5. Baldwin-Steele (10.8 Baldwin-Steele)
Newton Bascum Baldwin and Martha Ellen Steele
See Chronology of Baldwin-Steele family for an overview of the origins of the Baldwin line in the Baldwin-Steele family and a fuller account of the family's movements and life.
See Chronology of Steele-Grubb family for an account of the Steele-Grubb family.
See 4th cousins X removed: Steele-Grubb connections with David Crockett for a look at the possible crossing of paths of the Steele line of the Baldwin-Steele family with an offshoot of the Crockett ancestors of Davy Crockett.
Bosoms trump breasts
Compare the clothing the Baldwin sisters are wearing in the circa 1905 family portrait to the right, and those they are wearing in the circa 1907 portrait below. Sada and Lydia are wearing the same outfits. Ida, too, appears to be wearing the same or very similar blouse and belt. Only Meda's dress is clearly different.
The object of female fashions then -- in the age of virtue and modesty -- seems to have been to exaggerate the bosom rather than accentuate the breasts. A large bosom alludes to fertility and motherhood, while shapely breasts suggest sexuality and womanhood. The body, then, was not only covered -- but layered -- with clothing designed to hide a woman's actual figure -- except her waist, which was cinched as tight as possible.
N.B. and Ellen (Steele) Baldwin (Grandma Baldwin)
N. Bascum Baldwin -- also known as "N. B. Baldwin" but socially as "Bascum" -- married Martha Ellen Steele in Kentucky. The couple eventually settled and built a home in Saint Maries, at the confluence of the St. Joe and St. Maries Rivers, in Idaho. Bascum was known as a "Dealer In General Merchandise".
William B. Wetherall said in 2010 that his maternal grandparents had married and started their family in Kentucky, but later migrated to Saint Maries. He said his grandfather, N. B. Baldwin, had been a merchant and businessman, and at times owned a restaurant, general store, and laundry.
N. B. Baldwin In his very small collection of Wetherall-Baldwin family detritus was a yellow business card showing the following information. I transcribed the card when my father showed it to me in a shoebox with other family detritus. The card has been lost.
N. B. Baldwin
Judging from the 1880 census, Bascum and Ellen married in their teens as children in neighboring families in Kentucky. All the men in the families were laborers, presumably on the family farm.
The 1900 census shows them farming in another part of Kentucky with their 4 daughters. The oldest was "Saddy" (17) or "Sally" depending on how one reads the corrected scribble, and the youngest was Ida (9). All 4 of the Baldwin sisters were at school.
Sometime around 1904 or 1905, some of the Baldwin-Steele family members leave Kentucky. N.B. Baldwin appears to be living with Sadie and her husband C. F. Williams in Kansas in 1905 (see 1905 Kansas census below).
By 1907, N.B. and Ellen are resident employees at the insane asylum in Lincoln, Nebraska. He is working as a meat cutter, she as an assistant cook. Lydia was apparently studying at a business college in Lincoln. Meda and Ida were probably also living there. Circa 1906-1907, Lydia married Charles Anstine, a farmer in Utica in Seward County.
By 1908, N.B. and Ellen, and Meda and Ida, had moved to Spokane, Washington, where Ida (and apparently also Meda" attended business colleges, and N.B. and Ellen ran a restaurant. Lydia remained in Nebraska with her new family. In 1909, Meda and Ida are living with their parents in Spokane, Ida still enrolled in a business college, Meda working as a cashier at the restaurant.
By 1910, N.B. and Ellen are running a restaurant and boarding house in St. Maries, Idaho. Meda is living with them while working as a milliner at her own shop.
A photograph probably taken in St. Maries early in 1912, of William B. Wetherall on a boardwalk in St. Maries, shows a restaurant and boarding house that may have belonged to N.B. Baldwin. See Wetherall-Hardman family (Bill and Orene) page for details.
