learning to read and write, Martha Ellen Steele would complete 8 years of grade school education in rural Kentucky before she married Newton Bascum Baldwin in 1880. And by the time they settled in St. Maries in 1910, all 4 of their children would finish 3 or 4 years of high school and a year or two of vocational school or college.

Education in the Hunter-Thomas and Hardman-Hunter families

By the late 19th century, the majority of grade school teachers were women. At the turn of the century, high school education was still a province of male teachers, but the ratio of female teachers was slowly increasing. Both trends reflected the recognition of the need for literate women in the non-farm labor force, as well as the view that women might be better suited for teaching, especially younger children.

My great grandmother, Ida (Thomas) Hunter, a farm wife in a sparsely populated region of Idaho that had no high school, arranged for her oldest daughter, Ullie Hunter, my maternal grandmother, to board in town so she could go to high school. In a taped conversation between my grandmother, mother and aunt, it was revealed that Ida was disappointed when Ullie -- rather than become a teacher -- married Owen Hardman, a semi-literate farm boy who had barely completed the 8th grade, and became a farm wife. Ullie made sure, with Owen's help, that their two daughters, my aunt and mother, went to high school in an era and a locality in which few young people went beyond the 8th grade.

My mother, Orene (Hardman) Wetherall, graduated from a country grade school and high school, before completing a 2-year normal school program at the University of Idaho. She then taught about 3 years at 2 different country schools in Idaho, the first a 1-room school with about a dozen students spanning all 8 grades. The 1940 census, two years after she had quit teaching and married, shows her as having completed 2 years of college (C-2). My father, who had graduated from law school after finishing an ordinary 4-year course at the University of Idaho, is shown to have completed 6 years of college (C-6).

My mother's Idaho credentials were out of date even in Idaho by the time she returned to teaching in California. She was allowed to do some home teaching to students who were sick, injured, or otherwise unable to attend classes. But even these opportunities were limited by her lack of a 4-year college degree and sufficient additional training under California certification laws. She would have had to go back to school, and take a number of methodology courses, to qualify as a teacher in California. Instead, she became the attendance secretary at the local high school. And a whole generation of local students came to appreciate the gracefulness of her discipline, and years later would greet her as Mrs. Wetherall when crossing paths with her in town.


5.22 Severns-Anstine

Lennie Lee (Anstine) and William Archie Severns

Table 5.22   Archie and Lennie (Anstine) Severns family
Table Name Birth Death Age Born Died Buried Vocation
0 William Archie Severns 12 Nov 1906 2 Jan 1991 84 Seward Co NE Centralia WA Claquato Cem WA Grocer
T 5.2 0 Lennie Lee (Severns) 9 Apr 1910 24 Sep 1997 87 Seward Co NE Centralia WA Claquato Cem WA Teacher
1 Imogene Joyce (LeBaron) 5 Sep 1926 11 Sep 2005 79 Seward Co NE Federal Way WA WA
2 Tex Lee Severns 21 Feb 1934 20 Aug 2006 72 Seward Co NE Seattle WA WA Teacher
3 Billie Rae (Dorland) 30 Nov 1936 Seward Co NE Teacher
  1. Lennie reported that she met Archie when she was a senior in high school 5 years before they married in 1931. Their granddaughter Darci, who wears the "promise ring" Archie gave Lennie, reports that "Lennie left the farm to attend the University of Nebraska to get her teaching certificate. 19 year old Archie put the promise ring on 16 year old Lennie's finger before she left." This would have been about 1926.
    Lennie also reported that Archie, a town boy, took over her father's farming business after his death in 1932. In 1937 the couple moved their family to Washington, where they bought a grocery store. The 1940 census shows Tex as the owner of a general store and Lennie as a store helper.
  2. Lennie reported that her baby sister Imogene was "hers" when their mother died in 1929 (see her autobiographical account below). Imogene married Keith LeBaron of Centralia, Washington in 1945. They lived in Seattle in the Queen Anne neighborhood. They would later live in Hemet, Riverside County, California, then in Federal Way, King County, Washington, where Imogene passed away in 2005. Keith died in Seattle in 2011.
  3. Tex became a teacher after graduating from the University of Washington. He married Eileen M. Greer in King County, Washington, on 8 June 1963, and they had two children, a daughter Darci and a son Blake.
  4. Billie became a teacher after graduating from the University of Washington. She married Donald Arthur Dorland in King County, Washington, on 9 July 1960, and they too had two children, a daughter Paige and a son Ty.


Lennie Severns's family saga

Lennie Lee (Anstine) Severns wrote a brief account of her life for the following publication.

Alma Nix and John Nix, editors
The History of Lewis County, Washington
Chehalis: Lewis County Historical Society, 1985
2 volumes, 464 plus 88 pages.
Hardcover numbered limited edition.
Illustrated with numerous b&w photographs
Volume 2 is a Pictorial Essay.

The following text is a reformatted version of Lennie's story from a text file created from scans of a part of this work and posted on USGenWeb Archives by Wesley Cox in February 2003. Lennie's account is found on page 326 in Part 9 of the 10-part work. The title is mine. The comments in (parentheses) are as received in the scanned version, but the comments in [brackets] are mine.

The photo of Lennie and Archie Severns in the original source was omitted in the USGenWeb Archives extract. The graduation portrait of Lennie, and the snapshots of Lennie, Archie, and Imogene with the children, Tex and Billie, belong to the Severns family. The scans were kindly provided by Lennie's granddaughter, Darci Severns, the Anstine-Severns family historian.

Lennie and Archie with Tex and Billie Lennie, Archie, Tex, and Billie
"We couldn't get Tex
off of that stump"

Circa 1937 possibly in Nebraska
before move to Washington
(Severns Family photo)
Lennie and Archie with Tex and Billie Imogene with Tex and Billie
"Billie always plays with your mouth
when she sucks her thumb
to go to sleep"

Circa 1937 possibly in Nebraska
before move to Washington
(Severns Family photo)

Lennie (Anstine) Severns's story

Charles and Lydia (Baldwin) Anstine were married, February 12, 1908, at Lincoln, Nebraska. They had 4 daughters: Velma (1908-1919), Lennie (myself) (1910-), Aura Dey (1912-1985), and Imogene LeBaron (1926-).

(photo): Lennie and Archie Severns [omitted]

My parents [Lydia Baldwin and Charley Anstine] met in Lincoln [Nebraska] when both were rooming at mom's sister's [Sadie (Baldwin) William's] home. Daddy was a railroad engineer and mom was attending [Lincoln] Business College. Their courtship was brief. The Baldwin family was moving to Spokane, Washington, and refused to let mother stay there because she was not married, even though [in 1907-1908] she was 21 years old. My, how times have changed!

My father and we girls were born and raised in Seward County, Nebraska. Mother and her family were from Kentucky, leaving there when mother was about 18 years old [about 1904].

After my parents' marriage, they left the city (at mom's insistence) to become successful farmers and cattle feeders. They continued to farm until cancer claimed their lives. Mother was 43 [when she died in 1929] and daddy died three years later [in 1932], at age 48. Imogene [born in 1926] was 2 years old and I was nineteen [when mother died]. She was "mine" from that day on.

I rode horseback to attend a two-room country school (grades 1-10), during which time I took private piano and violin lessons. Our small high school in Utica [in Seward County] did not have a music department, so my parents decided to send me to Seward High School where I could continue to study music. After high school, I attended the University of Nebraska, received my teaching certificate, taught 3 years in a one-room country school, and taught piano and violin on weekends.

W.A. "Archie" Severns and I met when I was a senior in high school [in 1926]. We were married five years later in 1931. We took over the farming business after my father's [Charley Anstine's] death. Archie was a town boy and I a country girl. After seven years of farming, he knew it was not the life for him.

By then we had a son, Tex (1934) and a daughter, Billie (1936). Starting a new life was big decision, especially for me, to leave the only home I had ever known. It was a wise decision. We chose Centralia (1937) [in Lewis County, Washington] because Archie had a brother, Ray, in Chehalis [also in Lewis County]. We bought a grocery store on Waunch's Prairie [in Centralia]. We are now retired and still living on Waunch's Prairie.

Our children attended Centralia High School, Centralia College, and the University of Washington [in Seattle]. Both are teachers. Tex and family live in Seattle and he teaches in Kent. Billie and family live in Renton and she teaches in Snoqualmie. Tex and Eileen (Greer) have a daughter, Darci, and a son, Blake.

Billie and Don Dorland have a daughter, Paige, and a son, Ty. We are proud of our children, their spouses, and our grandchildren. Eileen is a Medical Technician and Don is an administrator in Kent High School.

All the men in our family are avid hunters. Our children have cabins at Crystal Mt., not far from the ski area, where they and their families love to ski. It is also a hunter's paradise. The guys have elk and deer antlers to prove it.

We have never regretted coming to the West Coast. We have made some lasting friendships with some very dear people.

By Lennie (Anstine) Severns

[ Written no later than 1985 ]


Darci Severns's tales

Lydia and Charley Anstine's great grandaughter, Darci Severns, recalled a number of tales she heard from her grandmother Lennie (Anstine) Severns, her great aunt Aura (Anstine) Dey, and her mother Eileen (Greer) Severns. Darci is the daughter of Lennie's and Archie's son Tex Severns, who was my 2nd cousin, and so she and I (William O. Wetherall) are 2nd cousins once removed. Darci shared the following account of her memories with me (email, 23 October 2013).

Darci Severns's story

I vaguely remember meeting Claude [Williams, Sadie's son] when I was little, around 40 years ago. He had an apartment in downtown Seattle and my parents took me there.

My mom [Eileen Severns] vaguely remembers meeting Faye [(Anstine) (Mathews) Rebenstorf, Sadie's daughter] and an older woman, she thinks she was one of the "Baldwin girls" [probably Meda (Baldwin) Ure], yet she's not sure. It was in the Spokane area during the 60's. My great aunt Aura (Anstine) Dey lived there with her husband George who was also from the Seward area.

Grandma Lennie liked telling me good stories from Nebraska. I remember her talking about an aunt Sadie [(Baldwin) Williams]. She would tell me how education and music were very important to "Mother", as she referred to Lydia. I knew it was expensive for the family to send her to high school in Seward, yet "Mother put her foot down and Daddy made it happen." I think she drove back and forth to Seward each week with Claude and Faye to go to school. I'm not sure where she lived in Seward during the week, yet I believe they drove a car and Claude taught her how to drive.

I remember her [Grandma Lennie] telling me the barn had running cold water, but not the house. They had a pump on the back porch. If you didn't take care of the animals then you didn't have anything. I know when they left in 1938 they still didn't have indoor plumbing or electricity.

Aura [the Anstine's 3rd daughter] never had children and had a special relationship with my dad and therefore me. She would tell me the "real" stories. How it was hard to get ahead financially being tenant farmers. The animals and farm hands had to be fed before the family. She told me Lennie only weighed 98 pounds when she got pregnant with my dad and wore Aura's dresses during her pregnancy. Aura was always more plump than Lennie.

Aura was a loud, bawdy woman that I loved being around. She told it to you straight. I'm still sad that I was only 16 when she passed. George Dey, blind in 1987, rode a Greyhound bus alone from Spokane to Seattle to deliver to me her wedding ring on my high school graduation. He said she'd made the request right before she died 2 1/2 years prior. I wear the ring every day.


Uncle Charley stories

Charles Andrew Anstine (1883-1932) was the son of a farmer, and he himself became a farmer, in Utica, Seward County, Nebraska. He married Lydia Baldwin, who he had met in Lincoln Nebraska, in 1906, and they were the parents of three daughters when he registered for 2nd draft on 12 September 1918 near the end of the World War or Great War, now know as World War I.

Charles Anstine's enlistment card describes him as a resident of Utica, Seward, Nebraska, 34 and white, a native born citizen and self-employed farmer. He gave Mrs. Lydia Anstine, at the same address, as the name of his nearest relative. The Seward County Local Board official agreed that Charles was short and stout, had brown eyes and light brown hair, and had no obvious disabilities that would have disqualified him from service.

Darci Severns remembers that her grandmother Lennie (Anstine) Severns, and her great aunt Aura (Anstine) Dey, said that Charley "had very small feet and fit into Lydia's shoes. And he could wear her gloves." (Email, 8 November 2013)

Charles Anstine was "Uncle Charley" to William B. Wetherall, who -- especially in his later years -- told his children, including this writer, and a few of his friends, what we children dubbed "Uncle Charley stories".

My dad rarely talked about himself when we, his children, were growing up. He told his Uncle Charley stories late in his life, almost always at the dinner table. He was a disciplinarian when it came to eating. We had to clean our plates. No food was ever thrown out. Failure to eat something on our dinner plates meant eating it the next morning.

Our mother, raised on a farm, shared our father's distaste for waste. She had all manner of ways to remake leftovers into tasty meals. Both of our parents impressed on us the austerity they had experienced when they were growing up.

My dad told his Uncle Charley stories partly out of nostalgia, and partly to impress on us how hard -- but good -- life was in his youth. We knew how he felt about farming, for he always had a huge vegetable garden after moving from San Francisco to Grass Valley in 1955.

While living in San Francisco, we went camping practically every summer and "roughed" it with a tent, sleeping bags, and a Coleman stove and lanterns. After moving to Grass Valley, we never again went camping. In fact, my parents took only two family trips during the years we were growing up in Grass Valley -- in 1958 to Iowa, and in 1959 to Idaho -- both related to family reunions.

William B. Wetherall's 2011 testimony

On 8 March 2011, William B. Wetherall was interviewed at his home by Gregg Schiffner, a local cinematographer and good friend, who was preparing for a presentation of Bill's life at his 100th birthday party. In the course of the interview, Bill talked a bit about his experiences working on his uncle's farm in Nebraska during the summers when he was going to high school.

Gregg wondered if Charley was on his father's side, and my father said yes, and then corrected himself. He was on his mother's side, he said, but he never did clarify that Charley was the husband of his mother's sister Lydia.

He emphatically stated that he had worked on the Nebraska farm 6 summers. The first summer, he said, was after completing the 8th grade of grade school in Knoxville, which agrees with his 2010 oral account to this writer, his son. And he stressed that he had also worked the summer after he graduated from high school, which he hadn't mentioned in 2010.

In 2010, he related that he graduated from the 8th grade in Knoxville in 1924, and from high school in Des Moines in 1928, in what was a conventional 8-4 system. In Knoxville he lived with his paternal grandfather's family, and in Des Moines he lived with his father's new family. This, too, suggests that he worked only 5 summers -- unless he also worked the summer of 1923 (which is possible), or perhaps the summer of 1929 (which is possible but less likely).

In 2011, he did not go into detail about his life on the farm in Nebraska. It started talking about Nebraska in the course of explaining what he did after graduating from high school, and he ended up telling four stories, about (1) his plans to go to college in Iowa the next fall, (2) his work on Charley's farm that summer, (3) Charley's offer of an interest in the farm if he stayed and went to college in Nebraska, and (4) his decision to Idaho instead. And parts of all these stories are confusing.

Though he seemed confused as to when he first worked on Charley's farm, he clearly stated that the first time, someone -- presumably Charley -- came to Knoxville to pick him up, and camped at the fair grounds. "That's what they did in those days," he said. He didn't say how Charley came. Possibly he drove. The distance would have been about 250 miles or 400 kilometers. While not an especially long distance by today's standards, in the early 1920s it would have been a long and arduous day on the road, with a pit stop or two to gas up and check the water and oil, and pray that there be no flat tires, broken fan belt, or blown gasket.

My father said in the 2011 interview that the farm was 360 acres -- "half a section" he added, a section being 640 acres. He said that Charley offered him "a quarter" of the farm or "produce" -- apparently meaning a quarter of the income from the farm, since Charley didn't own the land -- if he would join him on the farm. However, he told his uncle he planned to go to college.

It's not clear from the interview how big Charley's farm was, and I have no idea how large a typical farm in Seward might have been. By the 1920s, it was probably a partly mechanized operation, as by then mechanization was sweeping the country. But many farmers, including Charley, farmed on land belonging to someone else.

My mother was raised on an Idaho farm her grandparents had homesteaded from the late 1890s and her parents then operated until the mid 1920s, about the time my dad began working on Charley's farm in Nebraska. My grandparents sold their farm in the face of rapid mechanization, which radically changed the economics of farming, as the more successful farmers bought up smaller homesteads and merged them into larger mechanized operations.

Tenant farming

The 1900 to 1940 censuses for the Anstine family tell the following story.

1900 census shows Richard and Helen Anstine (Charley is 16) renting farm land.

1910 census shows Charley and Lydia Anstine (Velma is 1-5/12, Lennie is 0) renting farm land.

1920 census shows Charley working as a farmer on his "Own account" as opposed to working for wages.

1930 census shows Charley working as a farmer on his "Own" rather than as an employee. The Anstines have a radio set, but the box stating whether they own or rent their farm home is blank. Half of their farming neighbors owned, and half were renting, their homes.

Charley thus appears to have been a tenant farmer -- which means that he stood to prosper only if production was good and the market was strong. I would guess that he made the offer to my dad in 1928 because he felt his farm would produce enough to make it worth both his and my dad's while.

Having 3 surviving daughters, 2 of them marriageable, the 3rd not yet 2 years old, with Lydia suffering from cancer, Charley was definitely in need of reliable help. I imagine he saw my father -- his nephew-in-law -- as a sort of son, born the year between his 2nd and 3rd daughters, Lennie and Aura. And he must have been impressed by Bill's work during previous summers.

Charley would have understood my father's desire to go to college. Lennie, his daughter, was then going to the University of Nebraska in Lincoln to become a teacher. His suggestion that my father go to college in Lincoln, instead of Penn College in Oskaloosa, Iowa, would have put my father close enough to Seward (30 miles), and the farm in Utica (40 miles), that he could have worked there at least part time.

The depression, triggered by the market crash a couple of months after Lydia's death in 1929, probably contributed to the difficulties Charley had as his own health declined. Lennie married Archie Severns in 1931, and they attempted to make a go of the farm before and after Charley's death from cancer in 1932. But as Lennie relates in her 1985 account (see "Lennie's saga"), they decided to restart their lives in Washington.

Farming life in the 1920s and 1930s

Darci Severns has shared similar stories she recalls hearing from Lennie, her paternal grandmother, and Aura, her paternal great aunt, of life on the Anstine farm in Utica during the 1920s and 1930s.

William B. Wetherall, when telling his Uncle Charley stories, sometimes said the family was poor but they had lots of food and ate well -- and all the food you could eat. He said they had some cows, hogs, and chickens, and his chores included feeding and caring for them every day, begining every morning before breakfast. Other work involved the crops. I can't remember what he said they were. I would guess they grew a little bit of everything, larger crops for sale, smaller crops for family consumption or bartering with neighbors, which included other Anstines.

My dad's work on Charley's farm spanned the mid and late 1920s, before Lydia's death and the Wall Street crash two months later. By the time Charley died, the Great Depression was in full swing, making tenant farming even more difficult.

William B. Wetherall laced his Uncle Charley stories with the idioms of times. "A dollar a day plus found" was a standard refrain, and he often repeated "Found. Food." -- stressing both words -- and sometimes added "All you could eat." Life on the farm was mainly about food, as perhaps life is everywhere.

In the 2011 interview, he said Charley had always given him a little money when he went home at the end of summer. And the last two summer, he had paid him 30 dollars a month, the standard wage for farm labor at the time.


Baldwin-Steele family galleries

Baldwin-Steele Galleries

Sadie Baldwin -- Williams, Mathews, Disrud

Sadie Baldwin had 2 children, a daughter Faye, whose father appears to have been Ambrose Powell Williams, and a son Claude, whose father seems to have been Charles F. Williams. Whether these are the same men who went by different names is not clear to me at the time of this writing (March 2021).

Faye married 3 times -- to men named Mathews, Nelson, and Rebenstorf. Her only child, Marilyn, was fathered by Mathews in 1934. Marilyn was nearly 10 when Faye married Rebenstorf in 1944. He passed away in 1966. Claude, who appears to have never married, passed away in 1977, and Faye passed away in 1995. Marilyin passed away in 2013, and her husband, Norman Disrud, passed away in 2016. Their only child, Todd, and his children, now carry the torch of Sadie's Baldwin-Howard line.


The Rebenstorfs and Wetheralls, circa 1952
Wetherall home, 1958 33rd Avenue, San Francisco
Howard and Faye Rebenstorf, Jerry Wetherall, Marilyn Mathews (holding dog),
Mary Ellen Wetherall, Sadie Williams (standing), and Billy Wetherall (this writer, sitting)
Wetherall Family Collection


Marilyn Mathews marries Norman Disrud at Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, on 24 August 1957
Marriage license shows groom and bride as Coeur d'Alene residents
Witness Lois Lemmer was Marilyn's 2nd cousin in Meda (Baldwin) Ure's line
Marilyn was the matron of honor at Lois's wedding 2 months later (see below)

Copped from Ancestry.com


Marilyn Mathews high school portrait, 1953

Photos, card, and clipping from Wetherall Family Collection

Disruds Christmas Todd and Rhonda
Marilyn Marilyn

Todd Disrud's 1st Christmas, 1959
Left 4 generations -- Faye, Marilyn, Todd, Sadie
Right Disrud Family -- Norman, Todd, Marilyn

Christmas card from Disrud family, 1981

Todd Disrud marries Rhonda Jermane, 1985

Ellen postcard

Martha Ellen (Steele) Baldwin at St. Maries, Idaho home, mid 1910s
Unidentified postcard photo -- identities (by this writer) tentative
Compare porch design with designs in following photos
Wetherall Family Collection

Ellen postcard Ellen postcard
Ellen house field

Bare headed Ellen Baldwin by a home near a field, with child, early 1910s
Possibly with granddaughter Greta Ure in St. Maries, Idaho
Unidentified postcard photo -- identities (by this writer) tentative
Compare corner of home with photo immediately below
Wetherall Family Collection

Ellen house field Ellen house field

Meda (Baldwin) Ure by a home near a field, with child in yard, early 1910s
Possibly Baldwin-Steele home, perhaps Ure home, in St. Maries, Idaho
Girl with parasol possibly Meda's daughter Greta, born 15 July 1912
Undentified original 4x2-1/2 print -- identities (by this writer) tentative
Compare with photo immediately above
Wetherall Family Collection


Hatless Sadie Williams with parasol by Baldwin home, with child on porch, early 1910s
Girl on porch possibly Sadie's niece Greta Ure, born 15 July 1912
Sadie and her children are enumerated in 1910 St. Maries census
Unidentified original 4-2-1/2 inch photo -- identities (by this writer) tentative
Compare with similar photo of Sadie wearing hat (below)
Wetherall Family Collection

Sadie parasol

Sadie Williams with parasol and hat by Baldwin home, early 1910s
Compare with similar photo of Sadie without hat (above)
Unidentified original 4x2-1/2 print -- identities (by this writer) tentative
Wetherall Family Collection

Sadie parasol Sadie parasol
Birthday party Birthday party

Baldwin-Steele home in St. Maries, Idaho, mid 1910s

AboveBirthday party for "Master William [Bascum] Wetherall"
at Baldwin-Steele home in St. Maries on 25 March 1915

WBW (age 4) front and center -- standing (left), sitting (right)
Girl to WBW's right (left) and left (right) may be his 1st cousin Greta Ure

RightAnother party the following year, 1916, at same place
William B. Wetherall, front row, 3rd from left, holding card
Man on porch might by his grandfather N. Bascum Baldwin
WBW's father WRW took him to Knoxville, Iowa, in 1917

Note porch design features
1. Edge of roof with exposed rafters under eaves
2. Large square posts (columns) tapered at top
3. Railing and siding of enclosing knee walls

BelowBirthday dinner invitation card and matching envelope
Envelope contains 2 copies of above left photograph
and 2 lockets of blondish, flaxen, brownish hair
Card probably printed by WBW's father William R. Wetherall
a printer then also living and working in St. Maries

Wetherall Family Collection

Birthday party
Birthday party Birthday party
Sadie house field

Sadie Williams by a home in a field, circa 1910s
Possibly at home of Lydia and Charley Anstine in Utica, Nebraska
Note brick foundation
Unidentified original photo -- identities (by this writer) tentative
Wetherall Family Collection

Sadie house field Sadie house field


Lydia Baldwin -- Anstine, Severns

Lydia, the 2nd of the 4 Baldwin sisters, met Charley Anstine in 1907 in Lincoln, Nebraska, and they married there on 12 February 1908 and settled in Utica in Seward County, Nebraska, near Charley's parents. Velma, the 1st of their 4 daughters, was born in Seward County on 30 November 1908.

Lydia's parents, with Meda (3rd Baldwin sister) and Ida (youngest sister), moved to Spokane in Washington, and to St. Maries in Idaho. Sadie (1st sister) also lived in the northwest for a while before returning to Seward, where her children -- Faye, born in Knoxville, Iowa in 1906 and Claude, born in Lincoln, Nebraska in 1907 -- grew up close to their Anstine cousins.

Velma, the oldest Anstine sister, died in 1919, leaving Lennie and Aura, the 2nd and 3rd sister. The 4th sister, Imogene, was born 14 years after Aura.

Lennie, the oldest surviving sister, helped her grandmother Ellen Baldwin raise Imogine after Lydia died in 1929. Lennie married Archie Severns in 1931, and they adopted Imogene when Charlie died in 1932.

The keeper of the "Anstine-Baldwin" keys today is Darci Severns, Lennie's granddaughter. See Lennie's saga and Darci's tales (above) for other photos and stories.

Anstine girls Anstine girls
Anstine girls

Anstine sisters Lennie (b1910), Velma (b1908), and Aura (b1912) near home in Utica, Nebraska, circa 1918
Velma died the following year from "ether pneumonia" following surgery for "acute appendicitis"
(Wetherall Family photo)

Anstine girls Anstine and Williams cousins at fountain, mid 1920s
L→R Lennie Anstine, Claude Williams, Faye Williams, Aura Anstine
Children of oldest Baldwin sisters Lydia (Lennie, Aura) and Sadie (Claude, Faye)
Grandchildren of N. Bascum and M. Ellen (Steele) Baldwin
Photo printed by Lawrence Studio, Seward, Nebraska
(Wetherall Family photo
Anstine girls Anstine Girls Ensemble, mid 1920s
Lydia Anstine (piano) with daughters Lennie (violin) and Aura (saxophone)
Playing at home in Utica, Nebraska, to audience of portraits on top of piano
(Wetherall Family photo)
Lennie Anstine Lennie Anstine
High school or college graduation,
circa 1926-1928
(Severns Family photo)
Lennie Anstine Lennie Anstine, nlt 1927
High school or college graduation
Gumbel (studio), Seward, Nebraska
(Wetherall Family photo)
Aura Anstine Aura Anstine, circa 1928-1930
High school or college graduation
Gumbel (studio), Seward, Nebraska
(Wetherall Family photo)
Imogene Anstine Imogene Anstine, circa 1943
"Imie" to Lennie and Aura
High school graduation
(Severns Family photo)
Imogene Anstine Imogene Anstine high school portrait, 1943
Senior, Centralia High School, Washington
The Skookum WA WA yearbook, page 32
Copped and cropped from Ancestor.com
Anstine sisters Imogene, Lennie, and Aura Anstine, 1970-1980
(Wetherall Family photo)

Anstine-Williams summer picnic at river -- Mid-1920s
Probably Big Blue River near Seward, Nebraska
L-R identifications possibly in Ellen's hand
Charley (Anstine), Lydia (Anstine), Claude (Williams), Lennie (Anstine),
Sadie (Williams), Aura (Anstine), unidentified man
Faye is not in the photo perhaps because she took it
Wetherall Family Collection

Lydia and Lennie

Lydia Anstine and daughter Lennie
Porch of Anstine home circa 1928
Wetherall Family Collection


Ellen (Steele) Baldwin
Probably late 1920s or early 1930s
Possibly at Utica, Nebraska
Wetherall Family Collection

Ellen and Imogene

Ellen holding Imogene Anstine, born 5 September 1926
At Anstine home, dated 1927
Wetherall Family Collection


Ure and Lemmer families (Meda Baldwin)

Meda Baldwin, the 3rd of the 4 Baldwin sisters, remained geographically and socially the closest to their mother Ellen Baldwin. She married Clifford Ure in 1911 and they had 2 children -- Greta, born in 1912 -- and Dale, born 16 years later in 1928. Because my father, born in 1911, was raised in St. Maries during his first few years of life, and lived with the Ure's while going to college and law school in the early 1930s, he was as close if not closer to his Ure cousins -- especially Greta, but also Dale -- as he was to his cousin's Faye and Claude Williams in Sadie's line, and Lennie and Aura Anstine in Lydia's line.