N.B. lived in St. Maries until his death in 1919. The 1920 census shows Ellen living in St. Maries with Meda, Meda's husband Clifford Ure, and their daughter Greta. Lydia underwent surgery for a colostomy in 1927 and died in 1929, and the 1930 census shows Ellen living with Charles Anstine and his and Lydia's daughters on the Anstine farm in Utica. The 1930 census shows Sadie also living and working in Seward. The 1940 census shows Sadie and Ellen living together in St. Maries, where Ellen died in 1943.
So Ellen spent a good part of her life supporting her daughters in their trials and tribulations, both marital and medical. She helped Sadie and her children when Sadie's marriage floundered. She went to Iowa to help Ida deliver William B. Wetherall (my father) in 1911, and then took in my father when Ida was committed to an asylum. She was helped by Meda after N.B. died but reciprocated by helping Meda raise first Greta and later Dale. She helped Lydia in the late 1920s when Lydia had cancer, and remained with Charley and the girls for a while after Lydia died. Her visits with my father in Iowa when he was going to school there during the 1920s inspired him to return to St. Maries, where he lived with Meda's family, but also Ellen and Sadie, during his college years.
William B. Wetherall's mother and aunts
N.B. and Ellen Baldwin had 4 daughters in the span of 7 years from 1883-1890 -- Sadie, Lydia, Meda, and Ida. As adults they led very different lives, and some had hard times.
Sadie lost the first 2 of her 4 children in death in their infancy, separated from her husband while the 2 surviving children were still very young, and raised them alone with occasional help from her mother.
Lydia lost her 1st daughter, and then shortly after the birth of her 4th, she underwent a resection and colostomy operation. Two years later she died, leaving her husband with three daughters, the youngest only 2 years old -- and three years later he also died of cancer.
Meda would live the longest and most stable life of the Baldwin sisters.
Ida would live the shortest and most tragic life. Confined in an asylum about 8 months after her son, William B. Wetherall, my father, was born, she died in confinement 12 years later, probably a victim of what today would be called post-partum depression. In her time, she was just crazy.
Only Lydia and Meda are buried with their husbands. Lydia and Charley Anstine are buried with their eldest daughter, Velma Anstine, in Utica, Nebraska. Meda and Clifford are buried in the Baldwin plot in St. Maries, Idaho, with N. Bascum and M. Ellen Baldwin. Ida Baldwin Wetherall is also buried in the Baldwin plot with her parents and the Ures. Sadie Williams is Coeur dAlene, Idaho.
The portrait to the right was most likely taken in Lincoln, Nebraska, around 1907, which appears to have been the last year the Baldwins and their daughters were living close together. By 1908, N.B. and Ellen, and Ida and apparently also Meda, were in Spokane, while Lydia was in Nebraska, where she had married. Sadie, who married around 1903-1904, had given birth to her Faye -- her 3rd (and 1st surviving) child -- in Iowa in 1906, but Claude -- her 4th (and 2nd surviving) child -- was born in Nebraska in 1907.
The 1910 census shows all the Baldwins except Lydia and Ida -- namely N.B., Ellen, Meda, and Sadie and her 2 children -- living together in St. Maries, Idaho. In 1910, Ida married William R. Wetherall of Iowa in Seward, Nebraska, where Lydia lived, then lived in Iowa, where in 1911 she gave birth to William B. Wetherall. Ellen came to Iowa to be with her when she gave birth, at which time Sadie was in Medical Lake, Washington.
Sadie (Baldwin) Williams (Aunt Sadie)
Sadie's husband and children
Sadie's marriage, motherhood, separation, and divorce are shrouded in mystery. She had 4 children, of whom 2 -- Faye and Claude -- survived. Both Faye and Claude were slightly older than Sadie's nephew, this writer's father William Bascom Wetherall, who partly grew up with his aunt and 1st cousins in the Baldwin household in St. Maries until he was about 6 years old. Sadie and her children -- especially Faye -- remained close to Bill and his family throughout their lives.