I had more opportunity to meet Sadie and Faye because they -- like Ellen, who died before I was born -- were the travelers in the family.

The keepers of the keys of Meda's Ure-Baldwin line are Greta's daughter Lois (Lemmer) (Santa Rosa) Slater, and her daughter Patricia Santa Rosa Flint.


Greta Ure, 1930, high school graduation
Wetherall Family Collection


Greta (Ure) Lemmer, 22 August 1987
Scan from Patricia Santa Rosa Flint


Greta (Ure) Lemmer
Scan from Patricia Santa Rosa Flint


AboveGreta Ure with Model T, circa 1930
Wetherall Family Collection

RightLois Lemmer to marry Arthur Santa Rosa
Spokane Daily Chronicle, Wednesday, 16 October 1957, page 12
Clipped from Newspapers.com

Lois Lemmer
Orene Babe Milton

A late 1910s Model T on Central Ridge, circa 1920
Orene Hardman (left) and Babe Hardman (right) with
1st-cousin-once-removered Milton Nathan Hunter
Wetherall Family Collection

Model Ts and Gay Twenties

The photograph of Greta Ure dressed to kill in winter, standing in front of a rag-top Model T on a country road, probably near St. Maries where the Ures lived, was taken around 1930, possible by Harlan Lemmer -- his family moved to St. Maries in the 1920s and they married in 1931. This is my favorite of the several photographs in the Wetherall Family Collection showing Model Ts -- second only to the one of my mother Bug (Orene) Hardman and her older sister Babe (Ullie), shot around 1920 on Central Ridge in Idaho, before either was in her teens. By the late 1920s and early 1930s, both Bug and Babe were dressing to kill the local male fauna in Peck, Idaho, in the fashions of the Gay Twenties. See 7. Hunter-Thomas and related families and 3. Hardman-Hunter and related families for details.


Wetheralls (Ida Baldwin)

For Ida (Baldwin) Wetherall's family, see Wetherall-Hardman family page.


1959 Baldwin-Steele family reunion

The following photographs show two family reunion dinners with different mixes of the descendants of 3 of the 4 Baldwin sisters -- Sadie, Meda, and Ida. Sadie's and Meda's families were in Idaho and Washington, and Ida's family (this writer's Wetherall family) was in California. Lydia's line was not represented, though the families of a couple of her daughters were in Washington.

The Wetherall family traveled to Idaho during the summer of 1959 for the purpose of reunions on both my father's Baldwin-Steele side and my mother's Hardman-Hunter side. I didn't make the trip because I had just graduated from high school and started a full-time summer job in San Francisco.

Of the two gatherings shown here, the one with the most attendants was held at the home of Greta and Harlan Lemmer in Meda's line in Spokane, Washington. The smaller gathering met at the home of Faye and Howard Rubenstorf in Sadie's line in Coeur d'Alene in Idaho.

The images are scans of 3-1/2in square glossy color prints with 1/4in borders in the Wetherall Family Collection. There are similar prints in the collections of some of the other families.

See keys to identifications below the panel of photographs

1959 Idaho reunion

Photo 1

1. Mary Ellen Wetherall (later Zweig), my sister
2. Almeda Jane (Baldwin) Ure
3. Sadie (Baldwin) Williams
4. Lois (Lemmer) Santa Rosa (later Slater)
5. (elbow) Marilyn (Mathews) Disrud

1. Orene (Hardman) Wetherall, my mother
2. Gene Lemmer, Meda's grandson
3. Howard Rebenstorff, Faye's husband
4. Harlan Lemmer, Greta's husband
5. Claude Williams, Sadie's son

1959 Idaho reunion

Photo 2

1. Sadie (Baldwin) Williams
2. Lois (Lemmer) Santa Rosa (later Slater)
3. Marilyn (Mathews) Disrud, Faye's daughter
4. ? Unidentified woman

1. (shoulder) Gene Lemmer, Greta's son
2. William B. Wetherall, my father
3. Howard Rebenstorf, Faye's husband
4. Harlan Lemmer, Greta's husband
5. Claude Williams, Sadie's son
6. Jerry Wetherall, my brother
7. Norman Disrud, Marilyn's husband

1959 Idaho reunion

Photo 3

1. Sadie (Baldwin) Williams
2. Lois (Lemmer) Santa Rosa (later Slater)
3. Marilyn (Mathews) Disrud, Faye's daughter
4. ? Unidentified woman

1. William B. Wetherall, my father
2. Howard Rebenstorf, Faye's husband
3. Harlan Lemmer, Greta's husband
4. Claude Williams, Sadie's son
5. Jerry Wetherall, my brother
6. Norman Disrud, Marilyn's husband

1959 Idaho reunion

Photo 4

1. Lois (Lemmer) Santa Rosa (later Slater)
2. Marilyn (Mathews) Disrud, Faye's daughter
3. ? Unidentified woman

1. Faye Rebenstorf, WBW's 1st cousin
2. Greta (Ure) Lemmer, WBW's 1st cousin
   holding granddaughter Brenda Santa Rosa
3. Brenda Santa Rosa (in arms), Lois's daughter

1959 Idaho reunion

Photo 5

1. Mary Ellen Wetherall, my sister
2. Gene Lemmer (brown coat), Greta's son
3. Faye Rebenstorf, Marilyn's mother
   holding Brenda Santa Rosa
4. Brenda Santa Rosa (in arms), Lois's daughter
5. Claude Williams (jacket), Sadie's son

1. Orene (Hardman) Wetherall, my mother
2. Meda (Baldwin) Ure, Gene's grandmother
3. Sadie (Baldwin) Williams, Faye's mother
4. Greta (Ure) Lemmer, Meda's daughter
5. Lois (Lemmer) Santa Rosa (red dress)
   Greta's daughter, my 2nd cousin

1959 Idaho reunion

Photo 6

1. Greta Lemmer, Meda's daughter, WBW's 1st cousin
2. Lois (Lemmer) Santa Rosa (red dress)
   Greta's daughter, Meda's granddaughter
3. Marilyn (Mathews) Disrud, Faye's daughter
4. ? Unidentified woman

1. Brenda Santa Rosa, Lois's daughter
   in arms of Faye Rebenstorf
2. Claude Williams, Faye's brother
3. Jerry Wetherall, WBW's son, my brother
4. Harlan Lemmer, Greta's husband
5. Howard Rebenstorf, Faye's husband
6. William B. Wetherall, my father

1959 Idaho reunion

Photo 7

Cherry (rhubarb?) pie dessert

IDs similar to those in Photo 8 -- except they begin with back of Howard Rebenstorf's head, Norman's father cannot be seen, and William B. Wetherall, my father, is sitting where Norman is sitting in, which suggests that Norman snapped this shot.

Norman's parents were visiting from minnesota. Marilyn had given birth to Todd Lee Disrud on 5 June 1959, shortly before the reunion. Apparently he is sleeping in another room.

Both shots catch Jerry Wetherall studying someone. Claude is smoking.

1959 Idaho reunion

Photo 8

Kicking back after dessert

Left to right around table
 0. William B. Wetherall, taking picture
 1. Selmer Disrud, Norman's dad
 2. Norman Disrud, Marilyn's husband
 3. Claude Williams, Sadie's son
 4. Jerry Wetherall, my brother
 5. Sadie (Baldwin) Williams, WBW's aunt
 6. Orene (Hardman) Wetherall, my mother
 7. Mary Ellen Wetherall (later Zweig), my sister
 8. Marilyn (Mathews) Disrud, Faye's daughter
 9. Olga Disrud, Norman's mother
10. Faye Rubenstorf, Sadie's daughter
11. Howard Rubenstorf, Faye's husband


10. Baldwin-Howard

John R. Baldwin and Rebecca and Margaret Howard

Table 10   John R. Baldwin's families with the Howard sisters
Table Name Birth Death Age Born Died Buried Vocation
0 John R. Baldwin 22 Sep 1828 10 Mar 1909 80 VA Jackson Co KY Wilson Cem Moores Creek KY Farmer, minister
0 Rebecca Ann Howard 31 Oct 1828 3 Apr 1855 26 Harlan Co VA Lee Co VA Lee Co VA House keeper
1 Elizabeth Letitia (Taylor) 26 Aug 1849 6 May 1930 80 VA KY AR Dyche Mem Prk London Laurel KY House keeper
2 John Milton Baldwin 9 Oct 1851 29 May 1936 84 Jonesville Lee VA Meeteetse Park WY Meeteetse Cemetery Farmer
3 Mary Ellen (Lewis) 30 Jan 1853 14 Feb 1909 56 VA KY Lewis Cem Jackson KY House keeper
0 Margaret Anne Howard 1 Sep 1835 3 Jun 1912 76 Lee Co VA Moores Creek KY Wilson Cem Moores Creek KY House keeper
1  4 William Henley Baldwin 19 Mar 1856 15 Feb 1937 80 VA Stites ID Stites IOOF Cemetery Farmer
2  5 Robert Ewing Baldwin 21 Aug 1858 1942 abt 84 VA KY King Cem KY Farmer
3  6 Sarah c1859 Oct 1859 6/12 VA West Dist Lee VA 1860 census mortality data, Lee County, Virginia
Confirmed by scan of enumeration sheet
Sarah c1859 20 Oct 1859 4m 7d VA Lee VA Father "Baldwin", Mother "Margaret"
Unconfirmed transcription from FHL Film 32441
Sarah J. c1859 30 Oct 1859 4m 7d VA Poor Valley Lee VA F "S.R. Baldwin", M "Margaret Baldwin"
Unconfirmed transcription from FHL Film 2048576
Mary J. 23 May 1859 Lee VA F "John R. Baldwin", M "Margaret Baldwin"
Unconfirmed transcription of Christening record
4  7 Baldwin, Male 23 Dec 1861 Poor Valley Lee VA F "John R. Baldwin", M "Margaret Baldwin"
Unconfirmed transcription of Christening record
5  8 Newton Bascum Baldwin 24 Dec 1862 22 Mar 1919 56 VA St. Maries ID Woodlawn Cem ID Restaurateur

1863-1864   The Baldwin-Howard family moves from Lee County, Virginia, to Jackson County, Kentucky, during the Civil War (1861-1865)

6  9 James Alfred Baldwin 23 Apr 1864 21 Aug 1954 90 KY Annville Jackson KY McGee Cem KY Farmer
7 10 Elihu Joseph Baldwin 6 Oct 1866 2 July 1942 75 Jackson Co KY Jackson Co KY Davidson Cem Peoples Jackson KY Farmer
8 11 Henry Clay Baldwin 5 Nov 1867 7 Mar 1950 82 Laurel Co KY Annville Jackson KY Medlock Cem KY Farmer Politician
9 12 Martha Ann (Moore) 3 Jul 1870 14 Mar 1934 63 KY KY Landrum Cem London KY House keeper
10 13 George Finley Baldwin 12 Mar 1873 20 May 1946 73 KY Peoples KY King Cem KY Teacher Farmer
11 14 Samuel L.B. Baldwin 17 Apr 1875 17 May 1941 76 KY Portland OR Laborer
12 15 Archelus Fernando Baldwin 20 Jun 1876 21 Feb 1935 58 KY KY Wilson Cem Moores Creek KY Teacher Farmer
13 16 Charles Nelson Baldwin 2 Sep 1879 31 Jul 1944 64 KY Symbol Laurel Co KY Pilgrims Rest Cem KY Farmer
Baldwin-Howard marriage 1855 Click on image to enlarge
John R. Baldwin and Margaret Howard marry on 13 June 1855
Makeshift mixed-bag Kentucky County marriage register
Copped and cropped from Ancestry.com
Margaret Baldwin 1912 Margaret Baldwin's death certificate
Informant A.F. Baldwin does not know his mother's maiden name
and only supposes she was born in Virginia.

Copped and cropped from FamilySearch
  1. John Baldwin was one of 4 sons of about 7 children of John Milton Baldwin (1792-1855) and Elizabeth Seale (b1806). He may have been a Methodist minister, but if so it was a part-time vocation, for all censuses show him as a farmer.
  2. John and Rebecca appear to have married in late 1848. Both would have been 19 or 20.
    They had 3 children before her death on 3 April 1855 (according to Margaret's 1909 pension declaration).

    Both Rebecca and her younger sister Margaret, who John would marry after Rebecca's death, are often said to have been born in Harlan County, Kentucky, to John Flannery Howard (b 5 Nov 1802, d 25 Dec 1870, Lee County, Virginia) and Elizabeth Denny Mark (1812–1853, Lee County, Virginia). The 1850 census for District 31, Lee County, Virginia enumerates "Rebecca" (22) as born in Kentucky, but shows "Margaret" (14) as born in Virginia, to Virginia-born "John F. Howard" (48) and Virginia-born "Elizabeth" (38). Among the 8 Howard children enumerated on the 1850 census, only the oldest of the 8, "Martha J." 19, was born in Kentucky. All other children, including Margaret, were born in Virginia. The Howards married no later than 1828, the year Rebecca was born. Rebecca is not in the 1850 census with her parents and siblings because she married John R. Baldwin in 1848 when about 20 and is enumerated with him and a daughter, Elizabeth, in the 1850 census.
    1. See Chronology of Baldwin-Howard family (below) for records related to
      10. John R. Baldwin, Rebecca and Margaret Howard, and their children.
  3. Elizabeth is the only child shown in the 1850 census when she is 1 year old. She married Jesse Milburn Taylor and they had 8 children of whom 6 survived as adults.
    1. See 10.1 Elizabeth Letitia Baldwin and Jesse Milburn Taylor in the "Baldwin Galleries" section (below).
  4. John Milton's namesake seems to have been his paternal grandfather. He reportedly married Verena Marie McCoy (1864–1934) on 5 July 1880 in Wells, Elko County, Nevada. He may have first married Minerva Jane Burchfield (1859–1941) on 25 November 1879 in Claiborne, Tennessee. It appears that John and Marie had 15 children of whom 10 survived into adulthood. They seem to have been "Pappy" and "Mammy" in the family.
    John appears with his sisters Elizabeth and Mary, all of whom are John R. Baldwin's children with Rebecca Howard, in the 1860 census, after Rebecca had died and their father had married her sister Margaret.
    1. See 10.2 John Milton Baldwin and Verena Marie McCoy in the "Baldwin Galleries" section (below).
  5. Mary Ellen Baldwin appears with her older siblings Elizabeth Letitia and John Milton in the 1860 census after their father had remarried their mother's sister Margaret. One Baldwin family tree gives Mary Ellen's familiar name as "Mollie". Another lists "Mollie" as a child born in 1852 between John and Mary. If there was such a child, then she either died or was adopted out before 1860. The "Mollie = Mary Ellen" contention seems more likely.
    The 1860 census for John R. and Margaret Baldwin lists Mary Ellen Baldwin as "Mary E.D." age 7. I have not seen "E.D." on any other records.
    Mary Ellen Baldwin married Zera Thomas Lewis on 8 March 1880 in Jackson county. The ledger clearly shows that "Zera Thomas" and "Mary Ellen Baldwin" were married on "March 8th 1880" but the place of marriage box is blank. All censuses are consistent with an 8 March 1880 marriage. However, the 1 June 1880 census shows Mary Ellen with 3 children born before the marriage. Some family histories have treated these children as her biological children. Other records, however, show that they were Zera's from an earlier marriage.
    1. See 10.3 Mary Ellen Baldwin and Zela (Thomas L.) Lewis in the "Baldwin Galleries" section (below)
      for a record-based analysis of the origin and composition of the Lewis-Baldwin family.
  6. Margaret, John's second wife, Rebecca's younger sister by about 10 years, was born in Kentucky.

    John and Margaret married on 13 June 1855 in Harlan, Kentucky, according to a makeshift "MARRIAGE REGISTER" (see image). The "BY WHOME MARRIED" column states athat they were married by "Solomon Pope, M.M.E.S." The "PLACE OF MARRIAGE" and "NAMES OF WITNESS PRESENT" columns are blank for most couples listed under "PARTIES NAMES". "Solomon Pope, M.M.E.S." apparently refers to Elizabeth Susan (Ball) Pope (1815-1906), the wife of Solomon Pope (1812-1883), both of whom were born and died in Harlan County, Kentucky, and are buried in Pope Cemetery in the county -- she as "SUSAN BALL POPE / A CHILD OF GOD" (Find a Grave). A similarly constructed makeshift marriage register shows that "Solomon Pope - E.S. Ball" married in "1836" -- no month or day or other particulars.
    1. Harlan County, Kentucky, is immediately north of Lee County, Virginia, where John R. Baldwin was born.
      Both Baldwin-Howard families originated, and all children through N.B. Baldwin were born, in Lee County.

    Margaret raised Rebecca's 3 children, and she and John had at least 12 (as many as 14) of their own (see particulars below). Their 1st child, William, was born on 19 March 1856, and their 12th and last child, Charles, was born on 2 September 1878, which works out to about 1 child every 22 months.
    Margaret's death certificate gives her date of birth as 1 December 1835 and states that she died of chronic valvular heart disease. The informant was A.F. Baldwin, presumably her second youngest son Archelus Fernando Baldwin, who was then 35 years old. Margaret's father's name was given as John Howard, birthplace Virginia. Her mother's maiden name was "Do not know" and her mother's birthplace was "Supposed to be Va." The undertaker was James Baldwin -- possibly Margaret's son James Alfred.
    1. See Chronology of Baldwin-Howard family (below) for records related to
      10. John R. Baldwin, Rebecca and Margaret Howard, and their children.
  7. William "Will" Henley Baldwin married Nancy Jane Robbins (1860–1945) and they had as many as 13 children. Both died in Stites in Idaho County, Idaho.
    1. See 10.4 William Henley Baldwin and Nancy Jane Robbins in the "Baldwin Galleries" section (below).
  8. Robert Ewing Baldwin (1858-1942) married Lydia Ketron (1858-1895) but she died leaving no children. He then married Eliza Jane King (1873-1938) in 1896, and they appear to have had 5 children. She died of stomach cancer on 30 May 1938. Lydia is buried in Wilson Cemetery in Moores Creek near Annville in Jackson County, Kentucky. Robert and Eliza are buried in King Cemetery in Peoples, which is also near Annville. Robert's younger brother George married Eliza's younger sister Emeline, and they and their youngest son, Charles, are also buried in King Cemetery.
    Someone on a Baldwin-family message board has claimed that "Emmaline King's mother was a full blooded Cherokee" (see King family and Cherokee blood below).
    1. See 10.5 Robert Ewing Baldwin and Lydia Lutitia Ketron
      and 10.5 Robert Ewing Baldwin and Eliza Jane King in the "Baldwin galleries" section (below).
  9. "Sarah" and "Sarah J." and "Mary J." may be the same person or possibly were twins. The 1860 census data comes from a scan of "Schedule 3: Persons who Died during the year ending 1st June, 1860, in the Western District in the County of Lee State of Virginia" downloaded from Ancestry.com. Other data for Sarah, Sarah J., and Mary J. are as taken from unconfirmed transcriptions reported by FamilySearch. "20 Oct 1859" and "30 Oct 1859" probably reflect a transcription error. "S.R." is most likely a transcription error for "J.R."
    1. "Poor Valley" is in the "Western District" of "Lee County", Virginia.
    2. See 10.6 Sarah Baldwin in the "Baldwin galleries" section (below) for transcriptions of records.
      See Margaret Baldwin's children for images of records.
  10. Data for "Unnamed Baldwin son" are as taken from an unconfirmed transcription reported by FamilySearch.
    1. See 10.7 Unnamed Baldwin son in the "Baldwin galleries" section for transcriptions of records.
      See Margaret Baldwin's children for images of records.
  11. Newton Bascum Baldwin married Martha Ellen Steele, hence the "Baldwin-Steele" family and its descendants.
    1. See 10.8 Baldwin-Steele and related links at the top of this page for all photographs, genealogical records, and family stories about N.Bascum and M. Ellen (Steele) Baldwin.
  12. James married Nancy Ann McGee (1873-1946) on 4 August 1891 in McKee, Jackson County, Kentucky, and they had at least 8 children. By the 1900 census they had had 3 children of whom 2 survived. By 1910 census 4 of 6 children had survived, and after this they would have at least 2 more surviving children. James and Nancy are buried in McGee Cemetery in Jackson County, Kentucky.
    If the "James Baldwin" named on Margaret's death certificate was James Alfred, then it would appear that he was an undertaker as well as a farmer.
    1. See 10.9 Baldwin-McGee: James Alfred Baldwin and Nancy Ann McGee (below) for genealogical details and some photographs.
  13. Elihu Joseph was known as "Joe". He married Mollie W. Wilson (1893–1946) on 29 December 1917 in London, Laurel County, Kentucky. He was 52 and Mollie was 24 according to the 1930 census for the Second Civil District of Campbell, Tennessee. The census shows "Joseph" 63 with his wife "Mollie" 37 and 5 children -- "Joseph Jr." 11, "George" 9, "Ruby Lee" 6, "John B." 4, and "Clifford" 1. Joseph Jr. [Joseph Robert] was born in Idaho, Clifford in Tennessee. Elihu Joseph and Mollie, and the middle 3 children, were born in Kentucky, as were Mollie's parents. Elihu Joseph's father was born in Tennessee and his mother in Virginia. He was a farmer working on a general farm on his own account, but apparently he did not own the farm, and he was renting his home. Joseph was 52 when he first married and Mollie was 24, according to this census.
    1. See 10.10 Elihu Joseph Baldwin and Mollie Wilson in the "Baldwin galleries" section (below).
  14. Henry Clay was known as "Clay" or "H. Clay". He married Malinda "Linda" ("Lindy") H. Abrams (1880–1950) on 14 February 1898. They seem to have had 10 children, 2 of whom died in infancy.
    Linda, born on 18 August 1880, died on 16 May 1950 barely 10 weeks after Clay died, and she is buried with him at Medlock Cemetery in Annville in Jackson County, Kentucky.
    Henry Clay Baldwin's namesake was Kentucky's most famous Washington politician -- Congressman, Speaker of the House, and Secretary of State Henry Clay (1777-1852). H. Clay Baldwin himself, though mainly a farmer, served a two-year term as a Republican representative of the 80th District of Kentucky in the State House of Representatives from 1932 to 1933.
    Clay was "Uncle Clay" to Sadie (Baldwin) Williams and her sisters. See "Sadie" (above) for an account of his "southern hospitality" during her visit with him in 1947.
    1. See 10.11 Henry Clay Baldwin and Malinda Abrams in the "Baldwin galleries" section (below).
  15. Martha Ann Baldwin, called "Annie", married Samuel Moore (1872–1963) on 11 April 1889 at the home of her father John R. Baldwin of Jackson County, and in the witness of her brothers N.B. and James Baldwin. She appears to have had at least 11 children 9 of whom survived long enough to be enumerated on 1900-1920 censuses.
    1. See 10.12 Martha Ann Baldwin and Samuel Moore in the "Baldwin galleries" section (below).
  16. George married Emeline King (1875–1961), Eliza's younger sister, in 1898, and they had at least 10 children.
    The 1900 census shows him to be teaching, but later censuses show him as a farmer.
    His death certificate states that he died of heart failure due to over exertion. It says he was born in Tennessee to John Howard, born in Tennessee, and Margaret Howard, born in Virginia. The informant -- signed "Charlie Baldwin" of Peoples, Kentucky -- was probably George's son Charles.
    George and Emeline are buried in King Cemetery in Peoples, which is near Annville, in Jackson County, Kentucky. Charles (1912-2001) and his wife Flora Estridge (1922-2002), George's older brother Robert (1858-1942) and his wife Eliza (1873-1938), are also buried in King Cemetery.
    1. See 10.13 George Finley Baldwin and Emeline King in the "Baldwin Galleries" section (below).
  17. Samuel L.B. Baldwin used various versions of his name including Samuel Berton Baldwin, Samuel B. Baldwin, and S.B. Baldwin, but he also went by "Sam" and "Bert". He and Nancy Jane Smith had 4 children of whom 3 survived.
    1. See 10.14 Samuel L.B. Baldwin and Nancy Jane Smith in the "Baldwin galleries" section (below).
  18. Archelus was publicly "Arch". The 1900 census shows Arch (22) living with his parents, John and Margaret. His father was farming but he, like his brother George, was teaching.
    He married Martha Louverna Davis on 8 June 1907. By 1910 they had had 2 children of whom 1 survived, and by 1930 they would have 5 more. The 1910, 1920, and 1930 censuses show him as a farmer.
    Arch and Martha are buried together in Wilson Cemetery in Moores Creek, Jackson County, Kentucky.
    1. See 10.15 Archelus Fernando Baldwin and Martha Louverna Davis in the "Baldwin Galleries" section (below).
  19. Charles or "Charlie" was born on 2 September -- in 1877 according to his death certificate, in 1878 according to his draft registration card, and in 1879 according to his headstone at Pilgrims Rest Cemetery in East Bernstadt, Laurel County, Kentucky. He died on 31 July 1944 according to his death certificate, and on 1 August 1944 according to his headstone.
    Charles's 1st confirmable wife was Cinthia Emma McDowell (1879-1916), with whom he had 7 children -- Stella [Stella Jane], Robert [Bob L.], Maggie [Margaret], Coy, Earnest, Eldon, and Maud [Maude, May]. His 2nd confirmable wife was Grace [Nancy G., Grace L.] [Fullington] [Fullerton] (1900-1980), with whom he had at least 5 more children. Some reports say he was also married to, or lived with, a Martha Combs, with whom he may have fathered children.
    Census and other data shows that Charles raised his children alone for at least 5 years between his marriages to Emma and Grace.
    1. See 10.16 Charles Nelson Baldwin and his families in the "Baldwin Galleries" section (below).


Chronology of Baldwin-Howard family

10. John R. Baldwin, Rebecca and Margaret Howard, and their children

John R. Baldwin seems to have fathered 3 children with his 1st wife, Rebecca Howard, and 12 (or 14) with his 2nd wife, Margaret Howard, Rebecca's younger sister. All of the 15 children listed in the table -- except Sarah -- are found on censuses. Their full names and many other particulars have been culled from various sources. Many but not all details have been confirmed by scans of official records.

Margaret Baldwin's children

Rebecca and Margaret were sisters. Rebecca had at least 3 children between 1849-1853. Margaret raised Rebecca's children in addition to the at least 12 she had with John.

"Heaven Sent", whose genealogy research includes the Baldwin line, has posted a scan of Margaret Baldwin's death certificate on the Internet. She also posted the following information about Margaret, which I have slightly edited and reformatted. The numbers, which are those I assigned the children in the above table, and the underscoring of the children who do not appear in the table, are mine.

Margaret Anne Baldwin was the daughter of John F. and Elizabeth Mark Howard. She married John R. Baldwin on 13 June 1855 in Harlan County, Kentucky. God blessed this marriage with the following children: (1) William Henley, (2) Robert Eqing [sic = Ewing], Clayton, Anne, (4) Newton Bascum, (5) James Alfred, (6) Elihu Joseph, (7) Henry Clay, (8) Martha A., (9) George F., (10) Samuel I. B. [sic = L.B.], (11) Archelus Fernando, and (12) Charles Nelson.

Heaven Sent appears to have listed the children in the order of their birth. Only Clayton and Anne are not found on any census. William Henley was born in March 1856 and Robert Ewing around 1858. And Newton Bascum was born in December 1862, James Alfred in April 1864, and all subsequent children only a year or two apart. This leaves roughly 4 years -- 1859-1863 -- between which to bear and lose two children.

Some lists of Baldwin children include a "(3) Sarah", who apparently was born and died in 1859. If "Clayton" and "Anne" or "Sarah" were in fact children of John and Margaret, then they died before the 1860 census (when they would have been about 1 year old), or before the 1870 census (when they would have been going on 10).

The 1900 and 1910 censuses state that Margaret had respectively 14 and 12 children of whom 11 survived. In addition to the children he had with with Margaret, John fathered 3 children (Elizabeth, John, and Mary) with Margaret's older sister Rebecca. A couple of the 14 children reported in the 1900 census may have been Rebecca's.

John R. Baldwin's family in 19th century censuses

The 1850 census for District 31 of Lee County, Virginia, shows John R. Baldwin (22) farming with his wife Rebecca (22) and their daughter Elizabeth (1). Other sheets from the same Lee County census show Margaret (14) still living with her parents, John F. Howard (48) and Elizabeth (38), and 2 older and 5 younger siblings. Margaret in John F. Howard's household is shown as born in Virginia. Rebecca in John R.Baldwin's household was born in Kentucky.

Rebecca Baldwin died on 3 April 1855 according to Margaret's 1909 widow's pension eligibility declaration.

John R. Baldwin and Margaret Baldwin married on 13 June 1855 in Harlan, Kentucky.

The 1860 census for "Free Inhabitants" of the Jonesville post office area of the Western District of Lee County, Virginia, shows "John R. Balwin" [sic = Baldwin] 31, Farmer, with his wife "Margret" [sic = Margaret] 22, Housekeeper, and 5 children -- "Elisabeth L." 10, "John M." 8, "Mary E. D." 7, "Wm. H." 4, and "Robbert E." 3 -- and John R. Baldwin's younger brother "Thos. N." 16, Farm labor. Everyone in the household -- including Margaret -- is said to have been born in Lee County, Virginia. Elizabeth, John, and Mary are Rebecca's children. William and Robert are Margaret's children. "Thos. N." is John R. Baldwin's younger brother Thomas Newton Baldwin (1843-1924).

Family moves to Kentucky during Civil War

The Baldwin-Howard family moves from Virginia to Kentucky around 1863.

The 1870 census for the Gray Hawk Post Office area of Sturgeon Precinct No. 6 in Jackson County, Kentucky, shows "John R. Baldwin" 41 with is wife "Margaret" 35 and 8 children -- "John M." 18, "Mary E." 17, "William H." 14, "Robert E." 12, "Newton B." 8, "James A." (6), "Elihu J." 3, and "Henry C." 2. Two others -- "James N. Howard" 23 and "Sarah E. Thomas" 14 were also living with the family. John R. Baldwin is a farmer and Margaret is keeping house. Sons John, William, and Robert were farm laborers. James Howard, probably Margaret (nee Howard's) brother, was also a farm laborer. Sarah Thomas was a domestic servant. The household's real estate and personal property were valued at 400 and 250 dollars. Margaret and her youngest sons James A., Elihu, and Henry C. were born in Kentucky. All others in the household were born in Virginia. The two oldest children -- John M. and Mary E. -- are John R. Baldwin's children with his 1st wife, Rebecca (Howard) Baldwin (1828-1855), Margaret's deceased older sister.

The same enumeration sheet of the 1870 census for Gray Hawk Post Office area in Sturgeon Precinct No. 6, in Jackson County, Kentucky, shows John R. Baldwin's younger brother, Virginia-born "Thos. N. Baldwin", 24 years old, with his Kentucky-born wife "Emily C.", 21, farming and keeping house with 2 Kentucky-born children, "John C.", 3, and "Elizabeth A.", 1, and a Tennessee-born domestic servant, "Susan A. Thomas", 13.

By the 1880 census, Thomas N. Baldwin has moved to Raccoon Precinct No. 2 of Laurel County, Kentucky, where he is enumerated as "Newton Baldwin" 34, with his wife "Emily C." 33, and 6 children -- "John C." 14, "Elizabeth" 11, "Steven M." 9, "Lissie C." 7, "Martha" 11, and "Joseph" 2. Newton is a farmer, Emily C. is keeping house, John C. works on farm, and Elizabeth is at home.

Thomas Newton Baldwin was born on 29 October 1843 in Lee County, Virginia. He died on 10 March 1924 in Laurel County, Kentucky, where he is buried as "N. B." under a plain tombstone in Carrier Cemetery. His wife, Emily C. (Carrier) Baldwin, was born in 1847. She died in Laurel County in 1908, and she too is buried in Carrier Cemetery under a plain tombstone marked "E. B."

The 1880 census for Precinct No. 5, Enumeration District No. 50, Jackson County, Kentucky, shows "John R. Baldwin" 51 with his wife "Margaret" 44 and 9 children -- "Newton B." 19, "James A." 16, "Elihur J." 13, "Henry C." 12, "Martha A." 9, "George F." 7, "Samuel L. B." 5, "Archelus F." 3, and "Charles N." 8/12 year old. All but 2 of the surviving children John R. fathered with Margaret are enumerated here. John R., Newton B., James A., Elihur J., and Henry C. are "laborers" presumably on the family farm. Margaret is keeping house.

Enumerated immediately after John R. Baldwin's household is the household of "Elizabeth Steele", who is widowed, and 2 children, "John M. and "Martha E." Martha Ellen Steele would become the wife of Newton Bascum Baldwin on 15 December 1881 the following year. They would eventually settle in St. Maries, Idaho.

Margaret Baldwin's 1st son, William Henley Baldwin, is enumerated in another household on the same sheet as "William Baldwin", with his wife "Nancy J." and 3 children. They would eventually settle in Stites, Idaho.

Their 2nd son, Robert Ewing Baldwin, is enumerated in the 1880 census for Precinct No. 5, Magisterial District No. 7, Jackson County, as "Robert Baldwin", 22, the son-in-law of "Phiarzina Ketron" (57), who is widowed. He is shown after Phiarzina's son Nelson (17), and before his wife, Phiarzina's daughter "Liddia L." (31). Liddia died, leaving no children, and Robert would remarry Eliza Jane King. They lived in Jackson county for a while but resettled in Laurel County.

The 1890 census was mostly destroyed in a fire.

Neighboring Baldwin families in 1900 and 1910 censuses

The first two censuses of the 20th century show several children of the Baldwin-Howard family living as adults in separate households next door to each other.

The 1900 census for the 3rd Magisterial District, Pond Creek, of Jackson County, Kentucky shows -- on the same enumeration sheet -- three Baldwin households in a row.

  1. 1st Baldwin household   John R. Baldwin (71), head, born September 1828, farming, his wife Margaret Baldwin (64), and their 6th son, Arch [Archelus Fernando] Baldwin (22), teaching.
    John and Margaret had been married for 46 (or 47) years (the correction of the second digit is unclear), and she had borne 14 children of whom 11 survived.
  2. 2nd Baldwin household   George Baldwin (27), Arch's older brother, teaching, his wife Emaline [sic = Emeline] (24), and their 2 sons.
    George and Emma had been married for 2 years, and both of the children Emeline had borne survived.
    The 1910 census shows George (38) and Emma (34) living inn Horse Lick in Jackson County with all 7 of the children Emma had borne by then. Both of George's parents are said to have been born in Virginia.
    The 1930 census shows George (56) and Emiline [sic = Emeline] (54) still in the Rock Castle River area of Horse Lick with three children, all born after 1910.
  3. 3rd Baldwin householdN.B. Baldwin (38), George's and Arch's older brother, farming, with Ellen (36) and all 4 of their daughters.
    N.B. and Ellen had been married for 18 years, and all 4 of their children survived. See "Chronology of Baldwin-Steele family" below for details.

John R. Baldwin died on 10 March 1909. Margaret would live with a grandson next door to the households of other sons.

The 1910 census for the 3rd Magisterial District of Jackson County, Kentucky shows shows Margaret Baldwin living in the family of a grandson apparently next door to the households of two of her other sons. All three families were living on Terrell Creek Road, which was listed after Pond Creek Road.

  1. 1st Baldwin household   H. Clay Baldwin (42), a farmer, his wife Malinda (29), and the 4 surviving of the 5 children she had borne in their 11 years of marriage.
  2. 2nd Baldwin household   Charley Baldwin (30), a farmer, his wife Emma (29), and all 5 of the children she had borne in their 11 years of marriage. The youngest child is a 1-month-old nameless son who became Earnest.
    The 1930 census shows Charles Baldwin (51), a farmer, 19 when first married, with Grace (30), 18 when first married, and 7 children aged 19, 17, 14, 8, 6, 3, and 1-6/12. The youngest 4 children were probably Charles's children with Grace, assuming they married around 1918. On his 12 September 1918 draft registration card, Charles shows "Stella Baldwin" -- his daughter and first child with Cinthia Emma -- as his nearest relative. The census shows them living in Brodhead in Rockcastle County, Kentucky.
    1. Brodhead in Rockcastle County is close to the Horselick Creek area in Jackson County where the Rockcastle River divides the two counties.
  3. 3rd Baldwin household   Bradley Baldwin (21), a farmer, his wife Maude Baldwin (20), childless after 1 year of marriage, and Bradley's grandmother Margaret Baldwin (78), widowed, a mother of 12 children of whom 11 survived. Bradley is farming on his own account, on land he owns free of mortgage.

Margaret Baldwin died on 3 June 1912.


Baldwin, Howard, and other family names

In the English-speaking world, family names are acquired through birth from the father, and through marriage and adoption from the husband or adopting father. And family historians tend to focus on "lines" defined by the family names of parents, hence "Baldwin" and "Howard" if speaking of the "Baldwin-Howard" family. Yet John R. Baldwin was a "Baldwin-Steale" descendant, and Rebecca and Margaret Baldwin were "Howard-Mark" descendants. Hence every union of 2 parents represents unions of 4 grandparents, which represent unions of 8 great-grandparents, which represent unions of 16 great-great-grandparents, ad infinitim. There is no biological reason to focus on only one name, but social biases -- in particular the dominence of male lines -- lead many people to focus on the history of only their (usually) patrilineal family name.


Dictionary of American Family Names, Edited by Patrick Hanks and Flavia Hodges (1990, 2003, 2006), 3 volumes, Oxford University Press, gives the following description of the family name "Baldwin" (as cited by FamilySearch, viewed and copied 25 December 2019).


1 English: from a Germanic personal name composed of the elements bald 'bold', 'brave' + wine 'friend', which was extremely popular among the Normans and in Flanders in the early Middle Ages. It was the personal name of the Crusader who in 1100 became the first Christian king of Jerusalem, and of four more Crusader kings of Jerusalem. It was also borne by Baldwin, Count of Flanders (1172–1205), leader of the Fourth Crusade, who became first Latin Emperor of Constantinople (1204). As an American surname it has absorbed Dutch spellings such as Boudewijn .

2 Irish: surname adopted in Donegal by bearers of the Gaelic name Ó Maolagáin ( see Milligan ), due to association of Gaelic maol 'bald', 'hairless' with English bald.

forebears A John Baldwin from Buckinghamshire, England, arrived in the U.S. in 1638 and settled in Milford, CT.


Wikipedia gives the following account of "Howard" as a family name (viewed and copied 25 December 2019).


Howard is a common English surname. Its origins are uncertain. One theory is that it derived from the French personal name Huard and Houard (compare the Anglo-Norman spellings of coward for French couard; tower for tour) adapting after the Norman Conquest of 1066. Another theory is that its origin may be pre 7th century Germanic from the personal name Hughard (prefix hug, meaning "heart"/"spirit"; suffix hard, meaning "hardy"/"brave"). Yet another theory is that the surname derived from the Anglo-Scandinavian personal name Haward (Old Norse Hávarðr, Old Danish Hawarth, element Há(r) "high" or hǫð "battle"; element varðr, meaning "guardian").[1] The first public record of the surname is dated 1221 in Cambridgeshire. There are several variant surname spellings.[2]

Some writers report that "Howard" as either a family or given name is a conflation of two distinct but now homophonic names with a history of other pronunciations and spellings -- one "Hayward" from the title of a parish officer or warden in charge of the hedges (hay), fences, or other enclosures around a ward, parish, village or town, or public pastures -- the other from elements meaning heart, mind, and spirit (hug) and hardy, brave, and strong (hard) -- to put it most simply without several pages of obscure geographic and linguistic history. In other words, on its surface today, the name "Howard" reveals nothing about its origin or history, but is merely a fairly recent conflation of several spellings representing different origins and histories.


Most family names in English-speaking countries are not exclusively English. Many have origins in other languages, and those that originated in English make their way into other languages, where their spellings may change. The following table shows a few of the variations of "Baldwin" and "Howard" in other languages.

           Baldwin      Howard

Dutch      Boudewijn
English    Baldwin      Howard < eowu (ewe) + hierde (herd)
                          As name of keeper of female sheep
French     Beaudoin     Huard < OG Hugihard "heart brave"
German                  Howard / Howart < ON "high (chief) warden"
                          Hereward "army guard" 
Icelandic  Baldvin
Italian    Baldovino
Spanish    Balduino


Bradley Baldwin

William Oconnel Bradley Baldwin

Who were Bradley Baldwin's parents?

According to a 1963 death certificate for "William Oconnel Bradley Baldwin", his mother was "Ann Baldwin" and his father was "? Taylor". This would suggest that, if he was in fact Margaret Baldwin's grandson, that his mother was Martha Ann Baldwin -- who did not marry Samuel Moore until 11 April 1889, about 14 months after Bradley Baldwin's birth on 22 February 1888. However, the death certificate does not establish that "William Oconnel Bradley Baldwin" is the "Bradley Baldwin" identified as Margaret Baldwin's grandson in the 1910 census. And a few other matters need to be considered. So let's pursue the trail of evidence -- back from the 1910 census, then forward to the 1963 death certificate -- and see where it leads us.

If Bradley Baldwin was a grandson of John R. Baldwin's widow Margaret Baldwin -- as stated in the 1910 census -- then he is either a son of one of her sons, or a son of her only surviving daughter Martha Ann Baldwin.

If Bradley Baldwin was 21 at the time of the 1910 census, then he was born around 1888-1889, and so he should be in the 1890 and 1900 censuses with his parents or guardians. But the 1880 census data is not available. And there is no Bradley Baldwin -- or Brad or William or William Oconnel or other likely person in a 1900 census for any of the Baldwin-Howard households that I can find.

Marriage dates of Baldwin-Howard children
and ages when Bradley Baldwin was born

The Age column in the following list shows the sibling's age at the time Bradley Baldwin -- presumed to be be William Oconnel Bradley Baldwin -- was born on 22 February 1888.

                        Age  Born-Died  Married
 1. Elizabeth Letitia   38  1849-1930  1870 J.M. Taylor
 2. John Milton         36  1851-1936  1880 Verena Marie McCoy
 3. Mary Ellen          35  1853-1909  1880 Zela Lewis
 4. William Henley      31  1856-1937  1875 Nancy Jane Robbins
 5. Robert Ewing [*]    29  1858-1942  1896 Eliza Jane King
 6. Sarah                   1859-1859
 7. Unnamed son             1861-
 8. Newton Bascum       25  1862-1919  1881 Mary Ellen Steele
 9. James Alfred        23  1864-1954  1891 Nancy Ann McGee
10. Elihu Joseph        21  1866-1942  1918 Mollie W. Wilson 
11. Henry Clay          20  1867-1950  1898 Malinda Abrams
12. Martha Ann          17  1870-1934  1889 Samuel Moore
13. George Finley       14  1873-1946  1898 Emaline King
14. Samuel L.B.         12  1875-1941
15. Archelus Fernando   11  1876-1935  1907 Martha Louverna Davis
16. Charles Nelson       8  1879-1944  1920 Grace Fullington

The 1890 census was mostly lost.

1900 census I can find no likely candidate for Bradley or Maude, or for a William, William Oconnel, or William Oconnel Bradley as either a Baldwin or a Taylor.

The 1900 census shows Martha Ann Baldwin married to Samuel Moore, living in Laurel County with 5 of their children.
This is 1 fewer child than the 6 children the census said had survived of the 7 children it said she had borne.
Could the missing surviving child have been Bradley Baldwin? He would have been about 12 years old.
See Martha Ann and Samuel Moore in censuses (below) for details.

John R. Baldwin died on 10 March 1909.

The 1910 census for Magisterial District 3 shows 3 Baldwin households living on Terrell Creek Road, which is enumerated immediately after Pond Creek Road.

  1. Household of John R. and Margaret Baldwin's son "H. Clay Baldwin" (42).
  2. Household of John R. and Margaret Baldwin's son "Charley Baldwin" (30).
  3. Household of "Bradley Baldwin" (21), a farmer, with his wife "Maude" (19), childless after 1 year of marriage, and Bradley's grandmother "Margaret" (78), widowed, a mother of 12 children of whom 11 survived. Bradley is farming on his own account, on land he owns free of mortgage.
Bradley Baldwin 1910 Bradley Baldwin with Maude and Margaret on Terrell Creek Road
In 1910 census for Jackson County, Magisterial District 3
Copped and cropped from Ancestry.com

This is the first appearance of a "Bradley Baldwin" associated with the Baldwin-Howard family.

The datum for this census was 15 April. Hence Bradley -- if 21 as of this date -- was born between 16 April 1888 and 15 April 1889.
If born on or before 15 April 1888, Bradley would have been 22 years old or older

Margaret Baldwin died on 3 June 1912.

Baldwin fixing to move away"

Right   Article reporting community news from Bond, Jackson County in the "Eastern Kentucky Correspondence" column of the Thursday, 11 February 1915 edition of The Citizen (page 5). Copped and cropped from Newspapers.com

William Oconnel Bradley Baldwin

Below   1942 Selective Service Registration Card for "William Oconnel Bradley Baldwin". The earliest document on Ancestry.com to show "William Oconnel" in addition to "Bradley Baldwin". See his 1963 death certificate (bottom of this column) for another example. Whether Bradley Baldwin was given this longer name at the time of his birth, or whether he acquired it later in life, is not clear. It may have been inspired by the name of the late 19th-century Kentucky politician William O'Connell Bradley (see main text). Copped and cropped from Ancestor.com

Bradley Baldwin
Bradley Baldwin
Bradley Baldwin Nancie Maudie Baldwin's 1950 death certificate informed by Bradley Baldwin
Copped and cropped from Ancestry.com
Bradley Baldwin William Oconnel Bradley Baldwin's 1963 death certificate informed by Audrey Music
Copped and cropped from Ancestry.com

Audrey Music

Death certificate informants are generally family members or friends close enough to know more than just the name of the deceased. Audrey Music's relationship with W.O.B. Baldwin is not known, but she appears to have known things about him that a casual friend would not know. She was going on 28 when he died at 77. She could have been anything from a girlfriend to a caretaker. The death certificate states that Bradley Baldwin died in West Liberty Hospital. Audrey Music might have been a nurse or other hospital staff member that had reason to know enough about the circumstances of his life and death to act as informant.

The 1940 census for Floyd County shows (1935-1994) is "Audrey Joe Music" (4) as the 1st of then 3 children of "Theodore Music" (47) and his wife "Sara" (24). Theodore was a laborer doing government work, Sara was doing housework, and they were renting a non-farm home. He had 4 years and she 1 (one) year of schooling. Her name on Social Security records is "Audrey Jewell Music". She died in Paintsville, the seat of Johnson County, just north of Floyd, but is buried in Akers-Music Cemetery in Bonanza in Floyd County as "Audrey J. Music". She was born in Bonanza and her mother's maiden name was Sarah Akers. The bottom of her headstone reads "I Love You Mom".

1915 newspaper article   An article datelined Jackson County, Bond, 6 February 1915 -- published in the 11 February 1915 edition of The Citizen, a Berea County weekly paper, reported that "Bradley Baldwin is selling out and fixing to move away" (page 5 continuation of "East Kentucky Correspondence Column" beginning on page 8).

Berea is the county seat of Madison County, which shares a border with the northwest part of Jackson County The Citizen reported local community news for Jackson and other nearby counties in a column called "East Kentucky Correspondence".

Bond is less than 2 kilomters (about 1 mile) east of Annville, or roughly 10-11 kilometers (6-7 miles) north-northeast of Terrells Creek or Baldwin Branch.

When and why did Baldwin move?

Assuming the Bradley Baldwin of Bond in the 1915 article is the Bradley Baldwin who was farming on Terrell Creek Road in the 1910 census -- when and why did he move to Bond? Did he stay at the farm on Terrell Creek Road until Margaret died in 1912? And why is he leaving Bond only a few years in 1915?

1917 draft registration   A Form 1 Registration Card, signed on 5 June 1917 in Floyd County, Kentucky, show a "Bradley Baldwin" as a "Natural Born" citizen, born on 20 February 1888 in "Moores Creek" in Kentucky, USA, then living in Beaver in Floyd County. He was "Farming & Teaching" and self-employed. He was married claimed an exemption [from military draft during the Great War] on the grounds that he had a "Dependant wife" (original card). He was tall, of medium build, had brown hair and eyes, was not bald, and had no missing limbs or other disabilities. His "Race" was "Caucasian" and the "If person is of African descent, tear off this corner" tab in the lower-left corner of the form was intact on both forms.

Two versions

There are two versions of Form 1 Registration Card for Bradley Baldwin -- the original and a "true copy" of the original. The original is in two hands. Bradley's hand is evident in the "Name in full" and on the "Signature or mark" line. The "true copy" in an entirely differen cursive hand. The original has "Dependant wife" and the copy has "Dependent wife". British usage differentiates the condition of being dependent (adjective "dependent") and a dependent person (noun "dependant") the two. American usage generally uses "dependent" for both. So the "True copy" was has what is called a "copiest error" -- possibly an intentional "correction", possibly an inadvertent "error".

Floyd County is in the heart of Eastern Kentucky coal country, to the east of Jackson County, between Jackson County and Tennessee.

Beaver is an unincorporated community in Floyd County.

Moores Creek is about 5 kilometers (roughly 3 miles) southwest of Annville in Jackson County.

1920 census I can find no likely candidate for Bradley and Maude Baldwin in any Kentucky census.

The 1930 census for Magisterial District 4, Paint Precinct, in Morgan County, Kentucky, shows "Bradley Baldwin" 42 with his wife "Maud" 44. He was 20 and she was 22 when they married. They were renting their home, and he was working as a farmer on a general farm on his own account. Living with them was a niece "Mildred Mathews" 11.

"Mathews" was Maude's maiden name.

Morgan County northwest of Floyd County. Morgan County originated from parts of other counties, including an earlier larger incarnation of Floyd county, but is separated from Floyd County by Maggofin County. These and other adjacent counties are in the heart of Eastern Kentucky's coal mining region.

The 1940 census for Magisterial District 3 of Floyd County shows a "Bradley Baldwin" 52 with his wife Maude 54. They were renting a home on Clear Creek and he was employed as a "tiple [sic = tipple] worker" in a coal mine. Both had completed 8 years of schooling.

The tipple of a mine is where coal or ore extracted from the mine is loaded onto railroad hopper cars or other vehicles for transport. The census also specified jobs like "coal loader" and "mine forman".

Age difference discrepancies

The 1910 census shows Bradley to be 1 year older than Maude, whereas the 1930 and 1940 censuses show Maude to be 2 years older than Bradley.

1942 draft registration   A Department of Selective Service D.S.S. Form 1 Registration Card signed 27 April 1942 shows "William Oconnel Bradley Baldwin", age 54 [sic = 53], born on 22 February 1988 in Jackson County. His wife is "Maud" and they were residing in Fed in Floyd County. He was working for "Panes Babes Coal Co." He was 5'10-1/2" tall, weighed 200 lbs, had brown eyes and gray hair, a light complexion, and a "Scar side of right eye". The card is specifically for "Men born on or after April 28, 1877 and on or before February 16, 1897".

Hand writing

As is commonly seen on official forms filed by people with limited writing skills, all items on this form -- except the name box and the signature -- are written in a smooth cursive hand. "Bradley Baldwin" is printed in the name box in an awkward hand that confuses upper- and lower-case letters -- BRɑDley BalDWIN -- which uses the closed single-story "script ɑ" (more common in writing) in Bradley, and the open double-story "Latin a" (more common in printing) in Baldwin. "WilliAM OCONNel" is written above Bradley in the "First" part of the "Name (Print)" box. He has no "Middle" name, and signed his name "Brɑdley Bɑldwin" with closed spript style "ɑ" and only "B" is upper case, but the cursive has an angular quality about it.

The Department of Selective Service (DSS) oversaw thousands of draft boards in states and territories of the United States.

Nancie Maudie Baldwin dies on 13 March 1950 in Dungus in Morgan County, Kentucky.

A Commonweath of Kentucky Certificate of Death, informed by "Bradley Baldwin", states that "Nancie Maudie Baldwin" died in Dungus in Morgan County on 13 March 1950 from "Hypertensive H. [Heart] disease" due to "apoplexy". The typed certificate states that she had been living in Dingus for 21/2 years, was married, and was occupied as a housewife doing housework. She was said to have been born on 9 April 1887 in Clay County, Kentucky, and had lived for 62 years 11 months and 4 days. Her father's name was "Moses Mathew" and her mother's maiden name was "? Goforth". The funeral home was in West Liberty and her body was removed for burial in a family cemetery in Dingus on 15 March 1950.

1963 death certificate   A Commonweath of Kentucky Certificate of Death filed in Morgan County, Kentucky, on 14 January 1963 states that "William Oconnel Bradley Baldwin" died in West Liberty, Morgan County, on 10 January 1963, of "Cong. [congestive] failure" due to "Ca- [cancer] intenstines". His marital status was "widowed" and his occupation was "retired miner". He'd been residing in a home on a farm. His mother's name was "Ann Baldwin" and his fathers name was "? Taylor". He was born on 22 February 1888 in simply "Kentucky". The informant was "Audrey Music". His Social Security No. was "unknown" -- although other data shows that a Social Security claim was made by him, or in his name, on 25 February 1953. The death certificate states that he was buried in Baldwin Cemetery in Dingus on 14 January.

West Liberty is the county seat of Morgan County. It is roughly 130 kilometers (80 miles) northeast of Annville in Jackson County.

Dingus is an unincorporated community in Morgan County about 16 kilometers (10 miles) to the east of West Liberty.

Out-of-wedlock chronology

William Oconnel Bradley Baldwin's 1963 death certificate confidently identifies his mother as "Ann Baldwin" and equivocally names his father "? Taylor". Whatever the relationship between his parents, he appears to have gone by his mother's maiden name -- which suggests that he was an out-of-wedlock child of Martha Ann Baldwin, who went by "Ann" and "Annie".

The chronology makes the out-of-wedlock scenario plausible. Bradley was born on 22 February 1888, when Martha -- who was born on 3 July 1870 -- would have been 17 years, 7 months, and 15 days old. She married Samuel Moore on 11 April 1889, some 13 months and 10 days later.

Would the lost 1890 census have shown Bradley in the household of Samuel and Martha Ann Moore, as a child she brought to the marriage? Or in the household of his Taylor father? Or in the household of another relative, possible John R. and Margaret Baldwin?

William Oconnel Bradley Baldwin's namesake

Bradley Baldwin's full given and middle names -- William Oconnel Bradley -- may have been inspired by the name of the Republican politician William O'Connell Bradley (1847-1914) -- the Governor of Kentucky from 10 December 1895 to 12 December 1899, and a U.S. Senator from 4 March 1909 until his death on 23 May 1914. Bradley had served in the Union Army during the Civil War, and rose to political fame as a champion of the causes of Abraham Lincoln's Republican Party in Kentucky, which had tired to remain neutral at the start of the war but by 1863 had declared itself on the Union side.

Kentucky in many ways symbolizes the divide in various opinions over questions of slavery and secession. It was the birthplace of both Civil War presidents -- Abraham Lincoln on the Union, and Jefferson Davis of the Confederacy. Kentucky was the site of a number of skirmishes, while the vast majority of the battles in the war took place to the east in Virginia, to the south and southeast in Tennessee and North Carolina, and in states further south.

Some non-governmental groups in Kentucky sided with the Confederacy, but the state of Kentucky itself always remained in the Union and essentially backed the Union cause.

The following article offers a particularly interesting perspective on Kentucky's role in the Civil War.

A. C. Quisenberry
Kentucky Union Troops in the Civil War
Register of Kentucky State Historical Society
Published by Kentucky Historical Society
Volume 18, Number 54, September 1920
Pages 13-18

Quisenberry estimates that "Kentucky furnished many prominent men to the Confederacy, as well as about thirty five thousand soldiers" (page 13), and that "Kentucky furnished 51,000 white volunteers and 23,000 colored-volunteers to the Union army -- a total of 74,000 troops" (page 13). Later in the article, after adding more troops to the Union side of the ledger, he concludes that, "If accurate figures could be obtained, it is believed that the number of Kentuckians who served the Union in the Civil War would not fall far short of 125,000" (page 14) -- which means (1) accurate figures cannot be obtained, and (2) the number would fall short of 125,000 -- qualifications which have been lost on Wikipedia and other sources which tend to stress inflated figures.


The question of Cherokee blood

Are Baldwin-King descendants part "Indian"?

The Baldwin and King families of Jackson County, Kentucky, appear to have been socially as well as geographically close. Two Baldwin-Howard sons, Robert Baldwin and George Baldwin, married King-Nichols daughters, Eliza and Emeline, and several King-related Baldwins are buried in the King Cemetery in Peoples in Jackson County.

Someone posting to a Baldwin message board claimed that "Emmaline King's mother was a full blooded Cherokee." The claim was made in reference to the wife of George F. Baldwin, a son of John R. Baldwin and Margaret Howard.

The 1870 and 1880 censuses do not support the "Cherokee" thesis.

The 1870 and 1880 censuses had 5 "Color" classifications -- White (W), Black (B), Mulatto (M), Chinese (C), and Indian (I).