The 1900 census for Pond Creek in Jackson County shows what looks most like "Sally" (17) [Sarah, Sadie, Sada] living in Kentucky as the oldest daughter of "N.B." or "B." Baldwin (38), who is engaged in farming, and Ellen (36). Her younger sisters -- Liddie [sic = Lydie, Lydia] (14), "Almedie" ["Medie"?] [sic = Medie, Meda] (11), and Ida (9) -- are also listed. The census states that everyone in the family was born in Kentucky, Sadie in March 1883, her father in December 1861. Sadie is single and at school.
18 October 1902 "A.P. Williams" married "Sallie Baldwin" in Jackson County, Kentucky (Ancestry.com record, transcription).
The 1905 Kansas census for Parsons, in Labette County, enumerated on 1 March 1905, shows "N.B. Baldwin" (44), residing in a home with "C.F. Williams" (28), "Sallie Williams" (22), and "Oscar Williams" (6). C.F. Williams and N.B. Baldwin were born in Virginia, and Sallie and Oscar were born in Kentucky. C.F. Williams came to Kansas from Tennessee, while Sallie and Oscar Williams, and N.B. Baldwin, came to Kansas from Kentucky. C.F. Williams is described as a "Hospital attendant".
Who did Sadie Baldwin marry?
Oscar, if 6 as of 1 March 1905 in the Kansas census, would have been born on or after 2 March 1898 and no later than 1 March 1899, when Sallie was 16 and C.F. Williams was 22. In other words, Oscar was born about 1 year before the 1 June 1910 census showing "Saddy" or "Sally" Baldwin as single -- and 3 years before "Sallie Baldwin" is said to have married "A.P. Williams".
The above Ancestry.com record -- a transcription rather than an image -- shows a marriage between a "Sallie Baldwin" and an "A.P. Williams" in Jackson County, Kentucky, on 18 October 1902.
The 1900 census for Kavanaugh Precinct in Jackson County, Kentucky, shows "Ambrose Williams", 22 years of age, born in Mar 1878 in Virginia to Virginia-born parents, with his wife "Margaret" age 28, born in Sept 1871 in Kentucky to Kentucky-born parents, and a son "Oscar M." 1, Sept 1898. The household includes 4 other children, all bearing the family name "Powell" -- step-daughter "Maud" 8, June 1891, step-son "Leslie" 6, Dec 1893, step-daughter "Lella" 3, July 1896, and adopted "Ella" 14, Apr 1886. Ambrose and Margaret have been married 3 years, and Margaret has had 4 children, all of whom are reportedly still alive -- presumably Oscar with Ambrose Williams, and the 3 step-children with a man named Powell, implicity Margaret's deceased or divorced previous husband. Ambrose is farming on a farm he rents.
Margaret "Maggie" A. Coyle married Larkin Powell on 29 July 1890 in Jackson County, Kentucky.
"Maud Lee (Powell) Clemmons", born on 27 June 1891, died of tuberculosis on 2 July 1922 in Sand Gap in Jackson County.
Frank Leslie Powell, born on 8 December 1893 in Sand Gap, Jackson County, died in Cincinati, Hamilton County, Ohio, on 19 January 1968.
The identities of "Ambrose Powell Williams" and "Charles F. Williams" remain unclear. It doesn't make immediate sense that in 1902 Sadie (Sallie) married "Ambrose Powell Williams" (A.P. Williams), who may have had a son named Oscar -- then shows up with "C.F. Williams" and a child "Oscar", and her father N.B. Baldwin, in a 1905 census -- then in 1906 gives birth to a daughter whose father appears to be "Ambrose Powell Williams" -- then in 1907 gives birth a son whose father appears to be "Charles F. Williams" -- unless "A.P." and "C.F." Williams are the same men -- or unless they are different men with the same family name, possibly brothers, with whom Sadie had on-and-off relations.