1870 censuses for Eliza's and Emeline's parents

The 1870 census for Pond Creek, Jackson County, Kentucky, shows "Woodson T." (23), a farm laborer, as the oldest of 5 children still at home with "George W. King" (53), a farmer, born in Tennessee, and "Tabitha" (53), keeping house, born in Virginia. Everyone in the family is classified "W" under "Color".

The 1870 Pond Creek census also shows "Josephine" (18) as the 3rd of 9 children of "R.E. Nichols" (62), born in North Carolina, and "Emaline" [sic] (44), born in Tennessee. Everyone in the family is classified "W" under "Color".

1880 census for Eliza and Emeline with their parents

The 1880 census for "Ex. Dist. No. 57" of "Precinct No. 7" of Jackson County, Kentucky, shows "Eliza J." (6) and "Emaline" [sic] (5) among 3 other children of "Woodson T. King (33), a laborer, and "Josephine" (30), keeping house. The census states that Woodson was born in Tennessee to Tennessee-born parents, while Josephine was born in Kentucky to a father born in North Carolina and a Kentucky-born mother. Everyone in the family is classified "W" under "Color".

Josephine, born in 1851, died on 22 January 1941. Josephine's mother, Emeline Shiplett, born in Tennessee in 1835, died in Pulaski County, Kentucky, on 15 January 1905.

Woodson T. (1846-1931) and Josephine (1951-1941) share an erect King headstone in King Cemetery in Peoples in Jackson County, where both Eliza and Emeline are buried as "Baldwins" with "K" middle initials.

Cherokee blood

As for the "full blooded Cherokee" allegation -- the census "Color" classifications ascribed by census takers are "colored" by their own impressions and claims by informants, and not in and of themselves proof of biological descent. However, in the absence of positive evidence of Cherokee ancestry, the census classifications weigh against the claim that Josephine (much less her mother) was an "Indian" in the eyes of census enumerators.

One would think that a "full blooded" Indian of any tribal origin would have been physically distinct, and that -- according to the racialist principles of the "Color" classification scheme -- someone who was known to be, or seen or regarded as being, a "full blooded" Indian would have been classified as an Indian, and that halfbreeds would have been classified as Mulatto -- a common practice at the time.

Indians were not racially identified in the 1790-1840 censuses, which classified people by their status and/or color.

1810 Free whites, All other free persons, Slaves
1820 Free whites, Slaves, Free colored persons, All others except Indians not taxed
1830 Free white persons, Slaves, Free colored persons
1840 Free white persons, Free colored persons, Slaves
1850 Color White, black, or mulatto
1860 Color White, black, or mulatto
1870 Color White (W), Black (B), Mulatto (M), Chinese (C), Indian (I)
1880 Color White (W), Black (B), Mulatto (M), Chinese (C), Indian (I)
1890 Color or Race Whether white, black, mulatto, quadroon, octoroon, Chinese, Japanese, or Indian
1900 Color or Race Whether white, black, mulatto, quadroon, octoroon, Chinese, Japanese, or Indian

The 1850 and 1860 censuses were the first to identify people by color -- white, black, or mulatto. 1870 and 1880 censuses added Chinese and Indian, and the 1890 and 1900 censuses added quadroon, octoroon, and Japanese.

The 1850 census and subsequent censuses included "Indians" living in the general population. Most Indians in the general population were citizens of the United States -- unlike the "non-taxed" Indians who usually lived on reservations within tribal jurisdictions, or were otherwise enrolled as members of a Federally-recognized tribe and subject to special Indian censuses. Non-taxed Indians were nationals but not citizens, until the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924, which recognized all Indians as citizens.

Whether someone was tallied as "Indian" or as something else depended a lot on the enumerator, the community, the family, and the person. Indians in some southern states were apt to be classified as "mulatto", especially if they were perceived as being mixed, as the word was broadly used to mean anyone of mixed race. But an Indian might also be classified as "black" or "white" depending on perceptions. Some people who might have been classified as other than "white" passed as white, or were said to be white by their families.

Not a few family-tree genealogy enthusiasts search "in vain" for blood ties -- and now DNA links -- with history's famous and infamous, or with yesteryear's victims of discrimination and oppression. States like Kentucky -- through which many Cherokee and other Indians passed after the Indian Removal Act of 1830 -- especially on the mass exodus in 1838 along the fabled "Trail of Tears" -- are supposed to have witnessed many unions between Indians and whites and blacks.


On 7 July 2017, a member of the Baldwin Genealogy group on Facebook, of which I became a member from 22 November 2018, posted an image from an Ancestry.com message board stating that "Emmaline King's mother was a full-blooded Cherokee." Another member replied that "My gr gr grandmother was Josephine Nichols, mother of Emiline [sic = Emeline] (Shiplett) King. My line is via Eliza Jane King, sister to Emiline, and wife of Robert E., Baldwin. Ancestry shows no Indian in me. However if you had seen my grandfather, her son you would swear to differ, but no Indian shown for me on Ancestry dna testing."

These are familiar experiences. There were "Cherokee blood" stories in a collatoral line of my Hardman-Hunter mother's Hunter-Thomas side -- not my Wetherall-Baldwin father's Baldwin-Steele side -- based on the stature, black hair, and high cheek bones of her first cousin once-removed Eleanor Theodosia (Thomas) Vincent (1916-2007). The cousin, more like a sister to my mother and an aunt to me, did extensive research on her family history, including trips back to North Carolina, Missouri, and Kentucky -- and ruled out Cherokee connections.

Appearances, too, can be deceptive. People seeing my maternal grandfather Owen Hardman when a younger man, and his wedding photograph with Ullie Hunter, think he looks "Indian". But he's not of Indian descent so far as I can tell, and there are no stories to that effect in the family. His oldest daughter, my aunt, characterized him as "Black Irish", through his mother, alluding to his black hair, steel gray eyes, and skin that deeply darkened from the sun. I too had dark hair and deeply tanned, to the point that I once played Pocahontas in a cub scout skit when living in San Francisco. Later in life, a passenger at a shuttle terminal in San Francisco asked me if I was on 60 Minutes, thinking I was Ed Bradley -- on account of stubbly salt-and-pepper hair and beard, and a tan and other facial features that apparently the man had seen as Negroid. Or perhaps it was the way I peered over my glasses, sitting off to the side with a lap top pretending to be a writer deep in thought.


Tsuyoshi DNA

Son's DNA report

MyHeritage, 26 December 2021

MyHeritage calls this an "Ethnicity Estimate"
At best, though, it's a guestimate of
the regional genetic origins of
ones ancestral lines

My son has legal nationality connections, and ethnic linguistic and sociocultural links, only with Japan and the United States of America. Biologically, his Japanese (mother's) ancestral lines probably include all or most of Japan's several older indigenous lines and several more recent continental lines. But they may also include some lines from other parts of the region and the world. His major American (father's) lines -- i.e., my lines -- appear to go back to various lines in Europe including the United Kingdom. But they may also intersect with some non-European lines.

Bloodlines, however, have nothing to do with "ethnicity" or "heritage" -- such as they are. Bloodlines cannot be parsed into discrete parts representing different "ethnicities" or "heritages". Genes determine anatomical traits and physiological conditions, and a range of related abilities -- including the ability to acquire the ethnic (linguistic and sociocultural) qualities of the locality where one is raised during ones developmental years, or where one settles later in life. Ethnicity, in other words, has nothing to do with genetic composition, and everything to do with life experiences -- which are unique and, at any moment of time, singular, whole, complete -- and more diverse and elastic for some individuals than other.

As a "legal person"
residing in Japan with Japanese nationality
my son is Japanese

Nationality, as a formal affiliation with a state, is a binary variable in that one either has or does not have a state's nationality. Like all such nationalities, Japan's nationality is a purely civil status having nothing to do with ethnicity as a sociocultural identity or race as a biological identity. In Japan, nationality is a legal artifact of possessing a family register in a Japanese municipality. While essentially territorial, it is acquired at birth mainly through family lineage but at times through place of birth, and later in life mainly through naturalization.

As an "ethnic person"
residing in Japan at this point in his life
my son is 100 percent Japanese and 20 percent American

Ethnicity is a variable that changes as one acquires and loses the sociocultural qualities and abilities that define the ethnicity -- the languages, literatures, laws, customs, beliefs, musics, and costumes that characterize the society associated with the ethnicity. As such, my son is primarily "Japanese" and secondarily "American". Were he to live in America, his "American ethnicity" would quickly develop more and his "Japanese ethnicity" would slowly atrophy.

DNA tests

DNA tests appear to be credible as measures of possible genetic connections down lines of biological descent. 3rd cousin matches seem to be fairly reliable, and reliability increases up the kinship chart, to the point that matches with half and full siblings, and parents, approach 100 percent certainty.

To the extent that so-called "ancestral regions" can be genetically mapped, then DNA tests may also be credible as measures of possible biological connections with anthropologically defined "geographical races", or politically defined "national populations", or socially defined "racioethnic groups" -- however, with the understanding that racialized biological connections are not measures of "belonging".

In other words, contrary to the claims of the companies that commercialize DNA tests for ancestry purposes, assessments of DNA -- a purely chemical condition -- are not indicators of "ethnicity" or "heritage", or of "race" or "nationality" -- all of which are anomalies of social (including cultural, political, and legal) conditions.

My son's DNA test experience

In 2020, my son had a DNA test which linked him with a 3rd cousin who had had a similar test. See DNA connections above for details.

The results were predictable. The regional DNA percentages showed the expected distribution of East and Central Asian versus European bloodlines. There were traces of other connections, including Papuan and Inuit, which marvelled my son -- until I told him that they were too small to warrant attention. I added that even the classifications with larger percentages of composition were not to be taken as evidence of ethnicity or heritage -- never mind the catchy characterization of the results as an "Ethnicity Estimate" (see right).

Results from different companies are notorious for their variations, especially with respect to compositions that amount to only a few percent. Overlap between the genetic patterns of all defined populations makes drawing lines difficult at best. And the algorithms used to parse a person's DNA into a list of "ethnicities" by percent of composition involve more art -- and even racial politics -- than science.

Many people have taken reports of small traces of one or another "ethnicity" too seriously -- never mind that DNA is at best a biological association with a geographically or anthropologically defined population -- not a measure of "ethnicity" or "heritage". But such buzzwords fuel the obsession with "race" and "roots" -- especially in America, where DNA technologies have been exploited by family history and genealogy companies as measures of "ethnicity" and "heritage".

I am very conservative when it comes to rules of evidence to support a claim of ancestral connection, whether biological or social. All forms of evidence have to be used with caution.

Documentary evidence can be faulty because claims on birth and death certificates can be false or misleading for any number of reasons. Family stories can also be faulty for many reasons.

DNA tests can contradict and upset documented and/or oral understandings of biological family ancestry. Test results can reveal unknown adoptions, baby mix-ups, and extramarital or premarital affairs. Some results have connected multiple half-siblings who had no idea they were conceived at a fertility clinic with the sperm of the same donor, who was socially the father of only the children he sired with his wife.

For people who know they were adopted, DNA tests have provided ways to circumvent agencies that refuse to open their files. For people raised by a single mother or father, who do not know their other parent, or who know of a twin or other sibling who was anonymously adopted by another family, DNA tests have hold out hope of finding the missing parent, brother or sister.

But DNA labs that market their tests as indicators of "ethnicity" or "heritage" are making false promises. For biological descent, even when plausibly confirmed, is not the same as "belonging" to an "ethnic" or "heritage" group whose members claim to be the determiners of membership. To put it differently -- DNA tests signify biological conditions -- whereas "identity" in the sense of "belonging" is a social (political) condition.

My son and Elizabeth Warren

Elizabeth Warren in the United States reportedly claimed to be of part Cherokee ancestry on the basis of a family story and a DNA report (see next). The question arises -- what if my son, on the basis of his DNA "ethnicity estimate", were to claim to be "Irish, Scottish, or Welsh"? If not also "Papuan" or "Inuit"?

What if my son -- as a spoof of such proof of his self-styled "ethnicity" -- wore a green kilt made of Welsh wool over a pair of seriously distressed original button-fly 501 Levis inherited from his father -- with a happi sporting his mother's Sugiyama-crest -- and Nez Perce moccasins, inspired by the fact that his paternal grandmother grew up on a homestead on the Nez Perce Reservation, and wore moccasins made by the Nez Perce parties who traded them to her father for his deer hides -- not to mention that his father, yours truly, this writer, collected Nabisco Shredded Wheat Straight Arrow Injun-uity Cards, wore feathered headresses around the house and neighborhood, played Poccohantas in a cub scout skit, and to this day treasures a book about Chief Joseph given him by his maternal grandmother on his 10th birthday, and learned Japanese from a professor in the Oriental Languages Department at the University of California at Berkeley who happened to be the foremost authority on the Nez Perce language and a translator of oral Nez Perce narratives?

Should real Irishmen, real Scotsmen, real Welshmen, and real Nez Perce reel with offense -- and chastise my son for ethnic imposture and cultural appropriation?

My son has never experienced what it's like to be Irish, Scotish, Welsh, Papuan, or Inuit. He's never applied for membership in presentday Irish, Scotish, Welsh, Papuan, or Inuit tribal or national entities.

For fleeting moments while pondering the implications of his DNA report, he's only imagined what life would have been like had he been born into and raised within such ethnic communities.

He understands that his racial (biological) identities are essentially meaningless -- based as they are on DNA associations with historically racialized geographical regions that have nothing directly to do with his actual legal nationalities and actual functioning ethnicities -- which are "Japan" and "America".

True ethnicity

My best definition of "ethnicity" is where one functions to the point of feeling at home -- whether in one's cradle of birth if one was raised and remains there -- or elsewhere, if ones parents migrated when one was young, or if one was adopted and raised by someone elsewhere -- or, if later in life, one migrates to and settles in another locality or country.

Ethnicity is umbilically linked with the sort of neurological capacity that defines the human condition -- abilities that transcend and supercede both legal status and biological race -- the capacity to absorb and learn family, neighborhood, regional, and national languages and shared behaviors and beliefs, especially when young but throughout life.

To the extent that a person assimilates, embodies, mediates, expresses, and identifies with the local conditions of ones existence, including the languages, behaviors, and sentiments of another human community, the person acquires the "ethnicity" or "ethnicities" of the community. Ethnicities, to the extent that they are real and animate sociocultural (including linguistic) behaviors, are are formed through sociocultural experiences and observable in behaviors.

As a variable, ethnicity is a measure of "ethnic competency". Mathematically, ethnicity is a vector, and its magnitude changes as one acquires and loses the abilities to function under the sociocultural conditions that essentially define the ethnicity -- the languages, literatures, laws, customs, beliefs, musics, and costumes that characterize the society associated with the ethnicity.

As such, my son is primarily "Japanese" and secondarily "American". He is 100 percent at home in Japan in that he can reflexively function in Japan's mainstream -- understand, relate to, and respond to the full range of ordinary conditions one has to navigate when living in Japan. He would probably feel about 20 percent at home in America, as he speaks and understands a lot of English and has visited America a few times, sometimes for several weeks, once for a few months. Yet he would encounter a lot of English and many situations that would not make immediate sense to him. And many Americans would perceive his lack of reflexive "nativity" in Americanese and American life.

The "100 percent" and "20 percent" figures are assessments of my son's ability to function in Japan and America as an "ordinary person" in the respective country -- regardless of nationality, which is a civil status -- and regardless of biological descent or "race" in its narrow sense, which is best regarded as an independent variable along with nationality and ethnicity.

Were my son to live in America rather than just visit every few years, his American ethnicity would quickly and significantly increase. He might someday approach 100 percent or "typical American". Or he might plateau at 80 percent of typical American sociocultural competency.

In the meantime, if my son, while living in America, never returned to Japan, or infrequently returned only to visit, his Japanese ethnicity would atrophy as a result of what he lost and/or failed to gain by being out of touch with a constantly changing country.

True ethnicity, in other words, is not a binary-state variable like nationality, which one either has or doesn't have, obtained through legal procedures at birth or later in life. Ethnicity is more like a set or array of variables that acquire values through life experiences -- learning and practice -- digestion, assimilation, acculturation, accommodation, and adjustment, and maintenance.

Ethnicity, once gained, has to be maintained. Like muscles built through exercise, you continue to use them or lose them.

Ethnicity as competency

As a "legal person" residing in Japan, I am Japanese. I am Japanese because I possess a family register affiliated with a local (municipal) polity in Japan's sovereign dominion. Japan's territorial family registers are tantamount to nationality regisiters. In other words, Japan's nationality comes and goes with territorial affiliation with Japan in the form of a family register in a territory under Japan's sovereign control and jurisdiction.

Having a valid family register is proof of nationality and the singular requisite for obtaining a Japanese passport, which I have. Japan's nationality, like all such nationalities under international private law, is a purely civil status, entirely without ethnic or racial qualifications or significance. Historically, ethnicity and race have had little standing in Japanese law, and from its inception in the late 19th century, Japan's nationality laws have been entirely civil.

As an "ethnic person" in Japan, I am probably around 60 percent Japanese and 70 percent American. These are purely private concerns, not matters of law or policy.

"60 percent Japanese" is up from 0 percent when I first came to Japan, and "70 percent American" is down from 100 percent when I left America.

These numbers signify my overall "ethnic competency" in Japan and America -- not where I now feel most comfortable.

Linguistically I use mainly Japanese in my daily life and research and am able to deal with all situations, though some require study and preparation. I long ago reached a plateau of non-native competency in Japanese, but at a level far below my native English ability. The later, however, has suffered because I haven't maintained the degree of American cultural and social literacy I had at the time I settled in Japan in the mid 1970s. Newer aspects of American life are alien to me. When visiting America, I inevitably have to ask a lot of "fresh off the boat" questions. My ignorance immediately signals to others that, never mind my seemingly native American English, I might not be American.

Unlike when I first came to Japan, I now feel less tense when landing in Japan than when landing in America. I look forward to visiting America, but then look more forward to returning to Japan. America feels like a place I've been in the past and know well. Japan feels like a place I may not know as well as America but want to be and feel more at home.

This is what "ethnicity" actually is. It's not DNA. It's not nationality. It's a mix of competency and feeling at home.

For some people -- like Elizabeth Warren (see next) -- it may be an "ancestral identity" linked with a "family story" bolstered by a DNA report. For me and my son, however, it's a lot more than just family lore or DNA ancestry. It's the ability to "function" and "feel at home" somewhere.

Ethnicity as memory

The variables of ethnicity include emotional elements, such as memories of past experiences conveyed by family stories. To the extent that the foundation of a memory conveyed in a family story is factual, the account of the past is factual. But memories of the past can be distorted by romantic and bitter sentiments. And story tellers may indroduce totally imaginary elements that are perceived as facts rather than fabrications.

Family histories embrace all manner of stories -- whether the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth -- or taller or shorter than the truth, if not entirely false. Some stories are subject to "fact checking". Others are beyond the ability to vet and validate.

Some "Cherokee blood" stories can be proven true or untrue. Others will remain in the "who knows" bin.

Even when true, however, a biological (racial) ancestral link is not the same as ethnic (sociocultural) competency, much less of legal (political) belonging.


Elizabeth Warren Images of documents related to Elizabeth Warren's
revision of her "Ethnicity" classification on
University of Pensylvania personnel records

Copped and cropped from Ethnicity not a factor in Elizabeth Warren's rise in law
By Annie Linskey, Boston Globe, 1 September 2018

The case of Elizabeth Warren

The politics of DNA nativity testing

In the fall of 2018, Elizabeth Warren (b1949), a Senator for Massacheusetts, while campaining for the Democractic Party candidacy in the 2020 presidential election, became a target of attacks and criticism from President Donald Trump and others -- not all Republicans -- who ridiculed or criticized her claim that she was of "part Cherokee heritage", or otherwise questioned her motives for making the claim. A year later, on 19 August 2019, at a presidential forum on Native American issues held in Sioux City, Iowa, she publicly apologized for her past claims of Native American ancestry.

In October 2019, days before announcing her bid for the Democratic candidacy, Warren released the results of a DNA examination, which suggested that she had a quantum of Native American blood that originated 6 to 10 generations ago -- i.e., 1/64th (1.6 percent) to 1/1024th (0.1 percent) Native American blood -- which centers on 8 generations or 1/256th (0.39 percent). Other reports put the range at 1/32nd (3.1 percent, 5 generations) to 1/512th (0.2 percent, 9 generations).

Warren publicized the results of the DNA analysis, partly through a staged video conference with the Stanford genetics professor she commissioned to analyze her blood. This got her into trouble with some tribal governments and other critics of DNA tests as qualifiers for claiming Native Ameican identity. Shortly after this, she apologized both for the DNA test and for identifying herself as a Native American after first classifying herself as white, while a law professor. She insisted though -- and a Boston Globe investigative career report agreed -- that she had always been hired as a "white" or "caucasian" and not as a "Native American". This, though, also posses a problem -- namely, that race should matter in the selection of a law professor, if not in the selection of any professor.

A 19 August 2019 report in The New York Times by Thomas Kaplan included the following remarks about reaction from some quarters to Warren's apology.

Elizabeth Warren Apologizes at Native American Forum: 'I Have Listened and I Have Learned'
By Thomas Kaplan
Aug. 19, 2019

[ First part of article omitted ]

Ms. Warren, who has said she learned of her Cherokee and Delaware ancestry through family lore, angered some Native Americans with her decision last year to use a DNA test to provide evidence of Native American descent. Though Ms. Warren did not claim citizenship in any tribe, a Cherokee Nation official said at the time that "using a DNA test to lay claim to any connection to the Cherokee Nation or any tribal nation, even vaguely, is inappropriate and wrong."

Joseph M. Pierce, 36, a citizen of the Cherokee Nation who did not attend the forum but watched Ms. Warren's remarks and tweeted about them, said Ms. Warren had eroded tribal sovereignty "by taking into her own hands the ability to determine who is and who is not Cherokee." He said of Ms. Warren's apology, "It's not enough for me."

"It seems like she's not willing to really engage or name, even, the harm that she's caused," he said in an interview. "The harm is that she has shifted the conversation towards DNA testing, towards biology, towards family lore."

[ Rest of article omitted ]

See the full article at

Warren reportedly "deleted a Twitter post where she spoke about her 'Native American ancestry' and DNA . . . The post, which was made one year ago . . . and had over 56,000 likes read, 'My family (including Fox News-watchers) sat together and talked about what they think of @realDonaldTrump's attacks on our heritage. And yes, a famous geneticist analyzed my DNA and concluded that it contains Native American ancestry.'" (Charlie Nash, 16 October 2019, www.mediaite.com).

A year before this, Ellen Goldbaum reported as follows in a University of Buffalo UBNow article.

The View
Warren's use of DNA test indicates lack of sensitivity, UB geneticist says

Published October 17, 2018

"I was personally dismayed when I heard she had done this."

That was the first response UB professor James N. Jarvis had when he learned that Sen. Elizabeth Warren had taken a DNA test, presumably to provide evidence that she is of Native American descent.

Jarvis, who is of Akwesasne Mohawk ancestry, is a professor of pediatrics in the Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences at UB. He is the former chair of the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Native American Child Health, and has worked on American Indian and Alaska native child health issues for more than 30 years.

"This is exactly the kind of thing that tribes have been trying to discourage, as it impinges on their sovereignty," he says of Warren's use of the DNA test. "It's up to the tribe to say who is a member and who isn't."

He notes the fact that Warren had specifically said the DNA test proves she has some Cherokee ancestry was disturbing because, as a statement from the tribe pointed out, DNA testing cannot identify individuals as members of tribes.

As a geneticist, Jarvis says the reliability of DNA testing is also uncertain, especially where Native American ancestry is concerned.

"I don't know how many Native American specimens are in any of these databases, and if they are there, I'm not sure that those specimens are being used legitimately. I don't think any tribe would permit people to come onto their territory to say, 'Can we collect some of your DNA for ancestry.com?' We don't know the circumstances under which those specimens were collected and was there tribal input."

He says the fact that Warren went ahead with the DNA test revealed a lack of understanding of the complex issues around Native American ancestry and DNA testing. "The fact that she did it was almost prima facie evidence that she isn't very connected culturally to how delicate an issue is the use of DNA from Native Americans," he says.

[ Rest of article omitted ]

See the full article at
University at Buffalo
The State University of New York

Strum 2011 Tallbear 2013

Circe Sturm's Becoming Indian, 2011
"The Struggle over Cherokee Identity in the Twenty-First Century"
Examines "race shifting" -- used here to mean growing up "white" and later adopting a "Native American" identity on the basis of a family story and/or a DNA test, on ones own authority, without validation through tribal vetting resulting in recognition and acceptance as a citizen of the tribe

Kim TallBear's Native American DNA, 2013
"Tribal Belonging and the False Promise of Genetic Science"
Examines the manner in which family history websites and DNA testing companies have conspired to nurture and commercialize the racialist belief that Native American identity is a matter of ancestry validated by genetic biology -- rather than a matter of possessing the citizenship of a sovereign native nation

Yosha Bunko scans

The faces of racialism

No case better dramatizes the pathological consequences of racialism -- the belief that there are races, and the formation, expression, and defense of racial identities.

The belief that there are races is passively acquired while growing up in the language of a society of people who have learned to racialize themselves and others. Racialization becomes both habitual and customary -- reflexive, expected, and accepted -- and socially, politically, and economically exploited.

Critics of Warren's behavior made three points.

  1. Warren had no business claiming Cherokee ancestry in the first place because the stories she heard in her family were false. Her family has been white, and she is white.
  2. Regarding DNA results as tantamount to heritage or identity, as though tribal ancestry and membership are determined by race or biology, is wrong. Only affiliation based on recognition by a tribe, exercising its sovereign right to determine its membership, generally through objective assessments of kinship, gives an individual the right to identify with the tribe.
  3. Claiming identity without formal recognition subverts the principle of self-determination implicit in the notion of tribal sovereignty.

Warren never questioned the "legitimacy" or "validity" or "appropriateness" of race boxes. She grew up with them -- took them for granted. She denies that she "gamed" them -- "played" them to her advantage in a system that ranks some races higher than others on a scale of favourability. But on a scale of fashionability -- she publicized her family story and took pride in its implications of ancestry -- which was racialist if not racist.

Warren based her claims on family lore -- a story told her by her mother, apparently by way of explaining high cheek bones in the family. When Donald Trump called her "Pochohantas" and challenged her to prove her claim, she took a popular discover-your-roots DNA test and posted the results -- which, on the surface, suggested that she had a fraction of Cherokee blood in her veins.

"What do the facts say?" she asked one analyst on camera. "The facts suggest that you absolutely have a Native American ancestor in your pedigree," the analyst replied. The ancestor was said have been in the range of from 6 to 10 generations ago.

So there it was. Being Cherokee was reduced to a question of DNA. Never mind that the reduction of identity to DNA took the form of guesswork based on racialized assumptions about what constitute "Cherokee" genetic traits, compounded with statistical speculation about when the ancestor whose bloodline putatively had such traits mated with someone from another bloodline and created the bloodline that eventually contributed to Warren's bloodline.

Enter representatives of the "Cherokee nation", who strongly objected to Warren's citation of her DNA profile as a vindication of her claim to be of part Cherokee descent -- as though to say DNA tests, and not tribal vetting and recognition, determined whether she had to the right to identify as Cherokee. If so, then the very existence of genealogical DNA tests, which reduce genetic data to "ethnicity" and "heritage", threatens to usurp the sovereign right of every tribe to determine its own membership.

Legally, recognized Native American nations, as self-governing semi-sovereign entities, have the right to determine who belongs to the nation or tribe. This right is equivalent to the right of every sovereign state to determine who qualifies for its nationality and a passport. Just as no sovereign state would tolerate another state or 3rd party telling it who belongs to its affiliated nation, no legally recognized Native American tribe can countenance DNA test results as evidence of membership.

Warren, however, has countered -- fairly I think -- that she has never sought or claimed affiliation or membership. She has only claimed ancestry, based on family lore and what she perceives as DNA evidence that -- though it fails to absolutely corroborate the family story -- stops short of debunking it.

Cherokee representatives acknowledge Warren's public admissions that she identifies as a "white woman", has never claimed to be a "tribal citizen", that only tribes can determine membership, and that DNA is not a token of native identity. In other words, being Cherokee -- Cherokee identity -- is not a matter of race or ancestry, but a status determined by sovereign tribes based on treaty and other formal arrangements with the federal government (in the case of federally recognized tribes).

Some tribal representatives, however, resent the fact that Warren still cherishes the story in her family about having a Cherokee ancestor. They want her to renounce her family story as false -- as an encouragement to other white families with similar stories to denounce them.

The complexity of the Native American DNA controversy echoes the complexities of American-style "identity politics" generally. The commercialization of the rapidly developing science of DNA testing, to exploit the expanding and lucrative genealogy market, which feeds the romanticization of links with victims of genocide and slavery, is a relatively minor issue. The most emotional issues are these.

  1. self-determination Tribes have a sovereign right to determine who belongs to the tribe. Tribal membership -- tribal citizenship -- is a political construction based on kinship, among other social and legal qualifications -- not race.
  2. authenticity Who is and isn't "Native American" is a matter of collective tribal recognition. Non-native people do not have the right to stylize themselves as native on account of a family story or DNA test.
  3. identity Only authentic Native Americans have the right to claim and mediate -- as opposed to "appropriate" -- the culture and heritage of their tribe as a "self-determined" people.

But here's the rub . . .

Reducing identity to a matter of tribal sovereignty is fine -- if one overlooks a few demographic facts that favor the Warrens of the world. Tribal memberships today are largely based on kinship trails leading back to 19th-century and early 20th-century "Indian Rolls". The rolls were created by federal government agents, who registered Indians when removing them from their homelands to a reservation, or Indians residing on a reservation, or Indians residing off a reservation but enrolled as a member of a tribe in order to benefit from Bureau of Indian Affairs and other programs available only to enrolled members.

These are the most salient problems when it comes to understanding the limitations of "Indian rolls" as a necessary and sufficient requisite for claiming ancestry -- speaking only of ancestry and not ethnic (sociocultural) competency or legal (political) affiliation.

  1. Some Indians left their tribe before the tribe was removed and were not subject to tribal enrollment.
  2. Some Indians evaded enrollment because they didn't support the tribal decision to submit to enrollment.
  3. Some Indians were residing in areas not reached by government agents.
  4. Some Indians married into non-Indian families, and some Indian children were adopted by non-Indian families,
    and thereby lost the tribal affiliations that may have claimed them before their marriage or adoption.

The ultimate questions, then, are these.

  1. Do governments of legally recognized Native American tribes -- never mind their sovereign right to determine membership qualifications -- have the right to tell the Warrens of the world that they must disavow their "family stories" on the grounds that such stories, when told by "whites", are ipso facto romantic projections, hence false?
  2. While sovereign tribes have the right to dissociate membership from biology -- an attitude that a number of ethnic interest groups would do well to emulate -- do they have conclusive evidence that DNA testing cannot reveal probable biological descent from an ancestor who belonged to an historical tribe?


John R. Baldwin in the Mexican War of 1846-1848

John R. Baldwin (1828-1909) served in the Mexican War from 1847 to 1848
He received a pension as a veteran, in the end as an invalid, from 1887 to 1909
Margaret Baldwin (1835-1912) received a pension as a widow from 1909 to 1912

Military records show that John R. Baldwin (1828-1909), born in Lee County, Virginia, died in Jackson County, Kentucky, served as a Private in a U.S. Army infantry regiment from 1847-1848 during the Mexican War of 1846-1848, mustering in when 18 and mustering out when 19. Veteran records show that he qualified for a pension from 1887 until his death in 1909, and that Margaret Baldwin (1835-1912), as his widow, continued to receive 3/5ths of his pension until she died in 1912. Records show that John R. Baldwin applied for certification as an "invalid", though the grounds for his claim, and when it was recognized, is unclear.

Baldwin 1847
Baldwin 1847

Descriptive and Historical Register of Enlisted Soldiers of the Army, Continued →
No. 919, Baldwin, John R., 18, Hazel, Sandy, Fair, 5-11, Virginia, Lee, [Occupation unread], [April 1847] 24th, Manchester, [Enlisted by whom "Cpt. unread"]

Baldwin 1847
Baldwin 1847

Continued →for during the War with Mexico, under the Acts approved January 19th and February 11th, 1847
[No. 919, Baldwin, John R.] 16th Inf E, 5 Aug 48, Termination of War, blank, blank, blank, blank, at Newport Ky a Pvt.

John R. Baldwin in Mexican War

Enlistment 24 April 1847 to 5 August 1848

U.S. military records (above and right) show that John R. Baldwin (1828-1909), age 18, Hazel eyes, Sandy hair, Fair complexion, 5 feet 11 inches tall, born in Lee County, Virginia, enlisted in the U.S. Army, in Manchester [Kentucky], on 24 April 1847, which practically a year to the day that the war began on 25 April 1846. Baldwin served in Company E of the 16th Infantry Regiment, and he was discharged as a private at Newport, Kentucky, on 5 August 1848 -- 6 months after the end of the war on 2 Febraury 1848 (see above and right images of records).

Note that "Race" is not recorded on the Mexican War enlistment register.
"Race" was added as a category of description on military service records during the Civil War (see below). Military service registration forms in later wars, including World War I and World War II, included race, stature, eyes, hair, complexion, and distinguishing marks.


John R. Baldwin's Mexican War time line

The above profile of John R. Baldwin, when he was 18 and 19, fits within the following time line.

22 Sep 1828 (0) Born in Lee County, Virginia. Some records say Kentucky, and one says Tennessee, but most say Virginia.
1830 census (1) Presumed living in household of father John M. Baldwin (1802-1855) and mother Elizabeth Seale, probably in Lee County, Virginia (record not yet found, but even if found, it would list only the head of household).
1840 census (11) Presumed living in household of father John M. Baldwin in Lee County in the Western District of Territory of Virginia (record names only the head of household).
24 Apr 1847 (18) Enlisted in U.S. Army in Manchester, Clay County, Kentucky.
Apr 1847 to Aug 1848 (18-19) Served with E Company of 16th Infanty Regiment during Mexican War.
5 Aug 1848 (19) Discharged at Newport, Campbell County, Kentucky.
Fall 1848 to Winter 1849 (19-20) Married Rebecca Howard (19-20) in Harlan County, Kentucky, or in Lee County, Virginia.
26 Aug 1849 (20) Birth of daughter Elizabeth Letitia (Taylor) in Virginia.
1850 census (22) Living with Rebecca and their daughter Elizabeth in District 31 of Lee County, Virginia (1 Oct 1850). Parents and 7 younger siblings also enumerated in District 31 of Lee County (26 Sep 1850).
3 April 1855 (26) Rebecca died (age 26) according to her sister Margaret's 1909 widow's pension eligibility declaration. See John R. Baldwin in the Mexican War of 1846-1848.
13 Jun 1855 (26) Married Margaret Howard (19) in Harlan County, Kentucky.
1860 census (31) Living with Margaret Howard and 6 children in the Jonesville Post Office area of the Western District of Lee County, Virginia (6 Jul 1860).

12 Apr 1861 (32) Civil War begins at Fort Sumter in South Carolina
24 Dec 1862 (34) Birth of Newton Bascum Baldwin, the last Baldwin-Howard child to be born in Virginia.
See John R. Baldwin's Civil War time line for a more detailed chronology of his life from 1859 to 1870, immediately before and shortly after the Civil War.
1863 (34) John R. Baldwin "removed to Owsley County Kentucky" from Lee County, Virginia, according to Margaret Baldwin's 1909 widow's pension eligibility declaration. See John R. Baldwin in the Mexican War of 1846-1848.
Jan-Jul 1863 (34) Baldwin-Howard family moves from Virginia to Owsley County, Kentucky.
Jul-Aug 1863 (34) Civil War register of persons subject to military service places "John R. Balden" [sic] -- 34, White, Farmer, Married, Virginia-born -- in 6th Sub-District, Owsley County, Kentucky (see below).
23 Apr 1864 (35) Birth of James Alfred Baldwin, the first Baldwin-Howard child to be born in Kentucky.
1865 (36-37) John R. Baldwin "removed from [Owsley County Kentucky] to Laurel County Ky.", according to Margaret Baldwin's 1909 widow's pension eligibility declaration. See John R. Baldwin in the Mexican War of 1846-1848.
9 Apr 1865 (36) Civil War ends at Appomattox in Virginia

1868 (39-40) John R. Baldwin "removed from [Laurel County Kentucky] to Jackson County Ky.", according to Margaret Baldwin's 1909 widow's pension eligibility declaration. See John R. Baldwin in the Mexican War of 1846-1848.
1870 census (41) Living with Margaret and 8 children in the Gray Hawk Post Office area of Sturgeon Precinct No. 6 in Jackson County, Kentucky (10 Jul 1870).
1880 census (51) Living with Margaret and 9 children in Precinct No. 5, Enumeration District No. 50 [Pond Creek] of Jackson County, Kentucky (2 Jun 1880).
27 Jan 1887 Promulgation of Mexican War pension act (Chapter 70) authorizes a monthly benefit of $8.00 to qualified surviving Mexican War veterans and widows. Click to read pdf text of act (copped from Library of Congress).
14 Feb 1887 (58) John R. Baldwin filed for Mexican War pension pursuant to Act of 29 Jan 1887. Class Mex Serv [Mexican (War) Service], Application 257, Certificate 9707. He was 18 and 19 years old when he served and was then 58.
13 Nov 1889 (61) Filed for Inv (Invalid) class pension, Application 25,303, no certificate number. Presumably this application was approved, after which the status of "Invalid" augmented the "Mexican War Service" status recognized by Certificate 9707. Presumably the "Invalid" (Army Invalid) status was abandoned when John R. Baldwin died, as Margaret qualified for only "Mexican War Widow" (Army Widow) status under Certificate 15,268..
1890 census (61) Mostly destroyed by fire.
28 Aug 1890 (62) Filed for Invalid class, Application 931,021, no certificate issued. This application is clearly linked with Certificate 9707, but no mention of it is made on the few other documents that have come to light of the numerous documents that must have been generated from John R. Baldwin's initial pension application to the notification of Margaret's death..
1900 census (71) Living with Margaret and their son Arch in Magisterial District 5, Pond Creek, Jackson County, Kentucky (15 Jun 1900).
3 March 1903 (74) Pension act (Chapter 1021) increases monthly benefit for surviving Mexican War veterans to $12.00.
6 June 1906 (78) A private act (H.R. 16992, Private No. 2736, Chapter 2934) authorizes the Secretary of Interior to "place on the pension roll . . . the name of John R. Baldwin, late of Company E, Sixteenth Regiment United States Infantry, war with Mexico, and pay him a pension at the rate of twenty dollars per month in lieu of that he is now receiving" [$12.00] (see scan of act below).
27 June 1906 (58) John R. Baldwin, classified as an ARMY INVALID under MEXICAN WAR law issued a certificate pertaining to increase in pension to $20.00 commencing 6 June 1906.
10 Mar 1909 (80) John R. Baldwin passes away. He is buried on 12 March according to report dated 13 March in 18 March 1909 edition of The Citizen.
27 Mar 1909 Margaret Baldwin notifies pension office of John R. Baldwin's death.
26 Apr 1909 Date of Margaret Baldwin's notarized widow's pension eligibility declaration, stamped "1 May 1909". See John R. Baldwin in the Mexican War of 1846-1848.
1 May 1909 Margaret files an application (19,306) for recognition as a "Mex Wid".
13 Jul 1909 Margaret issued certificate (15,268) recognizing her as an ARMY WIDOW under MEXICAN WAR law. She qualifies for a $12.00 monthly benefit commencing 11 March 1909.
1910 census Margaret enumerated as "Grand Mother" in the household of Bradley and Maude Baldwin residing on "Terrells Creek Road" in the Magisterial District 3 in Jackson County, Kentucky (15 Apri 1900).
3 Jun 1912 Margaret Baldwin passes away in Voting District 2 in the city of Moores Creek in Jackson County, Kentucky. According to her death certificate, informed by her son A. F. [Archelus Fernando ] Baldwin of Moores Creek, she was buried the following day in Moores Creek. The undertaker was James Baldwin of Moores Creek -- presumably her son James Alfred Baldwin.



The enlistment record states that John R. Baldwin was born in Lee County, Virginia, which is in accordance with most census and other records. Later records show his presence in Harlan County, Kentucky, which is immediately north of Lee County. Manchester is the county seat of Clay County, a hop west and skip north of Harlan and Lee counties. Annville, in Jackson County, is another hop west and skip north from Manchester. Jackson County was created in 1858, a decade after the Mexican War, from parts of Madison, Estill, Owsley, Clay, Laurel, and Rockcastle counties, which surround it. John R. Baldwin mustered out at Newport, Kentucky, in Campbell County, on the Ohio river, which marks Kentucky's northern border with Ohio. Presumably he made his way back to Virginia, where he married Rebecca Howard, who appears to have been from Harlan. He was living in Owsley County, immediate north of Clay County and east of Jackson County, when registered during the summer of 1863 as a person subject to military duty during the Civil War (see below). In other words, John R. Baldwin's "niche" was a relative tight cluster of counties where Western Virginia shakes hands with Eastern Kentucky.


Mexican War and politics

Today, in the United States, the Mexican War (1846-1848) -- as it was long called in America -- is better known as the "Mexican-American War", while in Mexico it may be called "Intervención Estadounidense en México" (United States Intervention in Mexico). The later is closer to the geopolitical truth, given America's territorial ambitions and the willingness to achieve them militarily. Both the United States and Mexico, of course, represented expansionist colonial interests that originated in Europe. It was very much a "survival of the fittest" clash of raw military power. In many senses, the borderlands between the United States and Mexico are still contested territories, in an age in which migration, language, and culture "trump" police and military force.


16th Infantry

The nature of John R. Baldwin's military duties in the 16th Infantry are not clear. The regiment did not exist at the start of the Mexican War and did not survive the war. And it appears to have been the 3rd U.S. Army unit to be dubbed the 16th Infantry, according to Monte Sourjaily Jr. ("The Question of CARS: Can the Combat Arms Regimental System be made a useful tool that provides a link with the past and a stake in the future?", in Army, Vol. 11, No. 1, August 1960, page 24, highlighting mine).

   There have been five 16th Infantry regiments since 1798, with no historical connection between them.
   The first 16th Infantry was constituted on 16 July 1798, never organized, and on 15 June 1800, finally discharged (disappearing forever from the Army's rolls). The second 16th Infantry was constituted on 11 January 1812 and, in 1815, was consolidated with regiments then designated 6th, 22d, 23d and 32d to form the 2d Infantry (which has continued under this designation to the present). Some of the War of 1812 battle streamers displayed on the colors of today's 2d Infantry were partly earned by what was, from 1812 to 1815, the 16th Infantry.
   The third 16th Infantry was created for the Mexican War on 11 February 1847 and disbanded on 10 August 1848, joining in oblivion the first regiment to bear this designation. Still a fourth 16th Infantry was constituted for the Civil War on 3 May 1861. . .

In other words, the "16th Infantry" regiment to which John R. Baldwin was assisgned as a soldier in E Company was a one-off deal, unrelated to similarly designated units in earlier or later periods. The dates on which he is recorded to have mustered in and out of the 16th Infantry of the Mexican War era are neatly bracketed by the reported dates of creation and disbandment of the regiment.


Mexican War in National Archives

The National Archives of the United States has a webpage guide called "Records of United States Regular Army Mobile Units, 1821-1942". The guide includes the following items (my highlighting).

2,286 lin. ft.

History: Army organized into seven infantry regiments, 1815, with 8th Infantry Regiment added, 1838. Mexican War expansion added eight regiments (designated 9th-16th Infantry), 1847, but these were discontinued, 1848. Two new regiments (9th and 10th) were added, 1855, and nine additional regiments were constituted, May 1861 (11th-19th), and confirmed by an act of July 29, 1861 (14 Stat. 279). In a major expansion under General Order 92, War Department, November 23, 1866, pursuant to an act of July 28, 1866 (14 Stat. 332), 2d and 3d battalions of the existing 11th- 19th Infantry Regiments were designated 20th-37th Infantry Regiments, with four new regiments (38th-41st) to be composed of black enlisted men, and new 42d-45th Infantry Regiments for wounded veterans of the Civil War. Reduced by consolidation to 25 regiments, under General Order 17, War Department, March 15, 1869, with the 24th and 25th constituting the black enlisted force. Expanded to 30 regiments by the Army Reorganization Act (31 Stat. 748), February 2, 1901.

[ Omitted ]

391.5.2 Records of infantry regiments raised prior to the Civil
War, except regiments raised exclusively for Mexican War service

Textual Records: Regimental, battalion, company, and detachment records, including letters sent and received, correspondence, general and special orders, descriptive books, returns, and histories, of the 1st Infantry Regiment, 1827-1918; 2d Infantry Regiment, 1815-1920; 3d Infantry Regiment, 1822-1919; 4th Infantry Regiment, 1821-1917; 5th Infantry Regiment, 1821-1917; 6th Infantry Regiment, 1817-1909; 7th Infantry Regiment, 1842- 1914; 8th Infantry Regiment, 1838-1917; 9th Infantry Regiment, 1862-1904; and 10th Infantry Regiment, 1855-1916.

391.5.3 Records of infantry regiments raised for the Mexican War

Textual Records: Records of the 9th-16th Infantry Regiments, 1847-48, including letters sent, and regimental and company descriptive books.


1906 Private Act for John R. Baldwin

The private act raising John R. Baldwin's Mexico War pension is listed on page xlviii (48) of cx (100) pages of (110) pages of list of private acts. John R. Baldwin's act is 1 of 66 acts listed on the page, all of which involve pension increases effective from 6 June 1906. Some of the pension recipient have female names, presumably of qualified widows. Most of listed private acts are for pensions, and the vast majority are effective from 6 June 1906. And there are other lists. John R. Baldwin is not being singled out for special congressional recognition. He is merely a name on a list of veterans already receiving pensions.

Relevant Mexican War pension laws appear to have given the Secretary of the Interior discretionary authority to approve pension increases. Local pension officials could not grant increases on their own authority, assuming automatic application of pension laws. They had to refer applications to the Department of Interior for departmental vetting and pro forma approval by the Secretary of the Interior. Hence the requirement that Congress pass private bills authorizing the Secretary of Interior to grant the requested increase. And private bills -- like public bills -- had to be promulated by notification in the Congressional Record.

Today any number of similar private bills could be batched processed electronically using a pensioner data base and a program to generate a suitable official notice for each pensioner. At the turn of the 19th-20th centuries, battalions of typesetters and proofreaders were employed to produce the lists, which were ultimately published by the Government Printing Office, as follows.

The Statutes at Large of the United States of America
From December, 1905, to March, 1907
Concurrent Resolutions of the Two Houses of Congress
Recent Treaties, Conventions, and Executive Proclamations
Edited, Printed, and Published by the Authority of Congress
Under the Direction of the Secretary of State
Book 1
Pages 1,427-2,224
Private Acts and Resolution and Concurrent Resolutions
Government Printing Office


Bureaucracy in action

The federal government approved or disapproved about 36,000 Mexican War pension applications between 1887 and 1926. Surviving records are housed by the U.S. National Archives and Records Administsration (Nara) in 946 linear feet, 8 linear inches of materials in 2164 Standard Legal Archives Boxes (the figures seem odd). The Mexican War archives are described in part as follows (see National Archives Catalog for details).

Case Files of Mexican War Pension Applications , ca. 1887 -- ca. 1926

[ Omitted ]
Other Title(s): Case Files of Mexican War Pension Applications (Consolidated), 1892-1926 Case Files of Pension Applications Based on Service in the Mexican War, 1846-1848; Mexican War Military Pension Application Files; Mexican War Pension Applications
Function and Use: These files were created to hold applications and supporting documentation of claims authorized by an act of Congress approved January 29, 1887 (24 Stat. 371), which provided pensions for veterans who had served in the Mexican War for 60 days or for their widows, not remarried.
General Note(s): Pension claims were disapproved or rejected if the service of the veteran could not be verified; if the injury, disability, or death was unrelated to military service; or if the veteran on whose service the claim was based deserted or was dishonorably discharged. Claims for pensions were abandoned if the veteran died and left no other dependent.
[ Omitted ]

The paper trail shown in the above images, copped and cropped from genealogy websites, represents only a fraction of the paper generated in the labor intensive bureaucratic process of keeping track of the pensions received between 1887 and 1912, first by John R. Baldwin as a surviving veteran of the Mexican War, then by Margaret Baldwin as a surviving spouse of a deceased veteran.

Multiply the numbers of application forms and benefit payout records by 36,000 Mexican War veterans and widows, and by the number of pensioners in earlier and later wars, and you get some idea of what "government" actually is. In some sense, the costs of all past wars continue to increase in the budgets required to maintain the archives of their records and provide public services to family history and other reseachers today.

The above images of the record for John R. Baldwin have been clipped from the following record
Click on the following image of the record for a higher resolution view
Copped, cropped, and reduced in size from FamilySearch
which see for an extra-high resolution image

Baldwin 1847
Baldwin 1887-02-14 1887 Feb 14 Filing
Mex Serv, Application 257, Certificate 9707
[Congressional] Act 29 Jan 1887
Mex Wid, Application 19,306, Certificate 15,268
[Congressional] Act 29 Jan 1887
REMARKS O.W. [Old War] Inv. [Invalid] Abandoned 25,303
Copped and cropped from FamilySearch
Baldwin 1889-11-13 1889 Nov 13 Filing
Inv. [Invalid], Application Ab [Abandoned] 25,303, Ky
REMARKS: Mex Serv  Cft 9707 
Mex Wid A [Application] 19,906  Cft 15,268 
Copped and cropped from FamilySearch
Baldwin 1890-08-28 Above
1890 Aug 28 Filing
Invalid Application 931,021
REMARKS Mex War  Ctf 9707 
Right below
Class Inc [Increase]  Rate 20 , Commencement 6 June 1906
Certifate issued 27 June 1906
Fees Atty [Attorney] none
Transferred from: Louisville, Ky
Died 10 March 1909, Notified 29 March 1909
W [unread] Cft issued July 13, 1909
payable to wid Margaret Baldwin
Pensioner died 10 March 1909
Copped and cropped from FamilySearch
Baldwin 1906-06-06
Baldwin 1909-05-01 Above
Soldier John R. Baldwin
Dependent Margaret Baldwin (Widow)
Mex Serv Application 257  Certificate 9707 
[Congressional] Act 29 Jan 1887
1909 May 1 Filing
Mex Wid Application 19,306  Certificate 15,268 
[Congressional] Act 29 Jan 1887
REMARKS OW [Old War] Inv [Invalid] Aban 25,303
Right above
Margaret Baldwin
 Certificate 15,268  ARMY WIDOW MEXICAN WAR
Class Orig  Rate 12  Commencement 11 March 1909
Certificate dated 13 July 1909, Fees Atty none
Transferred from Louisville Ky, Died 11 June 1912
Copped and cropped from FamilySearch
Baldwin 1909-1912 card
Baldwin 1908-1909 payouts Click on image to enlarge
Record of payouts to John R. Baldwin
Shows payments of $60/quarter at $20/month rate
from 3rd Quarter of 1908 to his death during 2nd quarter of 1909
 Certificate 9707 
Copped and cropped from FamilySearch
Baldwin 1909-1912 payouts Click on image to enlarge
Record of payouts to Margaret Baldwin
Shows payments of $36/quarter at $12/month rate
from John R. Baldwin's death on 10 March 1909
to Margaret's death on 3 June 1912
 Certificate 15,268 
Copped and cropped from FamilySearch
Baldwin 1909 Click on image to enlarge
Margaret Baldwin's 26 April 1909 pension eligibility declaration stamped 1 May 1909
Part of her application as successor to John R. Baldwin's Mexico War pension
Copped from Baldwin Geneology Group on Facebook
as posted by Gen Highland from another source

BelowTranscription of Margaret's pension elegibility declaration

State of Kentucky, Jackson County

On this 26th. day of April A. D. 1909, personly [sic] appeared before me a Notary Public, within and for the County and State aforesaid, and duly authorized to administer oaths, Margaret Baldwin, aged 73 years, a resident of Moores Creek Jackson County Kentucky, who being duly sworn according to law, [makes] the following declaration in order to obtain Pension under the acts of Congress granting [pensions] to the widows of soldiers and sailors who served in the war with Mexico.

That she is the winow of John M. Baldwin who was a private in Co. A. 16th. Regt. United States Inft. in the war with [M]exico. That at the time of his enlistment he was about 5 ft. 10 Inches high, hazel eyes, fair complexion, and by occupation a farmer. And who was honorably discharged thereupon in the year 184[8]. ([Dosen't?] remember th[e] exact time in this year, and can only state from memory, as his Discharge Certificate is on file in Pension Department at Washington[.])

Enlistment register (see image and transcription above) shows "11 inches" and discharge on "5 Aug 48" at "Newport Ky". John R. Baldwin was probably transported to Newport by boat on the Ohio river. From Newport he made his way back to Lee County, probably via Harlan, possibly via Cumberland Gap. Sometime that fall he married Rebecca Howard, probably in Lee county, possibly in Harlan.

Said soldier was born in Lee County Virginia on the 21st. day of September 1828, and after leaving the service he resided in Lee County Va. untill the year 186[3?], when he removed to Owsley County Kentucky. He removed from there to Laurel County Ky. in 186[5?]. And from there to Jackson County Ky. in the year 186[8?], where he resided until his death.

John R. Baldwin's tombstone states "Sept. 22, 1828".

That she was married to [said] soldier in Harlan County Kentucky, the 13th. day of June 1855, by Rev. Solomon Pope. (Who is now dead.) under the name of Margaret Howard. That she had not been previously married, and has not re-married since his death. The said soldier had been previously married to Rebecca Ann Howard, who died in Lee County Virginia April 3rd. 185[5?].

The marriage register reads "Solomon Pope, M.M.E.S." -- apparently referring to Elizabeth Susan (Ball) Pope (1815-1906), the wife of Solomon Pope (1812-1883).

That her said husband died in Jackson County Kentucky on the 10th. day of March 1909. That he was a Pensioner of the United States [unread word] Certificate No. 9707 [payable?] at the Louisville Ky. Pension Agency at the rate of $20. per month. And that there was no legal barrier to her marriage to said soldier. And that she was never divorced from him.

The ever-important "Certificate No." was easily confirmed from documents Margaret undoubtedly had at her disposal. The certificate was issued when John R. was approved for the pension in 1887. The $20 dollar/month rate was the result of upgrading from $12 dollars/month in 1906. Margaret, as a widow, received $12/month until her death in 1912. The benefit was paid quarterly, 3 months at a time, through the nearest office of the pension agency.

The said soldier [unread words] [unread age] years of age. [Unread words].

And that [unread words].

And that she [unread words].

[Signed] Margaret Baldwin

[Signed] Add Steele
[Signed] W.H. Steele

1 May 1909

Add and W.H. Steele are Margaret's "nephews-in-law" -- nephews of her daughter-in-law, Newton Bascum Baldwin's wife Martha Ellen (Steele) Baldwin -- son's of Martha Ellen's older brother James H. Steele -- thus 1st cousins by blood or in-law of all 2nd-generation descendants of the Steele-Grubb and Baldwin-Howard families in Jackson County -- and there were many.

Baldwin 1907 Above, Right, Below
Private Acts among Statutes of the United States
Including 1906 acts related to Mexican War
Screen captured from Google Books
Baldwin 1907

Above Screen capture of title page (left) and page xlviii of table of contents (right) of
The Statutes at Large of the United States of America, From December, 1905, to March, 1907
Washington, Government Printing Office, 1907 (see fuller particulars in text to left)
Below Screen capture of 6 June 1906 Private Act granting John R. Baldwin an increase of pension
FIFTY-NINTH CONGRESS. Sess. 1. Chps. 2930-2934. 1906. Bottom of Page 2037.

Baldwin 1907


John R. Baldwin and the War of the Rebellion of 1861-1865

No evidence (yet) of John R. Baldwin (1828-1909) in military service during the Civil War
His brother Thomas N. Baldwin (1843-1924) served in the Confederacy from 1861 to 1865

As of this writing (2021), only about 20 percent of surviving Civil War pension records have been digitalized on specialized military record websites like Fold3. Currently available records show many John Baldwins and several John R. Baldwins in Union and Confederate military units -- but no John or John R. Baldwin corresponding to John R. Baldwin (1828-1909) of the Baldwin-Seale and Baldwin-Howard families of Virginia and Kentucky. There is speculation that he served, and that his service was rewarded by grants of land in Kentucky. But available documents support only his service in the earlier Mexican War before he married Rebecca Howard.

After Rebecca's death, John R. Baldwin married her sister Margaret Howard, and they were living in Lee County, Virgina, when the Civil War started. But his war pension records, and records of payouts to Margaret as his widow, show only the Mexican War.