If "Ambrose Williams" the father of "Oscar" and step-father of several Powell children in the 1900 census is the "A.P. Williams" who "Sallie Baldwin" married in 1902 -- and if this "Sallie Baldwin" is the "Sallie" married to "C.F. Williams" in the 1905 Kansas census that includes "Oscar" and "N.B. Baldwin" -- and "Sallie Baldwin" aka "Sallie Williams" is otherwise N.B. Baldwin's daughter "Sadie Baldwin -- then we have to wonder if C.F. Williams and A.P. Williams are the same person, in which case C.F. Williams brought Oscar to his marriage with Sadie Baldwin from his marriage with Margaret (Coyle) Powell.
At this point, nothing can be ruled out. Even if we leave aside the apparently contradictory marriage and census records, we are left with a delayed Iowa birth certificate for Faye stating that her father was "Ambrose Powell Williams", and an actual Nebraska birth certificate for Claude stating that his father was "Charles F. Williams". That "Ambrose Powell Williams" might be right for Faye does not mean that "Charles F. Williams" is wrong for Claude. It is not impossible that Faye and Claude were half-siblings. Both A.P. Williams and C.F. Williams appear to have been born in Virginia. That Sallie and Oscar Williams and N.B. Baldwin came to Kansas from Kentucky, while C.F. Williams came to Kansas from Tennessee, is not a problem if they came to Kansas by different routes from the same place in Kentucky.
1906 Sadie gave birth to Faye on 4 October 1906 in Iowa. Faye's obituary states she was born in Knoxville, Iowa. A delayed birth certificate issued by the Division of Vital Statistics, Iowa State Department of Health, on 23 March 1942, states that she was born in Knoxville, Iowa, on 4 October 1906 to "Ambrose Powell Williams" and "Sarah E. Williams" ("or Sadie" is printed below Sarah).
1907 Sadie gave birth to Claude on 28 November 1907 in Nebraska. Claude's birth certificate states he was born in Lincoln, Nebraska, to "Chas. F. Williams", a [locomotive] fireman, and "Sarah Elizabeth Baldwin".
The 1908 Lincoln Nebraska Directory shows Williams Charles F fireman C B & Q res 720 Q. Williams is apparently a locomotive fireman for the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad. The same directory shows Lydia Baldwin living at the same 720 Q address, which suggests that Sadie and Faye are also living there. Charles Anstine, who Lydia would soon marry, is living practically next door, on the same street, and is also working as a fireman for C B & Q.
The 1909 Lincoln Nebraska Directory shows Williams Charles F fireman C B & Q res 1113 Q. Williams, still working for the railroad, has moved. Lydia Baldwin and Charles Anstine are no longer listed in the directory.
The 1910 census shows Sadie E. Williams (26) living with her Baldwin parents and second younger sister Meda (21) in St. Maries, Idaho, and her children Faye M. Williams (3) and Claude J. Williams (2). The census states that she had been married for 6 years, and had had 4 children, of whom 2 survived. This implies that she had married about 1904 (actually 1902), and that Faye was born in 1906-1907 (actually 1906) and Claude in 1907-1908 (actually 1907). Newton B. was born in Virginia, his father in Tennessee, his mother in Virginia. Ellen was born in Kentucky to parents born in North Carolina, according to this census. Meda and Sadie were born in Kentucky. Faye was born in Iowa, Claude was born in Nebraska, and their father was born in Tennessee -- consistent with the "Tennessee" origins of "C.F. Williams" in the 1905 Kansas census.
Where and when did Sadie lose 2 children?
1920 census I have not found Sadie, Faye, or Claude in the 1920 census. However, stories conveyed to me by Darci Severns, a great granddaughter of Lydia Anstaine, Sadie's sister, who lived in Utica in Seward County, Nebraska, suggest that Sadie was working as a nurse in Nebraska around that time.
Stories handed down by Lydia and Charley Anstine's descendants, through their daughters Lennie and Aura, suggest that Sadie, Faye, and Claude were living in Seward, Nebraska in the late 1910s and early 1920s. Darci Severns reports hearing from her grandmother, Lennie, that her (Lennie's) mother's (Lydia's) sister (Sadie) was a nurse and had seen the appendix removed from that her (Lennie's) older sister Velma, who died in 1919 from an infection. This would put Sadie in Seward in 1919, and Faye and Claude, then in their mid teens, would have been with her. See Darci's full account about Velma's death in "Anstine sisters" below.
The 1930 census shows Sadie (46), divorced, born in Kentucky, father in Virginia, mother in Kentucky, residing and working at the Nebraska Industrial House, a home for unwed mothers in "P" township in Seward County, Nebraska, as its resident nurse. She is said to have been 19 when she married, which implies that she married about 1902 (the 1910 census stated that she had been married for 6 years, which implies she married around 1904). Fay [sic = Faye] M. Williams (23), single, born in Iowa, father in Virginia, mother in Kentucky, is a teacher at a school (Temple) in Lincoln, Nebraska. I have not found Claude in the 1930 census.
The 1940 census shows Sadie Williams (57), head, and Ellen Baldwin (76), mother, living together at the Baldwin home in St. Maries. Both are said to be widowed and Kentucky born. The education box shows Sadie with 2 years of college and Ellen with 8 years of grade school. Sadie was living in Spokane, Washington on 1 April 1935, but Ellen was living in the same home. At the time of the 1940 census, Faye Mathews (33), divorced, no children, 2 years of college, born in Iowa, was working as a bookkeeper in Spokane, Washington, and she was living at the same place on 1 April 1935. Claude J. Williams (32), single, 2 years of college, Nebraska born, was working as a carpenter in building construction in Spokane, Washington, and he too was living at the same place in 1935.
Sadie's old Kentucky home
Uncle Clay's southern hospitality
September, 1947. Ellen Baldwin has joined Bascum Baldwin in Woodlawn Cemetery in St. Maries for nearly five years. Among their 4 daughters, only Sadie Williams, going on 64, and Meda Ure, then 58, survive them.
Sadie's own children have grown up and are approaching middle age. Her daughter Faye, 40, has remarried and her granddaughter, Marilyn, 12, now has a father. The war is over and her son, Claude Williams, 39, still single, is out of the Navy and working.
Sadie has an itch to see her childhood home in Kentucky. And on the way she'll pass through Nebraska and Iowa, where she had given birth to Faye and Claude and lived for a while after leaving Kentucky when she was 20. On her back to Idaho, she'll swing through San Francisco to visit her nephew, William Bascom Wetherall, and his family. Hopefully Meda will come down from Washington to join them.
In Des Moines, Iowa, where William B. Wetherall went to high school, Sadie buys several postcards of city landmarks. She sends 4 cards to "1922 24th Ave / San Francisco 16 / Calif." -- in 2 batches about 10 days apart -- the 1st from Des Moines, the 2nd from Kentucky -- and twice spells Wetherall "Weatherall".
The plot thickens with each card.
"I came 3 days ago and 2 chickens have died"
Henry Clay Baldwin (1867-1950)
"Uncle Clay" and his wife Linda would both die three years after Sadie's visit.
Uncle Clay was a younger brother of Sadie's father, N. Bascum Baldwin. Both were sons of John R. Baldwin and Margaret Howard (see 10. Baldwin-Howard below for details).
Clay was born Henry Clay Baldwin on 5 November 1867 in Laurel County, Kentucky. He married Malinda "Linda" ("Lindy", "Lindie") H. Abrams on 14 February 1898 and they had at least 8 children.
Though a farmer all his life, H. Clay Baldwin, like his namesake, was also a politician, and served as a representative in Kentucky's State House of Representative (see the "Baldwin-Howard gallery" below).
H.C. Baldwin, as he was also known, died in Annville, Jackson County, on 7 March 1950, of a heart attack. Linda, who was born on 18 August 1880, died on 16 May 1950, just 10 weeks later, from cancer. Both are buried at Medlock Cemetery in Annville (see 10.11 Henry Clay Baldwin and Malinda Abrams in the "Baldwin-Howard" section for details).