A military service eligibility record for Kentucky, however, shows that in July-August 1863, at the age of 34, while residing in Owsley County in the 8th Congressional District of Kentucky, a Union state, "John R. Baldin" from Virgina -- presumed to be "John R. Baldwin" of the Baldwin-Howard family -- was registered as a Class A male "subject to do military duty between the ages of twenty and thirth-five".

Civil War records also show that John R. Baldwin's younger brother, Thomas N. Baldwin (1843-1924), enlisted in a Confederte infantry regiment in Virginia, served all but the first few weeks of the war, and witnessed the end of the war as a corporal.

Selected Civil War participation cases

The following cases of Civil War participation are introduced in this section.

Other John R. Baldwins (Confederacy)

Halltown John R. Baldwin
Richmond John R. Baldwin

Neither of these John R. Baldwins is the John R. Baldwin of the Baldwin-Seale and Baldwin-Howard families.

John R. Baldwin's youngest brother (Confederacy)

Thomas N. Baldwin (1843-1924)

Thomas Newton Baldwin is John R. Baldwin's 3rd younger brother in the Baldwin-Seale family.

John R. Baldwin's brother-in-law and nephew (Union)

James Alvin Thomas (1827-1861)
Henry Clay Thomas (c1845-1904)

James Alvin Thomas is the husband of Mary Ann Baldwin, hence John R. Baldwin's and Thomas Newton Baldwin's brother-in-law.
Henry Clay Thomas is James and Mary Thomas's son, hence JR and TN Baldwin's nephew.

Husbands of Baldwin and Grubb widows (Confederacy, Union)

Moles brothers
William Hamilton Moles (1834-1864)
Elihu Hardin Moles (1838–1890)

William Moles is the husband of Archibald Grubb's 2nd widow Nancy (Markham) Grubb.
Elihu Moles is the husband of Archibald Grubb's daughter Harriet (Grubb) Baldwin, the widow of William Baldwin, John R. Baldwin's 1st younger brother.
Nancy (Markham) (Grubb) Moles is Harriet (Grubb) (Baldwin) Moles's step-mother.

John R. Baldwin in Civil War

Did John R. Baldwin (1828-1909) of Lee County, Virginia and Jackson County, Kentucky -- the husband of first Rebecca Howard (1828-1855) and then her sister Margaret Howard (1835-1912) -- serve in either a Union or Confederate military unit during the "War of the Rebellion" -- later the "War Between the States" -- today just the "Civil War"?

The short, provisional answer is "No." As of this writing (January 2020), no documentary evidence has come to light that John R. Baldwin was involved in military activites during the Civil War. He does, however, seem to appear in an 1863 register of men in Kentucky eligible for military service.

There are numerous soldiers named "John Baldwin" and not a few named "John R. Baldwin" or "Jno. R. Baldwin" or "J.R. Baldwin" in military records. None, though, appear to be the John R. Baldwin that was residing in Lee County, Virginia with Margaret and several children in the 1860 federal census.

The stories of two other John R. Baldwins from Virginia, as told through Confederate military records, exemplify the experiences of Virginians who served the Confederacy during the war. And the military records of John R. Baldwin's younger brother Thomas N. Baldwin (1843-1924) show how he served the Confederacy after enlisting in Lee County the 2nd year of the war.

See William E. Wetherall in Civil War
on the Wetherall-Beaman page for
the story of John R. Baldwin's counterpart on
the Wetherall side of the Wetherall-Baldwin union.

John R. Baldwin enrolled

The images to the right show the cover and a leaf from the following register of Civil War enrollments.

Title slip

          (CIVIL WAR)
Records of Office Subdivisions, 1862-66.
Enrollment Branch, General Records,
Enrollment Lists and Reports
Enrollment Lists and Corrections to
Enrollment Lists, 1863-65
VOL 861           NM-65, E. 172
Ky. [Kentucky]    Vol. 1 of 3
8 C.D. [Congression District]
Class 1

Cover title

Consolidated List
    Class 1.
  8th District

Page 23

Page 23 defines the record as follows ([underscoring] and [bracketed information] mine).

Class I comprises all persons subject to do military duty between the ages of twenty and thirth-five, and all unmarried persons subject to do military duty above the age of thirty-five years and under the age of forty-five.

Class II comprises all other persons subject to do military duty.

SCHEDULE I: CONSOLIDATED LIST of all persons of Class I, subject to military duty in 8th Congressional District, consisting of the Counties of Estile Owsley and others State of Kentucky, enumerated during the month of July & August, 1863, under direction of Capt Robert Hays, Provost Marshal.

RESIDENCE: 8th District / Owsley County Ky
NAME: [Line] 9. Balden [sic] John R.
Age 1st July, 1863: 34
While or Colored: White
Profession, Occupation, or Trade: Farmer
Married or Unmarried: Mar'd
(Naming the State, Territory, or Country: Virginia

To Colonel James B. Fry
Provost Marshal General U.S.
Washington, D.C.

Station: Headquarters 8th Congr. Dist. of Kentucky
Date: February 1st, 1864
Robert Hays / Capt. Provost Marshal


Baldwin, Balwin, and Balden

The 1860 census for Jonesville Post Office in Lee County, Virginia, enumerated John R. Baldwin as "Balwin". Margaret is "Margret", and the spellings of the given names of a couple of the Baldwin children also differ from how their names were spelled in the family. Such descrepancies abound in historical documents.

John R. Baldwin was written "John R. Balden" in a register of Class 1 males enumerated in Kentucky District 8 in 1863. I first saw an image of the register on the Baldwin Genealogy Facebook page, which focuses on the Baldwin-Howard family.

There was some discussion among the Baldwin-Howard descendant "cousins" on the page, including yours truly, as to whether "John R. Balden" was "our" JRB. The consensus was that the age and date and place fit JRB, and that "Balden" was probably an error for "Baldwin".

I chipped in as follows with my usual "over-kill" analysis (Facebook, Baldwin genealogy, 9 January 2018.

Yes, it looks like our JRB, though there are a few problems.

This is a summary of registration information compiled from other records, presumably cards that have been sorted by the first letter of the family name for each county. Names beginning with "B" are grouped together county by county but are not ABC sorted within the "B" group.

Registrations are for the 8th Congressional District for Kentucky, and registrations on this page include parts of the registrations from Estill and Owsley counties.

The registrants are "Class 1" meaning "all persons [men] subject to do military duty between the ages of twenty and thirty-five years" [including 20 and 35].

Registrations listed on this page took place in July-August 1863.

John R. Balden [Baldwin?] is the first listed registrant for Owsley county registration. Assuming that JRB would not have misspelled his own name, then the error could have been made on the original record by a clerk preparing the record from orally provided information, or by the copyist who compiled the list from the original records.

The age datum taken as 1 July 1863, though some parts of the list appear to include men registrered before 1 July. Age 34 as of 1 July 1863 agrees with JRB's 22 September 1828 birth.

Place of birth, occupation, and marital status agree with our JRB.

"Former military service" is blank, though according to a private bill approved many years later, our JRB -- among many other men -- receives a pension increase on account of recognition of service during Mexican War.

So long as there is no other "John R. Baldwin" of similar description, we can accept this John R. Baldwin as our JRB. The question then is whether and how he actually served.

At the time of the registration, JRB is 8 years into his marriage to Margaret. He's got a large and growing family to feed including his children with Rebecca. He's nearly too old for Class 1 registrants. My impression is that the war, for Kentucky, had passed its peak, and Kentucky has weighed in on the Union side after trying to remain neutral. The register would have been used to call men for Union service. Where, though, would JRB have stood on the war? Would he have waited to be called for Union service or volunteered? Or, if faced with the prospects of Union service, would he have left home to join a Confederate unit? John Milton, his oldest son, born to Rebecca, was only 11. His sons with Margaret, William Henley and Robert Ewing, were 7 and 5, and my paternal great grandfather Newton Bascum was barely half a year old. James Alfred, born the following year, was conceived about the time of this registsration.

Many families were in similar circumstances. What stories, if any, survive among JRB's descendants in Kentucky? Nothing has come down my grapevine about either Baldwin or Steele participation in contemporary wars. Only detritus and stories about Henry Clay's political achievements survive in my records. William Henley settled in Idaho, not far from where Newton Bascum settled, nearer to where my mother was born and raised. He'd been in Idaho about 10 years before Bascom arrived, and presumably the brothers got together now and then, but he doesn't exist in my family records. My father didn't volunteer information -- he responded only to questions, and with few exceptions he didn't elaborate on anything. My father graduated from law school in 1937, the year William Henley died. If he met his great uncle, or any of his cousins from William Henley's family line, he didn't comment. His only "war stories" were about his own father in the Great War, and about a grand uncle on his father's side who was supposed to have fought in the Civil War.

Sorry for the rambling -- information for what it's worth.

Pronunciation of "Baldwin"

After all my blather, Ross Murray -- a straight-up 3rd cousin of mine in the line of John R. Baldwin, James Alfred Baldwin, Walter Eldon Baldwin, and B.J. Baldwin Rudder -- sealed the deal with the observation that his grandfather pronounced his name "Walder Rawlee Balden" (Facebook, Baldwin Genealogy, 22 November 2018).

As with most names, Baldwin has a variety of spellings. And since no spelling of any word pronounces itself, the "Baldwin" spelling is subject to different pronunciations. Ross's mother, too, remarked that "I still [hear] people say Bald-en and Bald-un instead of Bald-win."


John R. Baldwin in the "War of the Rebellion"

Did John R. Baldwin participate, in any manner militarily, in the "War of the Rebellion" as the "War Between the States" and the "Civil War" was called in his time? He appears to be the "John R. Balden" enumerated as a "Class 1" enrollee in the 8th Congressional District of Kentucky, while living in Owsley County in July-August 1863. By then, Kentucky -- which had always voted to remain in the Union but seems to have waxed neutral for a while -- had clearly declared itself on the side of the Union.

If the "John R. Balden" in the 1863 "Class 1" list is John R. Baldwin of the Baldwin-Howard family, how do we account for "Balden"? If he wrote his name "Baldwin" on the original record, then "Balden" would be a copyists error -- i.e., an error made by a clerk when copying the name from the original record to the list. But this would mean that the copyist read "wi" and wrote "e" -- an unlikely mistake. What, though, if the original record was made by a clerk writing what he heard John R. Baldwin orally report? If Baldwin pronounced his name "Balden", then the clerk might have written "Balden" -- without suspecting that the speaker himself would have written "Baldwin". But given the commonality of the name "Baldwin", you would think that an alert clerk would confirm the spelling.

Assuming that "John R. Balden / Baldwin" was later called to serve in Kentucky, through the agency of the 1863 enumeration, he would have served in a Union uniform. If for any reason he wanted to join a Confederate unit, he could found a Confederate recruiter operating in Kentucky, or crossed the border to a Confederate state -- to the east into Virginia, where he had come from -- or gone to Tennessee, even closer to the south. But as of this writing (November 2020), I have not seen any evidence that he did so -- or any evidence that he wore a Union uniform either.

This does not mean that John R. Baldwin did not militarily participate in the Civil War on one side or the other. It means only that no military or other contemporary records have turned up to support the contentions or insinuations in various "war stories" that he participated militarily. See Baldwin-Howard lore (below) for examples of such stories.

It is even possible that John R. Baldwin moved to Kentucky, in the earlier months of 1863, before his July-August enrollment in the 8th District register, by a desire to get away from the "politics" of of his home state, Virginia, where his younger brother, Thomas N. Baldwin, had enlisted on 22 May 1861, barely a month after the war started.

Even today, the Civil War war is being fought in the hearts and minds of descendants of some of its survivors. And even today, historians and teachers are likely to be caught in the crossfire of personal and public opinon about the causes and purposes of the war -- and controversial issues like how, or even whether, to memorialize Confederate heroes or fly the Confederate flag (see Kentucky in the Civil War (below).


Civil War records

Civil War records are mostly hit and miss. Many records -- perhaps most -- simply didn't didn't survive. And surviving records of the kind that are being scanned for access through family history websites, rarely provide insight into the nature of a soldier's duties, or even his presence, at a given place and time, such as a battle.

The website of the National Archieves and Records Administration (NARA) of the United States summarizes Union and Confederate records as follows (Civil War Records: Basic Research Sources (NARA).

Union Records

For Union army soldiers, there are three major records in the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) that provide information on military service: (1) compiled military service record (CMSR); (2) pension application file; and (3) records reproduced in microfilm publication M594, Compiled Records Showing Service of Military Units in Volunteer Union Organizations (225 rolls).

Confederate Records

For Confederate army soldiers, there are two major records in NARA that provide information on military service: (1) compiled military service record (CMSR) and (2) records reproduced in microfilm publication M861, Compiled Records Showing Service of Military Units in Confederate Organizations (74 rolls). Records relating to Confederate soldiers are typically less complete than those relating to Union soldiers because many Confederate records did not survive the war.

NARA does not have pension files for Confederate soldiers. Pensions were granted to Confederate veterans and their widows and minor children by the States of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia; these records are in the state archives or equivalent agency.

Ancestry and Fold3 records

A couple of the records shown to the right are from Ancestry.com. Most, though, are from Ancestry's Fold3 subsidary.

Confederate records of the kind shown to the right are of the "compiled service record" type, consisting of a simple paper cover that, when folded, holds several chits or cards on which information has been abstracted from a soldier's original muster, hospital, deserter, and prisoner of war rolls and other records. In other words, the information in this records has been manually copied from other, usually more detailed records.

Such "compiled records" are akin to a database which merely "indexes" the most salient information of interest to the people compiling the record, database, or index. All the records cited here include at least the following three items.

  1. A cover showing the soldier's name, company, regiment or battation, and state or other unit affiliation, and the numbers of the cards from which information on the chits within the cover was abstracted.
  2. "Company Muster Roll chits on which the abstracter has written the (a) the first letter of the soldier's family name, the company, and the regiment and state affilation, (b) the soldier's name, rank, and unit, (c) the date, place, agency, and term of enlistment, (d) the period (typically 2 months, sometimes more) covered by the chit, (e) when the soldier was last paid, (f) whether he was present or absent for the muster, and (g) other particulars, often nothing, but at times the sort of duties for which the soldier was detailed, or whether the soldier was sick or possibly away without leave or had deserted.
  3. The conditions and date when the soldier was paroled from detention as a captured or surrendered prisoner of war.

While no records were found for John R. Baldwin of the Baldwin-Howard family, I have chosen to digest the contents of 3 records -- those of 2 other Virginian "John R. Baldwins" -- "Halltown John R. Baldwin" and "Richmond John R. Baldwin, so-called according to the place where they enlisted -- and John R. Baldwin's younger brother Thomas N. Baldwin, who enlisted from Rose Hill in Lee County, the county in which John R. Baldwin could easily have enlisted in the Confederate Army had he wanted to.

Other John R. Baldwins (Confederacy)

Halltown John R. Baldwin
Richmond John R. Baldwin

John R. Baldwin's youngest brother (Confederacy)

Thomas N. Baldwin (1843-1924)

John R. Baldwin's brother-in-law and nephew (Union)
Father and son witnessed the War of the Rebellion
from Tennessee and Kentucky

James Alvin Thomas (1827-1861)
Henry Clay Thomas (c1845-1904)


Halltown John R. Baldwin

The John R. Baldwin most commonly confused for the Baldwin-Howard family John R. Baldwin enlisted in Halltown, Virginia a week after the outbreak of the Civil War.

A "Company Muster Roll" shows that John R. Baldwin Enlisted in Halltown, Virginia, on 18 April 1861 by Captain Buttler for a period of 12 months -- which ended up 4-1/2 years.

B / 2 / Va.
Jno. [John] R, Baldwin
Pvt / Captain Vincent Moore Butler's Co.
      (Hamtramct Guards),
      2nd Regiment Virginia Infantry.*
Age 23 years.

Appears on
Company Muster Roll
from the organization named above,
from Jefferson County,
for Apr. 18 to June 30, 1861.
    Dated June 30, 1861
Occupation Laborer

Enrolled for active service:
When     Apr. 18, 1861
Where    Halltown [Virginia] Note
By whom  Capt. Butler

Mustered into service:
When     May 11, 186[1]
Where    Harpers Ferry [Virginia] Note 1
By whom  Capt. Botts Note 2

No. of miles to place of muster-in 10 Note 3
* This company was known at various times as
Captain Butler's Company, Captain Moler's Company
and Company B, 2d Regiment Virginia Infantry.


  1. Halltown and Harpers Ferry were in Jefferson County, then in Virginia, today in West Virginia, which did not exist at the time the Civil War began. The counties of West Virginia did not separate from Virginia and join the Union as its 35th state until 20 June 1863, over 2 years after Richmond John R. Baldwin enlisted. The birth of West Virginia was in effect a return to the Union fold through a secession within a secession.
  2. I have not been able to identify Capt. Botts. Another Botts -- John Minor Botts (1802-1869) -- was a prominent Richmond Unionist who opposed Virginia's secession but remained in Richmond -- the capital of the Commonwealth and, during the war, the Confederacy States of America -- and often ran afoul of Confederacy officials.
  3. The distance between Halltown and Harpers Ferry was 10 miles. This distance could have been walked in 3 to 4 hours.


Halltown John R. Baldwin's pay chit for Sept-Oct 1861 notes that he was detailed as a "teamster" on 9 Oct 1862 by order of Col. Allen. As such he would have been invovled with driving wagons pulled by teams of horses. These

Forage Master

Company Muster Roll chits for Halltown John R. Baldwin's 2nd year of service show that, from 30 June 1862 to 30 June 1863, he was detailed as a "Forage Master" then "Forage Master for Brigade".

Forage master
A forage master was responsible for finding and transporting food and other supplies when a unit had no supply line and had to subside off the locality. Halltown John R. Baldwin's Company Muster Chits show that he is often absent on pay day, for the reason that he was detailed for duties that took him away from the B Company's camp. Some Company Muster Roll chits show that he was temporarily transferred to another company in order to be paid.

How a foragering detail obtained needed provisions for its unit depended on the locality and how desperate the unit needed the provisions. Foraging activitities included everything from gathering nuts and berries from the countryside and harvesting vegetables and fruits from abandoned fields or orchards, to soliticing or commandeering butter, eggs, meat, livestock, grains, hay, and other necessities from local farmers. When obtaining provisions from local people, foragers were supposed to pay in cash or issue vouchers for later payment. But especially when operating in areas where civilians were hostile or of mixed loyalties, some foraging parties simply took what they wanted, at times resorting to forays and raids tha stripped the countryside and left local people to fend for themselves.

Quarter Master Sergeant

Company Muster Roll chits for Halltown John R. Baldwin's 3rd year of service show that, from July 1863 to 30 April 1864, he was detailed as "Quarter Master Sergt" under "Maj. Mercer, Q.M. [Quarter Master]" -- although his chit rank was "Pvt."

Quarter master sergeant
A quarter master sergeant was a non-commissioned officer responsible for providing quarters, food, and equipment and other supplies in a military unit.

Surrender and parole

A chit (see image to right) states that Halltown John R. Baldwin's name

Appears on a list Confederate soldiers "belonging to the Army of Northern Virginia, who have been this day surrendered by General Robert E. Lee, C.S.A. [Confederate States of America], commanding, said Army, to Lieut. Genl. U.S. Grant, commanding Armies of the United States" was "Done [overstruck] Paroled [handwritten] at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, April 9, 1865.

On the surface of the revision by hand of "Done" to "Paroled", Halltown John R. Baldwin was both surrendered and paroled on or shortly after the day of the surrender -- perhaps as in this imaginary scene.

Alright, men, listen up! The war's over. You're free to go home -- after you do three things. One, park your artillery, stack your arms, and drop your ammo at the designated places. Two, give your name, unit, and rank to the officer in charge of compiling a final roll of officers and men. And three, pick up a Paroled Prisoner Pass, which you will need to prove that you are not a deserter, and to obtain food and transportation on your way home.

Terms of surrender

The terms of surrender, as written by Grant and accepted by Lee, read as follows, according to one transcription.

April 9, 1865

General R. E. LEE:

In accordance with the substance of my letter to you of the 8th instant, I propose to receive the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia on the following terms, to wit: Rolls of all the officers and men to be made in duplicate, one copy to be given to an officer to be designated by me, the other to be retained by such officer or officers as you may designate. The officers to give their individual paroles not to take up arms against the Government of the United States until properly exchanged; and each company or regimental commander sign a like parole for the men of their commands. The arms, artillery, and public property to be parked and stacked, and turned over to the officers appointed by me to receive them. This will not embrace the side-arms of the officers, nor their private horses or baggage. This done, each officer and man will be allowed to return to his home, not to be disturbed by U. S. authority so long as they observe their paroles and the laws in force where they may reside.


Lee asked, and Grant agreed, that not only officiers but all men in surrendered Army of Northern Virginia artillery and cavalry units, who owned their horses, be allowed to keep them.

Paroled Prisoner's Pass

It is clear from other documents that the paroling of Confederate soldiers who became prisoners of war as a result of the surrender at Appomattox took time, as POWs were processed in the sort of systematic manner that one would expect of legalist and bureaucratic entities like the United States and the Confederate States of America. Paroled POWs were issued a "Paroled Prisoner's Pass" which permitted them to travel and remain home with being disturbed (see image of such a pass on the right).

Such passes were also intended to help a parolled soldier obtain food and transportation on the way home. To what extent this was actually possible probably depended on the route home.


Richmond John R. Baldwin

Another John R. Baldwin enlisted in Richmond, Virginia, about 6 weeks after the start of the Civil War and participated in the war until his release from Union Army captivity in Farmville, Virginia unit at the end of the war.

Baldwin, John R.
Co. D, 25 Battalion
Virginia Infantry.
(Richmond Battalion Virginia Infantry.)
(City Battalion Virginia Infantry.)

B / 25 Battalion / Va.

Jno. R. Baldwin
Pvt., Co. D, 25th Batt'n Virginia Inf.
Appears on
Company Muster Roll
of the organization named above,
for July 26 to Oct. 31, 1862.
dated Oct. 31, 1862.

When     Aug. 26, 186[1]
Where    Richmond [Virginia] Note
By whom  Capt. Potts
Period   6 mo


  1. Richmond, the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia, became the capital of the Confederate States of America (CSA) after 17 April 1861, when the state legislature, 5 days after Confederate forces attacked Ft. Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina, voted to secede from the United States and join the newly formed Confederacy.


Records show that, on 16 July 1863, John R. (Jno. R., J.R.) Baldwin was admitted to C.S.A. [Confederate States of America] General Hospital in Farmsville, Virginia, with a complaint of "Convalescent". He was admitted on 17 July 1863, the following day, with a complaint of "Debilitas" [weakness; lameness, debility, infirmity].

Farmville, which today straddles the boundaries of Prince Edward and Cumberland counties in Virginia, is the seat of Prince Edward. Located in the center of Virginia, it fell into Union hands during the final battles of the Civil War, which culminated in the surrender of General Robert E. Lee (1807-1870) on 9 April 1865, at Appomattox Court House, a village near the present town of Appomattox, about 27 miles from Farmville.


One Company Muster Roll chit states he was "Absent sick". Another states he was "Absent without leave".

A C.S.A General Hospital, Farmsville, Virginia chit states he deserted on 30 July 1863.

Paroled as Prisoner of War

Presumably Richmond John R. Baldwin returned to his unit, or was found and brought back, for his name and rank, and B Company, 25th Battalion, Virginia affiliation, appear on a "List of Confederate Prisoners of War paroled by T. L. Barker, Lieut. Col. 36 Mass. Vols., P.M., at Farmville, Va., between April 11 and April 21, 1865, by order of Brig. Gen'l Masey, Provost Marshal, Army of the Polomac."

Note the range of dates between which POWs were paroled at Farmville -- beginning 2 days after Lee's surrender to Grant at Appomattox and taking 11 days.

See notes on Terms of surrender and Paroled Prisoner's Pass for details and an image of such a pass (above).


Thomas N. Baldwin

Thomas N. Baldwin was enumerated with the household of his older brother John R. Baldwin in the 1860 census for the Jonesville Postoffice area of the Western District of Lee County.

The town of Jonesville is today the seat of Lee County. The town is about 8 miles, a 10-minute drive by car today, west of Pennington Gap on U.S. Route 58 toward Rose Hill, another 16 miles or 20 minutes further west. 1859 and 1861 birth and Christening records, which bracket the 1860 census, show John and Margaret in Poor Valley, on the outskirts of present-day Pennington Gap as one heads north on U.S. Route 421 toward Harlan, Kentucky.

Thomas enlisted in Rose Hill, Lee County, Virginia on 22 May 1861. He served until paroled at Appomattox Court House by the Union Army shortly after General Robert E. Lee formally surrendered there to General U.S. Grant on 9 April 1865, which ended the War of the Rebellion.

Baldwin, Thomas N.
Co. E / Co. K, 37 Virginia Inf'y.
Private / Corporal

B / 37 / Va.

Thomas N. Baldwin
Pvt., Co. E, 37 Reg't Virginia Inf.
Appears on 
Company Muster Roll
of the organization named above,
for July & August, 1861,
dated Aug. 31.

When     May 22, 186[1]
Where    Rose Hill [Virginia] Note
By whom  Capt. Gibson
Period   12 mo

The 37th Regiment Virginia Infantry was accepted
into the service of the Confederate States
July 1, 1861, and reorganized April 22, 1862.
Companies G and I were consolidated under
Captain Bussey after the October 31, 1862,
muster, but each company appears to have been
mustered separately. Most of the members of
the regiment were captured in May, 1864,
and the remnants of all the companies
were later assigned to Companies H and K.


  1. Rose Hill, in Lee County, Virginia, is about 25 miles west and a bit to the south of Pennington Gap. Whereas the road north and west out of Pennington Gap to Harlan, Kentucky, crossed the divide into Kentucky, the road to Rose Hill remained in Virginia as it headed toward the tristate border of Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Pennington Gap was near Poor Valley, which is named on the 1859 and 1861 birth and Christening records for two of John R. and Margaret Baldwin's children who did not survive. The Baldwin-Howard household, with 5 children and John R. Baldwin's younger brother Thomas N. Baldwin, was enumerated in the 1860 census for Jonesville Post Office, in present-day Jonesville, a town situated about one-third of the way toward Rose Hill if leaving from Pennington Gap.

Descrepancies in date and place of enlistment

8 Company Muster Roll chits -- representing 3 series of chits, each series in a different hand -- characterize the place and date of Thomas N. Baldwin's enlistment in three ways.

1st series
3 chits from Jul-Aug 1861 to Mar-Apr 1862
Thomas N. / Thomas N. / Thomas N. Baldwin
Enlisted in Rose Hill / Rose Hill / Rose Hill
on May 22, 1861

2nd series
4 chits from May-Jun 1862 to Nov-Dec 1862
Thos N. / T.N. / T.N. / T.N. Baldwin
enlisted in Lee Cty / Lee Co Va / Lee Co Va / Lee Co
on May 27 / May 27 / May 22 / May 21, 1861

3rd series
2 chits from Apr 30 to Aug 31 1864
and Apr 30 [sic] to Oct 31 1864
T.N. Baldwin
enlisted in Walnut Hill, Va
on April 10, 1861

The date variations in the 2nd series -- 27, 27, 22, 21 -- are probably transcriptions errors. They compare with "May 22" in the 1st series, whereas the 3rd series has "April 10" -- an entirely different date.

The undated first Company Muster Roll chit in the 3nd series -- for Apr 30 to Oct 31 1864 -- describes "T.N. Baldwin" as a "Corpl" of "K" rather than "B" Company of the 37th Regiment Virginia Infantry. This series states that Baldwin was enlisted by Capt. Gibson in "Walnut Hill Va." on "Apr 10, 1861". Remarks state "Transferred from Co. B to Co. E by order Brig. Gen Terry."

"Walnut Hill"
I first thought "Walnut Hill" was a town in Logan County in present-day West Virginia. At the start of the Civil War, the county and the town were part of Virginia, which had seceded from the Union. During the war, several counties in northwest Virginia voted to split off from Virginia and rejoin the Union as West Virginia, which was admitted as the 35th state on 20 June 1863 -- 2 years after Thomas N. Baldwin enlisted.

It didn't make sense that a clerk would write "Walnut Hill" for "Rose Town" -- much less that T.N. Baldwin would mistakenly say he came from a town in another county of (West) Virginia. Then later, on a 1863 map of Kentucky, I spotted "Walnut Hill" west of Jonesville and just east of Cumberland Gap. Walnut Hill appears to be in the vicinity of presentday Wheeler, perhaps just west of Wheeler in what was known as Gibson Station. These and other tiny communities were part of what was later called the Rose Hill Magisterial District. And one of T.N. Baldwin's daughters, Elizabeth Ann Baldwin (1869-1951), would marry a man from this part of Lee County then live, die, and be buried there (see below).