When I was growing up in San Francisco, most of the food I ate came out of neighborhood grocery stores and butcher shops. In earlier years, milk was delivered to our door in glass bottles. Chickens were bought headless, even feetless, dressed and plucked (thus actually undressed), and eggs came in gray pulp paper cartons. Though San Francisco prides itself on fresh fish, many were sold headless and icy.
If you went to Fisherman's Wharf, the crabs might be moving a bit, and some shellfish might also still be quick, but practically everything else was still and dead. In Chinatown, you saw tanks and cages full of live fish, chickens and ducks, a turtle or two, and other critters, destined for dinner plates in local homes and restaurants. Tourists unfamiliar with Chinese markets might have thought they were in an aquarium or zoo, but local people knew.
I learned how to clean a fish when five or six years old. I went trout fishing with a family in the neighborhood whose daughter was born a day before me in the same hospital. Our mothers had been in neighboring beds in maturnity ward. We fashioned poles from limbs and baited hooks with salmon eggs. I can't recall how much thought I gave to the fact that, to eat a fish, you had to catch it. Lure it, hook it, pull it from the water. Let it suffocate, then behead it and gut it.
About the same age, when visiting my maternal grandparents in Peck, Idaho, I witnessed my grandfather, Owen, kill a chicken. The Hardmans kept a number of hens and roosters in a pen behind their home on a lot that included a small field, barn, and outhouse. Owen cornered a rooster it seems he had named and lopped off its head. I particularly recall helping my grandmother and mother pluck its feathers. They talked while they plucked, and they fussed over the smaller feathers, which didn't come out easily and took a lot of time and patience.
I can't remember eating the chicken or how they cooked it. But I remember frying and eating the eggs we collected in the morning before breakfast. I remember the thrill of finding the eggs, some naturally brown, a few soiled by chicken poop. I never looked at clean, white, sized and sanitized store-bought eggs the same way.
The Hardmans, by then, had no cows. Their milk came directly from the dairy behind the small grocery store at the bottom of the hill, which bottled most of the milk produced on Peck's small farms. Farmers brought their raw milk to the dairy in steel cans, and the milk was run through a cream separator, pasteurizer, and homogenizer. The dairy was operated by the family that owned the store and lived in the adjoining home. They also had butter and ice cream churners.
I always associated eating in Idaho with "real butter" as opposed to the stuff we called "butter" in San Francisco. My mother used real butter only when baking, and on special occasions such as Thanksgiving, when there were usually guests for dinner. Otherwise, "butter" in our family referred to imitation butter. Some American butter producers had objected to the selling of white oleomargarine colored to look like butter, so the United States had passed a law forbidding the selling of yellow margarine. My earlier childhood memories include helping my mother mix the packet of powdered food coloring that came with margarine. During the 1950s, the laws were changed to permit manufacturers to color margarine, and the margarine-butter wars resumed. But no matter how much margarine makers tried to make their products taste like the real thing, "real butter" remained a real treat in the Wetherall-Hardman family.
Sadie made her pilgrimage back to Kentucky in the days when people thought nothing of busing around the country. Greyhound and other lines had thriving stations in all major cities and towns, and numerous stops between. The milk runs, and even some long-distance buses, would stop to pick you up or let you off at unscheduled places along their routes.
From about the 1970s, bus service began to both decline and deteriorate, as more freeways were built and more people owned and drove higher quality automobiles, and as air travel became faster, more convenient, and even cheaper, through airports with long-term parking facilities and rental car agencies. Many Greyhound stations became endangered species in the older parts of large cities, which were left to the poor when those with more means moved to newer urban neighborhoods or the suburbs.
Lydia (Baldwin) Anstine (Aunt Lydie) and Charley Anstine (Uncle Charley)
German-French migration of Anstine line
Charles Anstine was the 4th of 10 children and the 3rd of 7 sons of Douglas Richard [or Richard Douglas] Anstine and Helen Belle Clites. His father, born on 1 April 1857 in Industry, Illinois, and his mother, born on 24 June 1852 in Tipton County, Pennsylvania, married on 25 December 1877 in Emmerson, Mills County, Iowa.