"April 10"
Assuming that "Walnut Hill" is a revision of "Rose Hill", then "April 10" may be a revision of "April 22". T.N. Baldwin may have initiated his enlistment on "April 10" in "Walnut Hill" but mustered in on "April 22" in "Rose Hill" a few miles away. Another possibility is that the clerk who wrote the chits for "T.N. Baldwin" copied "Walnut Hill" and "April 10" from another soldier's record.

Reenlistment bounty

A "Bounty Pay and Receipt Roll" chit dated Camp Mason, Feb. 18, 1862, shows that Thomas N. Baldwin, of Co. E, 37 Reg't Va. Infantry, recieved a bounty of $50-00/100 authorized for men who reenlisted in the unit. This may have been the Fort Mason near Graham, the county seat of Alamance County in North Carolina.

Hospital admission

Thos. N. Baldwin is admitted to Lovington Hospital, Winchester, Virginia, on Aug. 8, 1862, for "Diabetes".

Pay records

Thomas R. Baldwins records His records also include a very detailed pay statement which shows that, on 6 June 1864, at Richmond, Virginia, T.N. Baldwin, Corpl Co E 37 Regt Va, was paid $52 by Major John Ambler for the period 1 January to 30 April 1864, computed at the rate of $13 per month.

Pvt, 2 Corpl, Corpl

Company Muster Roll chits from Jul-Aug 1861 through Mar-Apr 1862 show Thomas N. or Thos. N. Baldwin as a Private. However, the Mar-Apr 1862 chit, while reporting that his "Present or absent" status is "Not stated", remarks that he was "Elected Corpl. April 23, 1862". Chits from May-Jun 1862 through Nov-Dec 1862 show his rank as "2 Corpl" or "2 Corp", but chits for Apr 30 to Aug 31, and for Apr 30 [sic] to Oct 31 1864 -- 2 years later -- show him as a "Corp".

Are "2 Corpl" and "Corpl" different ranks?
On the surface, Thomas N. appears to have been promoted from "2 Corpl" to "Corpl" -- but perhaps there was only a change in the notation for "corporal" -- his muster-out rank. "2 Corpl" may have signified a "second class corporal" as an intermediate rank between "private" and "corporal" -- corresponding to a "private second class" or "private first class" today.

Surrender and parole

An undated record states that Thomas N. Baldwin, Corpl, Co. E., 37 Virginia Regiment, Residence Lee Co. Va., appeared on a list of Confederate soldiers paroled following the surrender of their units by Confederate General Robert E. Lee to Union General Ulysses S. Grant at the end of the war.

Appears on a List of Prisoners of War in the Army of Northern Virginia,
who have been this day surrendered by General Robert E. Lee, C.S.A. [Confederate States of America],
commanding said Army, to Lieut. Genl. U.S. Grant, commanding Armies of the United States

Done [overstruck] Paroled [handwritten] at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, April 9, 1865.

On the surface of the revision by hand of "Done" to "Paroled", Thomas N. Baldwin was both surrendered and paroled on the day of surrender at Appomattox Court House. However, processing the POWs and issuing each a "Paroled Prisoner's Pass" took time. See notes on Terms of surrender and Paroled Prisoner's Pass for details and an image of such a pass (above).

See Thomas N. Baldwin in Confederate service (below) for Thomas N. Baldwin's Civil War time line and a newspaper "war story" about his life.


James Alvin and Henry Clay Thomas

A father and son on the home front
and the saga of a war-broken family

The Baldwin-Seale household was devasted by deaths in the mid 1850s. Five years later, the civil war was ravaging the lives of Baldwin-Seale descendants.

The family of the oldest sibling, Mary Ann (Baldwin) Thomas, seems to have had the most difficult time, after her husband, James Alvin Thomas, on leave from military duty in 1862, died of measles while visiting her at the home of her sister, Harriet K. (Baldwin) Mink, in Kentucky. For reasons we will never know, Mary Ann -- the mother of

James Alvin Thomas, as the husband of Mary A. (Baldwin) Thomas, was the son in law of John M. Baldwin and the brother-in-law of John R. Baldwin.

Guardian of 5 minor children of James Alvin Thomas, deceased, seeks relief under 6 June 1866 Pension Act on grounds that they had been abandoned by their mother, who was unsuitable by reason of immoral conduct in 17 March 1873 deposition by Jesse Rogers, guardian, to Chancery Court of Claiborne County, Tennessee.

Some family trees show Henry Clay Thomas to have been born on 7 October 1848 in Powell Valley in Lee County, Virginia, and to have died on 2 January 1904 in Georgetown in Scott County, Kentucky. "Powell Valley" is an attempt to color "District 31" as the 1850 census called the area in Lee County in which it listed the "James A. Thomas" household immediately after listing the household of "John M. Baldwin", who was James's father-in-law. Mary A. Thomas was John M. and Elizabeth Baldwin's oldest of 9 known children and the 1st of , which enumerated the sort of bureaucratic nomenclature one finds on contemporary censuses, which label the area in which the Thomases lived on

The following long statement is posted on Henry's Find a Grave memorial, presumably by Russell Thompson, it's creator.

Civil War Veteran, Union. Enlisted at age 14 (lied about his age) in Co. E. 2nd East Tennessee Infantry on Feb. 10, 1862, at Cumberland Ford, and was honorably discharged September 17, 1862 after receiving a gunshot wound in left thigh. Re-enlisted in Co. A., 10th Illinois Vol. Infantry at Nashville, Tennessee on January 2, 1863, and was honorably discharged July 4, 1865 at Louisville, Kentucky. Husband of Martha Jane Brown. Father of 12 children. I have four sources for Henry's birth date:

October 7, 1854, Powell Valley, Lee Co., Virginia, USA. Source: James Alvin Thomas, NARA Form 85D, Full Pension File-Civil War, WC178.061.

1848, Powell Valley, Lee Co., Virginia. Source: Deposition Of Henry Thomas, Deposition A, Pg. 7, No. 649009, Feb. 7, 1889, National Archives. Alternate birth date October 1846.

1846, Precinct 2, Powell, Kentucky. Source: Marriage Records, 1865-1868, Marriage Book E, Pg. 182 & 183, London, Laurel Co., KY, Clerk of the County Court, LDS Family History Library, Film # 0965810.

October 3, 1845. Source: James Alvin Thomas, NARA Form 85D, Full Pension File-Civil War, WC178.061, Jesse Rogers, Guardian, Sworn Declaration, March 17, 1873.

I think the most logical birth date for Henry was 1848 as he would have been 14 if he enlisted in 1862. The date on his stone, 1837, was an guesstimate I made before I ordered his headstone, and before I had access to Henry's and Matha's pension files.

Russell Thompson also created the Find a Grave memorial for Henry C. Thomas's wife Martha J. Thomas. The memorial states that she was "Buried in an unmarked grave until late 2014. Headstone purchased by her great grandson Russell G. Thompson" (viewed 24 February 2020).

Henry Clay Thomas, as a son of Mary Ann (Baldwin) Thomas, was a 1st cousin of my paternal maternal paternal great-grandfather Newton Bascum Baldwin, a son of Mary Ann's 1st younger brother John R. Baldwin. According, Russell Gordon Thompson and I are straight up 4th cousins with common Baldwin-Seale great-great-great-great grandparents John M. and Elizabeth Baldwin.

Thompson's tombstone "guesstimate" date of birth is "JAN 1   1837" but he (or somesome) gives "7 Oct 1854". The "1854" could be a typo for "1843", the year stated on the 1900 census, which shows "Oct 1843".

Censuses show Thomas's ages as follows (all enumerated as of 1 June).

 5, 1850 census for District 31 of Lee Co, Va
15, 1860, First Sub-Division, Claiborne Co, Tn
25, 1870, Raccoon Post Office, Raccoon Voting Precinct, Laurel Co, Ky
34, 1880 (1 Jun), Voting Precinct No. 2, Powell Co, Ky
56, 1900, born Oct 1843, Georgetown Precinct, Georgetown, Scott Co, Ky

10 Sep 1862   Henry Clay Thomas enlisted in Company C, Kentucky 2nd Cavalry Regiment, in Lexington, Kentucky, at the rank of private.

The 1870 census for the Raccoon Post Office area of Raccoon Voting Princinct in Laurel County, Kentucky, shows "Henry Thomas" (25) with "Martha J." [no age recorded], "Lillia B." (2), "Rosa L." (5/12), and "Marimon [tentative] E." (21). Lillia and Rosa appear to be their daughters. Marimon E.'s identity is unclear. The 1870 census says she was born in Kentucky, unlike Henry, who was born in Virginia. Henry's younger sister -- "Elizbeth" (3) on the 1850 census and "Elizabeth" (12) on the 1860 census -- was also born in Lee County, Virginia. If born in 6 August 1849 as some family trees claim, however, she would have been 9/12 and 10 on the 1850 and 1860 censuses, and should have been 20 on the 1870 census. In any event, it is not impossible that "Mariomon E." is Henry Clay's sister.

Henry Clay and Elizabeth lost their father to measles in 1862, during the Civil War, and their mother, Mary Ann (Baldwin) Thomas remarried in 1867. Mary Ann appears to have left her Thomas children under circumstances in which the older children fended for themselves, but the younger children became wards of a guardian -- who testified to the circumstances in a disposition dated in 1873 (see image of transcription to right).

The 1900 census for "Georgetown Precinct" in "Georgetown town" in Scott County, Kentucky, shows the household of "Henry C. Thomas" (56), born "Oct 1843", with his wife "Martha J." (52), May 1848, and 8 children from "Jno. A. Thomas" (28), Dec 1871, to "Susie" (7), Feb 1893. Thomas and Martha have been married 32 years and all 12 of her children are still living. He was born in Virginia to Virginia-born parents, she in Kentucky to Kentucky-born parents, and all enumerated children were born in Kentucky. Henry was a "Pensioner" and owned his own home free of mortgage. John A. is a "Soldier, Co. D., U.S. Inf." Susie is "at school". Only Martha is unable to read and write English.

The 1910 census for Precint 12, part of Muncie City in Delaware County, Indiana, shows "Martha J. Thomas" (61), as a widowed head of household, residing with only her daughter "Susan A." (17). 10 of Martha's 12 children are still living. Martha has her "own income". Susan is a "machine operator" in a "Tin shop". Martha is unable to either read or write. She is renting the home in which she resides.

Martha J. Thomas, born Martha Jane Brown on 28 May 1848, in Kentucky, died on 15 September 1912 in the village of Shelbyville in the township of Adisin, Shelby County, Indiana, of "Septic poisoning result of slight injury of hand". She is buried in Forest Hill Cemetery in Shelby County.


William and Elihu Moles

Different fates of brothers who married Baldwin and Grubb widows

Marriages between children of neighboring families were common. My paternal maternal grandparents, Newton Bascum Baldwin (1862-1919) and Martha Ellen Steele (1863-1943) were fence neighbors. Remarriages with sibling of a deceased spouse were also fairly common. Newton Bascum Baldwin's father, John R. Baldwin (1828-1909), married Margaret Anne Howard (1835-1912), the younger sister of his 1st wife, Rebecca Ann Howard (1828-1855), when Rebecca died. As the children of his aunt, Bascum's older half-siblings were also his half-cousins, and their step-mother was also their aunt.

Siblings from one family marrying siblings from another family were unusual but not rare. Newton Bascum Baldwin's younger brothers -- Robert Ewing Baldwin (1858-1942) and George Finley Baldwin (1873-1946) -- married sisters -- Eliza Jane King (1873-1938) and Emeline King (1875–1961). Their paternal great uncle and great aunt -- William Baldwin (c1830-c1854) and Sarah Jane Baldwin (1833-1888) -- married fence neighbors Harriet Grubb (1836-1907) and Lorenzo D. Grubb (1833-1893).

Of interest here are the remarriages in the late 1850s of Nancy Ann (Markham) Grubb (c1828-1880/1900) and her step-daughter Harriet (Grubb) Baldwin -- both of whom were left widows in the early 1850s -- to younger, never married brothers -- William Hamilton Moles (1834-1864) and Elihu Harden Moles (c1838-1890) -- who during the Civil War met very different fates on opposite sides.

William H. Moles (1834-1864) enlisted in Company I, Virginia 27th Cavalry Battalion, a volunteer component of the Army of the Confederate States of America. He was a private and died of measles at a Union prisoner of war camp.

Elihu H. Moles (1837-1890) enlisted in C Company, 19th Kentucky Infantry Regiment, a volunteer component of the Army of the United States of America. He was a 2nd lieutenant when discharged during the war as a casualty.


Private William H. Moles

Company I, Virginia 27th Cavalry Battalion
Captured at Jonesville, died at Rock Island

Several original manuscript records establish the timeline of William H. Moles's life and death as private in Company I, 27th Virginia Cavalry, a battalion or regiment in the Confederate Army. The following transcriptions of information in the manuscript records are mine.

Record Book of /
National Cemetery, at Rock Island, Illinois
Moles, Wm. H. Pri I 27 Va Feby 5 1864 [Sec A] 378

Record Book of Interments in Confederate /
National Cemetery, at Rock Island Arsenal
Moles, William Pvt I 27 Va Feby 5 1864 378

Record of Interments in Confederate Cemetery 1864
(59) 58 Wm Moles [Pri] I 27th Va. Feby 5 [1864] Variola 378

Roll of Prisoners of War at Military Prison, Louisville, Ky [manuscript image]
Moles William H. Private 27 Va Cavy I
Where captured Jonesville Va
When captured Dec [sic] 9 63
Date discharged Jany 17 64
Where sent Rock Island

Record of Prisoners of War Who Have Died at Rock Island Barracks, Illinois
Barrack No. 58 Moles William H. Pri 27 Va I
Where captured Jonesville Va
When captured 1863 Oct 9
When joined station 63 May 20
Died 1864 Feby 5 Variola
Grave 378 South of Prison Barracks

An index card, created sometime after 1 October 1961, reflects the following information from one of the manuscript records (my transcription).

U.S. National Cemetery Interment Control Form
DA Form 2122 [1 Oct 1961] [typescript image]
MOLES, Wm. H. Pvt Rock Island Conf Cem / Rock Island, Ill
Co I 27 Battn. Va. Cav. Death Mo 2 Day 5 Year 1864 Grave 378

A transcript (not a scan) of a Virginia Death and Burial Index record shows the following information, which presumably was culled from contemporary records.

William H. Moles
Born abt 1835 Virginia
Died 15 Feb 1864 Rock Island, Illinois
Age at death 29
Farmer, Married, Male
Father William Moles
Mother Lizzie Moles
Spouse Nancy Moles

William Hamilton Moles is buried as "Wm. H. Moles" with an undated tombstone inscribed "378 / WM. H. MOLES CO I / 27 BATTN VA CAV / U.S.A." in Rock Island Confederate Cemetery in Rock Island, Rock Island County, Illinois. He died on 2 February 1864.

A scans of a contemporary grave register shows him listed as "Wm. Moles" in Barrack "(59) 58". The Rank column is blank. He was in Company "I" of Regiment "27th Va.", died on "Feby 5" of "Variola" [smallpox], and was buried in Grave "378".

A "Record of Prisoners of War who have died at Rock Island Barracks, Illinois" shows him as "Moles William H." in Barrack "58", a "Pvt" in Regiment "27 Va", Company "I", Captured in "Jonesville Va" on "Oct 9" [1863], having Joined Station in "May 20" [1863], Died "Feby 5 / 1864", Cause of Death "Variola", Buried in grave number "378 / South of Prison Barracks".

Yet another prisoner of war record states that he was a "Private", qualifies his regiment as "Cavy" (Cavalry), and says he was captured in Jonesville on "Dec 9 [sic] / [18]63" and discharged in Rock Island on "Jany 19 [18]64". The "Private", "Dec" and discharge date are "ditto" entries.

The 27th Cavalry Battalion, Virginia, was organized with 6 companies, A-F, on 1 September 1862. Companies G, H, and I were added on 27 September 1862, 3 October 1863, and 18 April 1863. A 10th company was added and the unit redesignated the 25th Cavalry Regiment on 8 July 1864.

Birth, marriage, and life of William H. Moles

5 February 1834   William Hamilton Moles was born in Patrick County, Virginia. He is the older brother of Elihu H. Moles (1837-1890).

Nancy Ann Grubb, also known as "Annie" and "Anna", became Archibald Grubb's 2nd wife. She was the daughter of Josiah Markham [sometimes "Marcum"] (1790–1842) and Mary Polly Bales [sometimes "Beals" or "Boles"] (1795–1877), a younger sister of Jane (Bales) Seale (1787-1841), the wife of Fielding Seale (1790-1838) and the mother of John M. Baldwin's wife Elizabeth. Mary was also an older sister of Robert M. Bales (1807-1893), who figured in the administration of the estates of both Archibald Grubb and John M. Baldwin. Nancy Ann Grubb relinquished the administration of Archibald Grubb's estate to Robert M. Bales on 18 October 1852, which puts a "no later than" limit on his Archibald Grubb's death. On 21 March 1853, the Lee County court assigned the guardianship of Nancy Ann's children -- Martha J., William, and Archibald (Junior) -- to Robert M. Bales. See Grubb brothers vs. Robert M. Bales for legal actions taken against Bales in the late 1880s by William and Archibald (Junior) concerning his handling of their father's property and their share of the inheritance.

The 1850 census for Snow Creek District of Stokes County in North Carolina shows "William Moles" (17), the 2nd of 11 children and 2nd of 8 sons of "Wm. [William] J. Moles" (38) and "Elizabeth [(Lewis)] Moles" (37). Elihu H. Moles is enumerated as "Harden Moles" (12), the 4th child and 4th son. Everyone in the family was born in Virginia to Virginia-born parents. William H. Moles, possibly alone, returned to Lee County, Virginia, where he married the widowed Nancy Ann (Markham) Grubb on 26 June 1856.

1851-1852   Harriet Grubb, Nancy Ann Grubb's step daughter, marries William Baldwin, a neighbor. William Baldwin is Milton M. Baldwin's son and John R. Baldwin's 1st younger brother.

October 1852   Archibald Grubb dies.

1852-1853   Harriet (Grubb) Baldwin bears William Baldwin's son, William L. Baldwin, called "little William" in his grandfather Milton M. Baldwin's 2 March 1855 last will and testament.

About 1854   William Baldwin dies.

26 May 1856   Harriet (Grubb) Baldwin remarries Elihu Harden Moles (c1838-1890).

Harriet brings William L. Baldwin, her son with William Baldwin, to the marriage. She would have at least 3 more children with Elihu Moles. Little William grew up a Moles and then a Baldwin. He married as a Baldwin, and in 1903-1905 his daughter, Lulu May (Baldwin) Posterwait, with the help of her grandmother Harriet Moles, won an equity case in Lee County Chancery Court, in which she claimed to be the legal heir of 1/6th of her great-grandfather John M. Baldwin's Rose Hill, Lee County farm. See John M. Baldwin's last will and testament (above) for details.

26 June 1856   Nancy Ann (Markham) Grubbs, Harriet (Grubb) (Baldwin) Moles's step-mother, remarries William Hamilton Moles (1834-1864), Elihu H. Moles younger brother. A step-mother and step-daughter thus become sisters-in-law.

The Moles brothers were sons of William S. and Elizabeth Moles. The Moles family is enumerated in Stokes County, Virginia, in 1850 with 11 children, and in Pulaski County, Kentucky, in 1860 with 9 children -- 2 new children, minus William and Elihu, and Elbert Leander Moles. William and Elihu had married widowed Grubb and Baldwin wives. Elbert, born on 17 November 1839 in Palmer County, Virginia, had died on 19 August 1855 in Martins Creek, Lee County, Virginia. His parents were "Wm. S. Moles" and "Elizabeth Moles".

During his sojourn in Lee County, William S. Moles bought some items from the personal estate of Archibald Grubb in 1852, and sold his Martins Creek property to Jacob Wolfenbarger in 1857. These may mark the dates his family arrived in and left Lee County. Jacob's daughter, Nancy C. Wolfenbarger, married Archibald Grubb's grandson, Archibald Grubb (Junior), who Nancy Ann (Markham) Grubb bore in January 1853, about 3 months after Archibald Grubb's death around October 1852.

During the 1850s, between the 1850 and 1860 censuses, the Moles family was sojourning in the western part of Lee County. One family tree cites a Lee County record which shows that, on 23 October 1857, "William S. Moles and Elizabeth, his wife, Sold for the sum of $1050 to Jacob Wolfenbarger, Sr. 'A certain tract of land lying in Lee County on the waters of Martin's Creek'" (Ancestry.com).

Contact between the Moles, Grubb, and Baldwin families is suggested in records which show that on 9 November 1852, "William S. Moles" purchased a couple of items from the personal estate of Archibald Grubb -- as did both John M. and John R. Baldwin and other Grubb and Baldwin neighbors. See Grubb brothers vs. Robert M. Bales (below) for details.

The 1860 census for the Mt. Veron Post Office area of Rockcastle County in Kentucky shows the houseold of "Wm H. Moles" (26) with "Ann Moles" (31) and 4 children -- "Martha Grubb" (13), "Wm. Grubb" (11), "Arch Grubb" (7), and "Sarah A. Moles" (1). All were born in Virginia except Sarah, who was born in Kentucky. Nancy Ann brought the 3 Grubb children to the marriage. Legal actions taken in the late 1880s by Archibald and William Grubb suggest that Robert M. Bales continued to be their legal guardian.

18 April 1863   William H. Moles enlists in Lee County, Virginia, in Company I or the 27th Virginia Cavalry Battalion.

20 May 1863   William H. Moles joined station, apparently in the vicinity of Lee County, Virinia.

9 October or 9 December 1863   William H. Moles is captured at Jonesville in Lee County, Virginia, according to one manuscript record (date not dittoed). Another manuscript record says 9 December 1863 (date dittoed). October and December are a toss up. Union forces gained control of Cumberland Gap in September and mounted raids in Lee County, including Jonesville, its seat, in October and November 1863, and there were battles in Jonesville in January 1864. William H. Moles was sent to a Union prisoner-of-war camp in Louisville, Kentucky. The distance from Jonesville, Virginia to Louisville, Kentucky, through Cumberland Gap, today, is roughly 240 miles (385 kilometers). By automobile it would take about 4 hours non-stop. On foot it would take 8-12 days (20-30 miles/day) more or less. 100 days elasped between his capture at Jonesville and his 17 January 1864 "discharge" at Lousiville, Kentucky if captured on 9 October 1863 -- 39 days if captured on 9 December.

17 January 1864   William H. Moles is "discharged" from the prisoner-of-war camp in Louisville, Kentucky, and "sent to" a camp in Rock Island, Illinois. The distance from Louisville, Kentucky, to Rock Island, Illinois, today, is roughly 420 miles (670 kilometers). By automobile it would take about 6-1/2 hours non-stop. On foot it would take 14-21 days (20-30 miles/day) more or less. 19 days elasped between his "discharge" at Lousiville Kentucky and his 5 February 1864 death at Rock Island, Illinois. William H. Moles probably took sick enroute.

5 February 1864   William H. Moles died of smallpox while in captivity at a Union prisoner-of-war camp in Rock Island in Illinois.

William H. Moles, bunked in Barrack 58 (one record suggests 59) in the prisoner-of-war facility at Rock Island, Illinois, dies of "Variola" (smallpox). He is buried in grave 378 in Section A "south of prison barracks". The vertical gravestone appears to bear only the grave number, and his name and military unit.

Nancy and children after death of William H. Moles

28 August 1864   John Hamilton Moles was born in Lee County on or about this date, around 7-1/2 months after his father's death. Assuming he is William's son, if his mother carried him for 9 months, then he would have been conceived around November 1863. If, as it appears, William was stationed in Lee County, he would have been able to visit his wife. Conception between late October and early December supports a 9 December rather than 9 October date of captivity. He might even have been captured while visiting his wife.

The 1870 census for Rose Hill Township in Lee County Kentucky shows the household of "Nancy A. Moles" (43) with a personal estate worth $200 and 4 children -- 2 Moles children, "Sarah A. Moles" (12) and "John W. Moles" (6) -- and 2 Grubb children, "William Grubb" (21) and "Archibald Grubb" (17). Nancy is keeping house, her 2 children are at home, and the Grubb boys are working the farm. All were born in Lee County, Virginia, except Sarah, who was born in Rockcastle County, Kentucky. Among those the older household members, all can read, but Nancy and Sarah Moles, and Archibald Grubb, cannot write.

The 1880 census for Rose Hill Township in Lee County shows "Anna Moles" (50), keeping house, with her son "John Moles" (15), the last of at least 4 children she had with William H. Moles before his death on 5 February 1864.

I find no unambiguous records of Nancy Ann (Markham) (Grubb) Moles's existence after this -- hence the provision "aft 1880". Records regarding John H. Moles (1864-1923) show the usual problems with spellings of names and birth and death dates, but clearly establish his descent from William H. and Nancy Ann Moles.

Children after death of Nancy Ann (Markham) (Grubb) Moles

20 January 1887   "John H. Moles", age 22, born in 1865 in Lee County, Virginia, father "W.H. Moles", mother "N. Moles", married "Rachael Gollahan", age 23, born in 1864 in Lee County, Virginia, father "Jas Gollahan", in Lee County, Virginia, on 20 January 1887, according to a transcription (not a scan) of a Virginia marriage record.

The 1900 census for the Bales Forge Voting Precinct of Rose Hill in Lee County shows "John H. Moles" (35), born Aug 1864, with his wife "Rachel" [nee "Rachael A. Gallohan] (35), born Sept 1864, and 2 children. They have been married for 13 years and 2 of her 4 children are still living. All were born in Virginia to Virginia-born parents. He is a farmer on a rented farm. Rachel cannot read or write. The surviving children were their 1st and 2nd born, James Henry Moles (1888-1956) and Florence Mae "Flossie" Moles (1890–1970).

The 1910 census for the Bales Forge Precinct in the Rose Hill District of Lee County shows "John H. Moles" (46) and "Rachel A." (46) with 1 son, "Henry J." (21). They have been married 22 years and 2 of her 4 children are still living. John is a farmer on a general farm he owns free of mortgage. Henry is a farm laborer, presumably working for his father.

The 1920 census for Rose Hill Magisterial District of Lee County shows "John H. Moles" (54) with his wife "Rachel A." (54) farming on a general farm he owns free of mortgage and operates on his own account.

John Hamilton Moles is "John Ham Moles" on his Rose Hill Magisterial District death certificate, which says he was born in Virginia on "August 28th 1864" and died on "April 13th 1923". His father was Virginia-born "William Moles" and his mother was Virginia-born "Annie Marcum". The certificate was filed on 13 April 1923, and burial was slated for 14 April 1923 in "Sloane Graveyard" in Rose Hill. However, his tombstone in "Trent Cemetery" in Rose Hill reads "JOHN H. MOLES / "born / Aug. 15, 1865 / died / Apr. 22, 1923 / Gone but not forgotten". His wife is buried in the same cemetery as "RACHEL MOLES / Sept 16, 1864 / Nov. 15, 1940 / GONE HOME".

If John H. Moles was his father's son, and if his father died on 5 February 1864 as several contemporary records show, then John H. Moles was born in or about August 1864 as the 1900 census and his 1923 death certificate state. However, Union military records show that William H. Moles was in captivity in Louisville, Kentucky, and then at Rock Island, Illinois at the time it would seem that John H. Moles was concevied. See Private William H. Moles (below) for details.

John H. Moles is also "John Ham Moles" and Rachael is "Rachel Golhorn" on the Rose Hill, Lee County death certificate of their son "James Henry Moles" (1888-1956). The cause of death was certified by "Thomas S. Ely, M.D., Coroner" of Jonesville. James Henry Moles (1888-1956) and his wife, Laura Bradford (Brock) Moles (1901-1972), are buried at Bradford-Daniel Family Cemetery in Rose Hill.


2nd Lieutenant Elihu H. Moles

C Company, 19th Kentucky Infantry Regiment
Discharged during the war

Elihu H. Moles's older brother, William H. Moles (1834-1864), died a Confederate soldier in Union captivity in 1864, a year after Elihu was discharged from a Union Kentucky volunteer regiment as a casualty (see right).

Elihu would live a fairly long life with his wife, Harriet (Grubb) (Baldwin) Moles, the step-daughter of William's wife, Nancy Ann (Markham) (Grubbs) Moles.

Life and death of Elihu H. Moles

10 May 1837   Elihu H. Moles is born in Virgina a younger brother of William Hamilton Moles (1834-1864).

The 1850 census for Snow Creek District of Stokes County in North Carolina enumerates Elihu H. Moles as "Harden Moles" (12), the 4th child of 11 children and 4th of 8 sons of "Wm. [William] J. Moles" (38) and "Elizabeth [(Lewis)] Moles" (37). His older brother is listed as "William Moles" (17), the 2nd of 11 children and 2nd of 8 sons. Everyone in the family was born in Virginia to Virginia-born parents.

The 1860 census for the Stanford P.O. area of Lincoln County in Kentucky enumerates "Elihu H. Moles" (23), a carpenter, with "Harriett" [sic = Harriet] (24) and 2 children -- "Wm. L. Moles" (5), who is actually "William L. Baldwin", the deceased William Baldwin's son and John M. Baldwin's grandson -- and "Edmond Delany" (12). All were born in Virginia. Harriet is unable to read or write.

9 April 1862   Elihu H. Moles enlists in the 19 Kentucky Infantry Regiment, a voluneer component of the Union Army, which was organized on 2 January 1862 at Harrodsburg, Kentucky. He appears to have enlisted at Camp Harwood in Harrodsburg.

19 September 1862   Elihu H. Moles appears to have been discharged about this date as a 2nd lieutenant in C Company after becoming a casualty.

The 19th Kentucky participated in the Battle of the Cumberland Gap in June 1862 in a campaign that was carried out from 28 March to 18 June 1862. The regiment was at Cumberland Ford until June, and occupied Cumberland Gap from 18 June to 16 September 1862, after which it evacuated Cumberland Gap and retreated to Greenupsburg (presentday Greenup in Greenup County, Kentucky).

Elihu's older brother William H. Moles enlisted as a private in Lee County, Virginia, in Company I, Virginia 25th Cavalry Regiment, a Confederate unit, on 18 April 1863 about half a year after his brother was discharged as a casulaty. He was captured by Union forces at Jonesville on 5 October 1863, and he died of smallpox at a Union POW camp in Rock Island, Illinois, on 5 February 1864.

1870 census for Jefferson Townswhip in Owen County in Indiana shows "Elihu Moles" (33) with "Harriett" (34), "William" (15), "John H." (9), and "Mary E." (7). Elihu is preaching, Harriett is keeping house, and William "has no employment". Elihu, Harriett, and William were born in Virginia, John in Kentucky, and Mary in Indiana." Harriet can neither read or write.

The 1880 census for "Buck-Creek Township" in Hancock County, Indian, shows the household of "Elihu H. Moles" (43) with his wife "Harriet" (44), a daughter "Ada I." (9), and a "S Son" [step son] "William L. Baldwin" (25). Elihu is a preacher and Harriet is keeping house, while William, who was single, is a roof painter. All were born in Virginia to Virginia-born parents except Ada, who was born in Indiana.

30 September 1881   William L. Baldwin, William Baldwin's son with Harriet Grubb, was married to Phoebe Isabell Williams in Putnam County, Indiana, by Babtist minister Alexander S. Mayhall, according to their marriage license.

27 January 1885   Lulu May Baldwin was born in Mineral Springs in Barry County, Missouri, according to a delayed certificate of birth, an application for which was signed, subscribed, and sworn to before a notary public on 14 November 1953 by "Lulu May (Baldwin) Murray". The application was supported with an affidavit by F.G. Wilkenson, a friend, dated 25 November 1953, and it was filed on 4 December 1953 in the Division of Health, Jefferson City, Missouri.

20 January 1888   William L. Baldwin dies in Barry County, Missouri.

5 April 1890   Elihu H. Moles died in Indiana. He is buried in Yeoman Cemetery in Yeoman, Carroll county, Indiana. His monument says he was born in Virgina and was "AGED 52Ys. 10Ms. 25Ds" when he died. The inscription at the bottom says he was a "2nd LIEUT Co C 19th REGT / KY VOL INF" (?)

31 July 1890   Harriet Moles filed for benefits as the widow of Elihu H. Moles, from Indiana, where she was then residing (Application 467,591, Certificate 308,228) (see image to right).

1901   Lulu May Baldwin marries Charles Postelwait (b1877) in Pawnee County in Oklahoma Territory.

1903-1905   Lulu May Postelwait files a legal action in Lee County, Virginia, to recover equity in her father's (William L. Baldwin's) share of John M. Baldwin's land. See John M. Baldwin's will (below) for details.

17 July 1907   Harriet Moles died in Muncie in Delaware County, Indiana, of "Acute Gastro-enteritis". She had been a widow of "Rev. E.H. Moles". Her father was Virginia-born "John Grubb" and her mother was "Unknown" according to the death certificate. The informant was "John Moles" -- her son. She was slated for burial in Monticello in White County in Indiana. The death certificate of Archibald Grubb's last son, born shortly after his father's death (nlt November 1852), gives his name as "John Grubbs". Apparently he was also known as "John" -- his father's name, as well as the name of his 2nd son John Grubb (1838-1900).

16 November 1907   Oklahoma Territory becomes the 46th state. The contiguous "sea to shining sea" empire would become complete with the addition of New Mexico and Arizona on on respectively 6 January and 14 February 1912. Alaska and Hawaii joined were admitted to the Union on respectively 3 January and 21 August 1959.


The War of the Rebellion

The Civil and Pacific Wars

As I write this in 2021, the Civil War is 160 years old, and the Pacific War is 80 years old -- as am I. The "Civil War" was not very civil, except in the manner in which it ended, with a formal, by-the-book surrender and laying down of arms -- the same way the not-so-peaceful Pacific War ended.

The last witness of the Civil War died before I was born, and practically all witnesses of the Pacific War have also died. Collective "memories" of the wars today are essentially reliant on handed-down historical accounts, which greatly vary in point of view, quality, and truthfulness.

Each generation has found reason to revise existing histories, and each newer version raises objections from those who prefer earlier versions. Attempts to alter current "official" or "standard" views of the Civil War and the Pacific War are condemned by defenders of orthodox or "politically correct" views as "revisionist".

Many issues are at stake. For example:

Was the Civil War fought mainly to end slavery or to reunite a divided United States? Does a statue of General Lee in a town square today constitute a defense of slavery, or just a memorialization of a man who led the defense of his homeland?

Did Japan not have a right to try to drive Euroamerican colonial powers out of Asia? Did America provoke Japan into a war it needed to justify both chastising Japan for its encroachments on China, and joining the war in Europe against Japan's Axis allies?

Very little new evidence is coming to light regarding either war. Preserving surviving evidence is becoming increasing expensive. But such documents and other artifacts that survive have become more accessible, even to amateur historians. And professional historians have come up with increasingly critical and creative ways to impute new meanings to the evidence.

But clearly, neither the Civil War nor the Pacific War began spontaneously. Both exploded only when fuels that had accumulated over the years were set off by political and military sparks. And, as wars, they have a lot in common.

  1. Both wars were fundamentally territorial conflicts, never mind the multiple issues that fueled hostilities.
    1. There would not have been a "Civil War" -- a "War of the Rebellion" -- if slave states had not seceded from the Union and formed a rival Confederate States of America. The resolve of the non-slave states to emancipate slaves did not materialize until the 2nd year of the war. And the proclaimed emancipation was binding only on Confederate states or localities therin that failed to quit the war by the end of 1862. In other words, the war did not begin in order to end slavery, but slavery ended as a consequence of political developments during the war.
    2. The Pacific War between primarily Japan and the United States germinated from conflicts over China and other hegemonic interests in Asia and the Pacific. However, the Allied Powers did not resolve to "liberate" Japan's colonial territories, which they had recognized were legal, until the 2nd year of the war, and the demand for unconditional surrender was made only in the 4th and last year of the war when Japan seemed bent on fighting to the finish.
  2. Despite their formal ends, neither war is over. Both continue to be fought in academia and the press, in town halls and on the streets.
    1. The descendants of victor veterans are allowed, even encouraged, to take public pride in the military actions of their ancestors and their patriotic motives.
    2. But the descendants of vanquished veterans are apt to be censured if they publicly memorialize the military feats of their ancestors, or justify their participation.

For a fuller comparison of both wars, see
The Civil and Pacific Wars:
Two continuing conflicts 160 and 80 years later

under "History" on the "Yosha Bunko" website.

What's in a name?

A lot -- when in comes to implications of uonconstitutionality, disloyaty, treason, and even immorality. By the end of 19th century, proud Confederate veterans were tired of the federal government's continuing stigmatization of the Confederacy in its treatment of soldiers who had fought on its side.

What people now most commonly call the "Civil War" was called the "War of the Rebellion" in John R. Baldwin's time. Postbellum acts that created pensions for earlier wars -- such as the Act of 29 January 1887, which established benefits for Mexican War veterans -- disqalified veterans whose disabilities were incurred while "in any manner voluntarily engaged in or aiding and abetting the late rebellion against the authority of the United States" (1887 Mexican War pension act).

John R. Baldwin, in ordinary conversation, may have spoken of the "War of the Rebellion" or the "War Between the States" as a "civil war". But he probably did not use "civil war" in the manner of "Civil War" -- the "proper" appelation today.

Some Confederate veterans regarded the federal government's insistance on characterizing the war as a "rebellion" insulting. At the turn of the 19th-20th centuries, both the United Confederate Veterans (UCV) and the United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC) moved to replace "War of the Rebellion" with "War Between the States", which gradually became more common (Gaines M. Foster, Ghosts of the Confederacy: Defeat, the Lost Cause, and the Emergence of the New South, 1865-1913, Oxford University Press, 1987). Only later did "Civil War" become the standard "neutral" label for a war that continues to embattle historians in debates over its causes and its purposes, which are not the same.

Kentucky as a "swing state"

Kentucky in many ways symbolizes the divide in various opinions over questions of slavery and secession. It was the birthplace of both Civil War presidents -- Abraham Lincoln of the Union, and Jefferson Davis of the Confederacy.

Kentucky was the site of a number of skirmishes during the early months of the war. The vast majority of the larger battles in the war, however, took place to the east in Virginia, to the south and southeast in Tennessee and North Carolina, and in states further south.

Some non-governmental groups in Kentucky sided with the Confedercy, but the state of Kentucky itself always remained in the Union. Even its short-lived "Resolution of Neutrality" on 18 May 1861 was essentially a vote for the Union cause.

The Great War or World War came half a century after the Civil War. During "the war to end all wars" -- now called World War I -- a number of scholars were thrashing through the archival ruins of the Civil War, trying to answer old and new questions about its causes and purposes. The following article is a 1916 look at the geographical and political conditions behind Kentucky's vote against secessionists (see 1st page to right).

Wm. T. McKinney
The Defeat of the Secessionists in Kentucky in 1861
The Journal of Negro History
(Association for the Study of African American Life and History)
[The University of Chicago Press]
Volume 1, Number 4, October 1916, pages 377-391

McKinney begins his article with a look at the all-important prelude to the secessionist actions that precipitated the founding of the Confederate States of America in 1861. The decisive votes to secede came after years of heated discussion in all nominally Southern states, including Kentucky -- a "border state" which, had it voted to bolt the Union fold and join the Confederacy, might well have tilted the balance of geopolitical power to the South.

Kentuckians in Union and Confederate uniforms

The following article offers a particularly interesting perspective on Kentucky's military role in the Civil War (see 1st page to right).

A. C. Quisenberry
Kentucky Union Troops in the Civil War
Register of Kentucky State Historical Society
Published by Kentucky Historical Society
Volume 18, Number 54, September 1920, Pages 13-18

Quisenberry estimates that "Kentucky furnished many prominent men to the Confederacy, as well as about thirty five thousand soldiers" (page 13), and that "Kentucky furnished 51,000 white volunteers and 23,000 colored-volunteers to the Union army -- a total of 74,000 troops" (page 13).

Later in the article, after adding more troops to the Union side of the ledger, Quisenberry concludes that, "If accurate figures could be obtained, it is believed that the number of Kentuckians who served the Union in the Civil War would not fall far short of 125,000" (page 14) -- which means (1) accurate figures cannot be obtained, and (2) the number would fall short of 125,000 -- qualifications which have been lost on Wikipedia and other unnuanced sources, which tend to stress inflated figures.

Baldwin-Howard loyalties

The Baldwin-Howard family was one of many Virginia families that migrated to Kentucky during the Civil War. Whether they sought refuge from the war, or moved for other reasons, will vary with the family. And many families stayed for a variety of reasons.

Would the Baldwin-Howard family have eventually moved to Kentucky -- or possibly another state -- if not for the war? There is no way of knowing -- without personal testimonies from John or Margaret Baldwin, or from members of related collateral families.

Political issues -- local, state, regional, and national -- probably didn't decide whether a family stayed put or moved during the war. The main concern, for most families, was probably physical safety and the ability to feed itself.

Safety in a herd generally requires gaining the trust of, and cooperating with, others in the herd. A family caught between two herds might survive by remaining neutral, but remaining neutral in times of a civil war in one's own locality can risk the suspicion and enmity of all sides both sides.

My impression from Baldwin-Howard lore is that John R. Baldwin made decisions that could be taken as either pro-Union or neutralist. Given its location in relation to Cumberland Gap and its agricultural productivity -- but perhaps most importantly its political status as part of Virginia, a Confederate state -- Lee County became hostile toward both pro-Union and neutral families.

Cumberland Gap became the object of several battles, and Lee Valley farm produce and other goods attracted military foragers. But above all, most Virginians -- regardless of their political stripes -- were Virginians. The vested interests of most residents of Lee County, including the Baldwin-Howard and related families, were in their farms and communities. When it came to war, most families would herd together to protect their local interests, which meant aiding Confederate forces.

What did it mean to be "Pro-Union" or "neutral" in Lee Valley? Did it mean "anti-slavery" or "anti-Confederacy" or "anti-Virginia" or just "anti-neighbor"?

The dominant "herd" in Lee Valley may simply have been "pro-Virginia". From the viewpoint of a Virginia patriot, the measure of loyalty would have been a commitment to the State of Virginia, less than to the Confederacy. Once the shooting began, the overarching issue for most families would have been to protect their homes and communities -- which meant hanging together as residents of Rose Hill or Jonestown, or of Powell Valley, or of Lee County, or of Virginia -- i.e., being Virginians, never mind the issue of slavery. Reducing the war to one of "anti-slavists" against "slavists" is an artifact of latterday -- not contemporary -- politics.

Once widespread shooting started, provoked by military acts taken in the interest of seizing or protecting a Union military facility in South Carolina, a Confederate state, the question of loyalty in Virginia was not so much to the Confederacy, but to Virginia as part of the Confederacy -- a one-for-all, all-for-one, "if you're not with us, you're against us" stance.

In any event, the Baldwin-Howard family was not alone among Lee County families to pack up and leave for new homes in Kentucky and elsewhere that offered more safety if not also more land and other economic opportunities -- mainly in the interest of the family, not a state, much less the Confederacy or Union.

See The Civil and Pacific Wars for a closer took at
the several "one-cause" schools and their drawbacks.

John R. Baldwin (1828-1909)

Baldwin 1863

July-August 1863, 6th Sub-District, Owsley County, Kentucky
John R. Balden [sic], 34, White, Farmer, Married, Virginia born

Enrollments enumerated in July and August 1863, transcribed to this register on 1 February 1864
under direction of Capt. Robert Hays, Provost Marshal, 8th Congressional District, Kentucky

Copped and cropped from Ancestry.com
Click on following image to enlarge

Baldwin 1863

Halltown John R. Baldwin

Baldwin JR Halltown

AboveCover of file for "Halltown John R. Baldwin" Co. B, 2 Reg't, Virginia Infantry
Below 2 of 26 Company Muster Roll chits and other records
Recruited in Halltown, Jefferson County, Virginia, 18 April 1861
Mustered into service in Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, 11 May 1861
Detailed as teamster, forage master, and quarter master sergeant
Paroled from Union captivity at Appomattox Court House, 9 April 1865
Copped from Fold3

Baldwin JR Halltown Baldwin JR Halltown
Halltown Harpers Ferry Virginians gather in Halltown, Virginia, around 5:00 pm on the evening of 18 April 1861
They march of Harpers Ferry, about 10 miles northeast of Halltown, and by 10:00 pm they have attacked and destroyed the U.S. Army arsenal at Harpers Ferry. The blast and flames lit up the night sky and the explosion rocked the surrounding hills.
Sketch by D. H. Strother, copped from Son of the South
Baldwin JR Halltown Baldwin JR Halltown

2nd Regiment Virginia Infantry and Company B
Images screen captured from
Harlan H. Hinkle
Grayback Mountaineers:
The Confederate Face of West(ern) Virginia

Lincoln (NB): iUniverse, 2003
x, 319 pages, scanned by Google Books

Richmond John R. Baldwin

Baldwin JR Richmond

AboveCover of file for "Richmond John R. Baldwin" Co. D, 25 Batt'n, Virginia Infantry
Below 2 of 10 Company Muster Roll chits and other records
Recruited in Richmond, Virginia, 26 August 1861
Served as teamster, forage master, and quarter master
Paroled from Union captivity at Farmsville, 11-21 April 1865
Copped from Fold3

Baldwin JR Richmond Baldwin JR Richmond

Thomas N. Baldwin (1843-1924)

Baldwin TN Rose Hill

AboveCover of file for "Thomas N. Baldwin" Co. D / K, 37 Virginia Infantry
Below 2 of 21 Company Muster Roll chits and other records
Enlisted in Rose Hill, Virginia, 22 May 1861
Paid $50.00 Bounty Pay for reenlistment at Fort Mason, 22 February 1862
Mustered in as Private, elected Corporal on 23 April 1862, mustered out as Corporal
Paroled from Union captivity at Appomattox Court House, 9 April 1865
Copped from Fold3

Baldwin TN Rose Hill Baldwin TN Rose Hill

Parolled Prisoner's Pass
"permission to go home . . . and remain undisturbed"

Paroled Prisoner Pass "Paroled Prisoner's Pass" issued at Appomatox Court House, Va., April 10th, 1865
Copped from National Park Service, Department of the Interior

James Alvin and Henry Clay Thomas
A father and son on the home front

James Alvin Thomas Click on image to enlarge
Mary A. Thomas as widow of James A. Thomas
Served in Company C, 1st Tennessee Infantry
Record of filing for widow benefits in Kentucky
Filed 25 July 1890, Appl 463,037, no Cert No.
Mary A. Thomas (b1826) was widowed in 1862
She remarried John V. Orton (b1895) on 14 July 1867
Both were still alive but living apart in 1870 census

Copped and cropped from Ancestry.com
Henry Clay Thomas Click on image to enlarge
Martha J. Thomas as widow of Henry C. Thomas
Served in Company A, 10th Illinois Infantry
then in Company E, 2nd Tennessee Infantry
Record of filing for widow benefits in Kentucky
Filed 11 March 1904, Appl 801,724, Cert 594,862
Henry Clay Thomas died on 2 Jan 1904 in Georgetown, KY
Martha Jane Brown died on 15 Sep 1912 in Shelbyville, IN
All 12 children were alive in 1900, and 10 were alive in 1910

Copped and cropped from FamilySearch
Thomas Henry Clay deposition

Click on image to enlarge

Henry Clay Thomas during the War of the Rebellion

Part of 27 March 1889 deposition by Henry Clay Thomas
regarding himself and his parents during the War of the Rebellion

Image copped and cropped from Ancestry.com
Originally shared and transcribed by Russell Thompson

The following transcription was posted by Russell Thompson on Ancestry.com (viewed 22 February 2020).
The remarks in [square brackets] are his.
The Purple highlighting and red remarks in <angle brackets> are mine.
Note in particular that Russell's "Minks" are written "Mink's" (meaning "Mink's place") and "Mink".
I have reformated the received transcription to show the paragraph breaks and signature
as they appear on the image of the original document.
See comments under Henry Clay Thomas to the left.

Transcription of text in document

Page 8

I was too small to serve, and they [two unreadable words] us to war. I did stay with this regiment awhile but, I did nothing but cook, and fetched water, and waited on the officers. And in fact I did <2 overstruck letters> [unreadable word] things <sic = anything> they asked me to do. I can't say further if not I was enlisted and [unreadable word] into their Tenn. Regiment. I may had a gun. They told me I was too small and had better go back to my mother; and I went back to where my [Transcribers note: compare this word my with other in this document, and the next word is lined out.] mother was, and found she [two unreadable words] of her [unreadable word], and gone to within 5 or 6 miles of Camp Wilson. My mother was then at her sisters Harriet Minks <sic = Mink's>, and I came by and told her I was going to Illinois. My father was in a Tenn. Regiment and died of measles at my mother's sister's house in 1862 I think. And mother was there with Mrs. Minks <sic = Mink> when I came by.
I think the Tenn. regiment I undertook to join was the 2nd Inf., and I believe Co. E.
I can't name any of the officers [two unreadable words] in that Co. [unreadable word] I think I had an uncle Henry C.

[Signed] Henry Thomas,              

[Transcribed by Russell G. Thompson, Sanford, Florida, December 18, 2012, Henry Clay Thomas, National Archive Materials, 52-59, Deposition A, Pg. 8, No. 649009, March 27, 1889.]

[Additional corrections done by Russell G. Thompson, Sanford, Florida, May 25, 2014, with new information from James Alvin Thomas, NARA Form 85D, Full Pension File-Civil War, WC--178.061, Jesse Rogers, Guardian Sworn Declaration, March 17, 1783, that clarified the involvement of Harriet Minks.]

Thomas Henry Clay guardian

Click on image to enlarge

Widowed wives, orphaned children

Guardian of 5 minor children of James Alvin Thomas, deceased,
seeks relief under 6 June 1866 Pension Act on grounds that they had been
abandoned by their mother, who was unsuitable by reason of immoral conduct

in 17 March 1873 deposition by Jesse Rogers, guardian, to Chancery Court of Claiborne County, Tennessee
Image copped and cropped from Ancestry.com
Originally shared and transcribed by Russell Thompson

The above transcription, by Russell G. Thompson,
was originally posted on Ancestry.com on 30 May 2014 (viewed 22 February 2020).
The yellow highlighting is Russell's. See comments under James Alvin Thomas to the left.
Thompson attribted the transcribed document to
"James Alvin Thomas, NARA Form 85D, Full Pension File -- Civil War, WC178.061."

Pensions for children of widowed mothers
who abandoned them or were found unsuitable

Guardian of Minor Children for Pension

The formal language of the above transcription is mostly boilerplate.

Congress began passing pension acts during the War of the Rebellion, and the variety of pensions and conditions for receiving them frequently changed over the nearly 150 years during which there were pensioners. As of 2017, an 87-year-old woman was still receiving a pension as the daughter of a Civil War veteran.

The act approved by Congress on 6 June 1866 was one of the more important early postbellum pension measures in that it made specific provisions for children whose widowed mothers had either (1) abandoned them, or (2) were regarded as unable to raise them. Guardians of such children applied for benefits through a formal procedure that required a written declaration of the circumstances that justified granting a pension. The declaration was an affidavit or deposition made or taken under oath, and signed, in the presence of a witness or attestor, most commonly a notary public.

Notary publics and others legally authorized to witness or attest to the authenticity of a written testimony generally followed established forms when it came to phrasing. A typical "Form of declaration of guardian of minor children for pension" under the 6 June 1866 act looked like this (examples culled from parts of on-line transcriptions of actually declarations).

Example 1
On this Sixth day of July A.D 1867, personally appeared before me, Deputy Clerk of the Court of Common Pleas in and for the City & County of New York, Xaver Schillinger aged thirty years, a resident of East New York, in the County of Kings and State of New York and whose Post Office address is Liberty Avenue in the County and State aforesaid, who, being duly sworn according to law, doth on oath make the following declaration, as Guardian of the minor child of John Moelig deceased, in order to obtain the benefits of the provision made by the eleventh section of the act of Congress approved June 6, 1866, granting pensions to the minor child or children under sixteen years of age of deceased officers, soldiers, or seamen, who have left a widow still surviving, and she having abandoned the care of said child or children, or having been declared an unsuitable person to have charge of the same. He further declares that he is the Guardian of Amelia Josephine Moelig whose father was a Private in Company "A" Corps of Engineers United States Army in the war of 1861, and that the said John Moelig died at Fort Pickens, Fla. On the First day of June A.D. 1861; in consequence of injuries received in the line of duty, that the mother of said child aforesaid remarried on the 10th day of February 1863, and that the date of birth of said ward is as follows: Amelia Josephine Moelig born on the 6th day of June 1858.

Example 2
On this 23rd day of September A.D. 1868, personally appeared before me, (1) J. G. Strong a Notary Public (2) Ann Durgan aged 47 years, a resident of Toledo, in the County of Tama and State of Iowa and whose Post Office address is Toledo, in the County and State aforesaid, who, being duly sworn according to law, doth on oath make the following declaration, as Guardian of the minor child of Stephen A. Stiles deceased, in order to obtain the benefits of the provision made by the eleventh section of the act of Congress approved June 6, 1866, granting pensions to the minor child or children under sixteen years of age of deceased officers, soldiers, or seamen, who have left a widow still surviving, and she having abandoned the care of said child or children, or having been declared an unsuitable person to have charge of the same. She further declares that she is the Guardian of (3) Minerva M. Stiles whose father was a Private in Company I, 28th Regiment of Iowa Infantry Vols in the war of 1861, and that the said Stephen A. Stiles died at Richland Iowa on the 23d day of August A.D. 1865; (4) of disease contracted while in the service of the United States that the mother of the child aforesaid (5) has remarried and that the date of birth of said ward is as follows: 25th day of February A. D. 1856.

William and Elihu Moles
Different fates of brothers who married Baldwin and Grubb widows

William H. Moles Click on image to enlarge
William H. Moles as deceased POW at Rock Island Barracks, Illinois
Moles William H. Pri 27 Va I Jonesville Va Oct 9 [1863] Jany 20 [63] Feby 5 [1864] Varicola 378 South of Prison Barracks
Copped and cropped from Ancestry.com
William H. Moles William H. Moles's tombstone
Confederate Cemetery, Rock Island, Illinois
Photograph by john whitledge copped from Find a Grave
William H. Moles Click on image to enlarge
Harriet Moles as widow of Elihu H. Moles
Served in Company C, 19th Kentucky Infantry Regiment
Record of filing for widow benefits in Indiana
Filed 31 July 1890, Appl 467,591, Cert 308,228
Copped from Ancestry.com
Elihu H. Moles Harriet Moles

Harriet Moles, 1836-1907
The Press, Muncie, Indiana
Thursday, 18 July 1907, page 5
Clipped from Newspapers.com

According to this obituary
Harriet died on Tuesday
16 July 1907

Click on image to enlarge
Elihu H. Moles, 1837-1890
Yeoman Cemetery, Yeoman, Indiana
Photograph by Teresa Grissom from Find a Grave

Monument inscriptions
Born [ . . . ] Va / May 10, 1837
Died / April 5, 1890 / AGED 52ys. 10Ms. 25Ds.
2nd LIEUT Co C 19th REGT / KY VOL INF" (?)

2nd Lieutenant Elihu H. Moles discharged as casualty from 19th Regiment of Kentucky volunteers
Official Army Register of the Volunteer Force of the United States Army for the Years 1861, '62, '63, '64, '65, Part IV
West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama,
Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Tennessee, Kentucky
Published by the order of the Secretary of War, in compliance with
the joint resolution of the Senate and House of Representatives, approved March 2, 1865
Adjudant General's Office, Washington, August 31, 1865
Image captured from MyHeritage.com PDF file
Elihu Moles

Kentucky in Civil War
Between a rock and a hard place

McKinney 1916 1st page of Wm. T. McKinney, "The Defeat of the Secessionists in Kentucky in 1861"
The Journal of Negro History (Association for the Study of African American Life and History) [The University of Chicago Press]
Volume 1, Number 4, October 1916, pages 377-391
Image captured from JSTOR PDF file
Quisenberry 1920 1st page of A. C. Quisenberry, "Kentucky Union Troops in the Civil War"
Register of Kentucky State Historical Society (Kentucky Historical Society)
Volume 18, Number 54, September 1920, pages 13-18
Image captured from JSTOR PDF file

Civil War issues in 2020
Ideological medicine for historical indigestion

Children of Confederacy Creed "Children of the Confederacy Creed" plaque in Texas Capitol
Erected on 7 August 1959, removed on 13 January 2019 on grounds that it made historically false claims
Image of plaque copped from 1 February 2019 web edition of article by Mike Clark-Madison
Racist Confederate Plaque Needs a Forever Home
State Preservation Board mulls over what to do with
defrocked "Children of the Confederacy Creed" plaque
The Austin Chronicle, Friday, 1 February, 2019

Garbage o