Charles's parents died in Seward County, Nebraska, within a few years after his death, his mother on 15 April 1937, his father on 29 January 1939. Richard D. and Helen B. Anstine share a common headstone in Utica Cemetery in Utica in Seward County, Nebraska.
Charles was a 5th-generation descendant of Sigesmund (Simon) Anstein (counted as the 1st generation) through Simon's 1st wife, Dorothy Anstine (maiden name uncertain), who he married in 1787. Simon was born on 4 November 1763 in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, and died on 22 February 1849 in York County, Pennsylvania, Simon himself was a 5th-generation descendant of Nicholaus Anstein (counted as the 1st generation), who born between 1630–1640 in Germany, and Anna Barbara Buerg.
Charles thus represents the 4th generation of his line to be born in North America after Simon Anstein's migration to Pennsylvania from France, and the 8th generation in succession from Nicholaus Anstein, the line's known German progenitor (counted as the 0th generation).
One of Nicholaus Anstein's sons, Johann Michael Anstein (1663-1746), migrated to France in the late 17th century and married Catherine Bürger. Simon's paternal grandfather Johannes Anstein (1706-1789), and his father Johan Jürg Anstein (1735-1799), were born and raised in France. His father migrated from France to Pennsylvania in 1751 and sired as many as 13 children, including 8 sons, from whom several lines of Ansteins branced as Anstines, Enstines, and Onstines. Simon was Johann's and Catherine's 8th child and 5th son.
Source: Anstine / Enstine / Onstine Family [www.anstinefamily.com], "Outline Descendant Report for Nicholaus Anstein", 2012, 4 pages.
Anstine migration to Seward, Nebraska
Nebraska -- especially Seward County -- is full of Anstines. Charles Anstine's parents moved to Seward County, Nebraksa, from Mills County, Iowa, between 1881-1883. Charles's two older brothers and possibly his older sister were born in Iowa. He was thus the 1st or 2nd of Richard's and Helen's children to be born in Nebraska.
Uncle Seth and Aunt Maude
Charles's 2nd younger brother, Seth Richard Anstine, and his wife Maude, were known as "Uncle Seth and Aunt Maude" to the Anstine sisters. Seth, born on 3 May 1888 in Seward, Seward County, Nebraska, married Ethel Maude Hackworth (b1888), his 2nd wife (his 1st wife was Maude McGrew), on 22 December 1909 in Seward County. Seth stated on his 5 June 1917 World War draft Registration Card that he was a self-employed blacksmith in Stablehurst in Seward County and sufferred from deafness in his left ear. Maude died in 1954, Seth on 6 July 1973, and they share the same headstone in Seward Cemetery. Apparently they had no children.
Sources: (1) Darci Severns, (2) Anstine / Enstine / Onstine Family [www.anstinefamily.com], "Outline Descendant Report for Sigesmund (Simon) Anstein", 2012, pages 2-7 of 38 pages, (3) and Ancestor.com.
How Lydia Baldwin met Charles Anstine
Marriages, even when arranged, begin with a boy-meet-girl encounter. Where and why Lydia Baldwin met Charles Anstine can be conjectured from the few footprints they left in the 1908 Lincoln, Nebraska city directory.
Lennie Severns, Lydia's and Charley's 2nd daughter, began her family saga, published in 1985 (see below), with this recollection of how her parents met.
My parents [Lydia Baldwin and Charley Anstine] met in Lincoln [Nebraska] when both were rooming at mom's sister's [Sadie (Baldwin) Williams] home. Daddy was a railroad engineer and mom was attending [Lincoln] Business College. Their courtship was brief. The Baldwin family was moving to Spokane, Washington, and refused to let mother stay there because she was not married, even though [in 1907-1908] she was 21 years old. My, how times have changed!"
Lennie's story, like other such stories, was based on what she heard over the years, perhaps in part from her parents while they were alive, and probably in part from Aunt Sadie, if not also from Aunt Meda and even Grandma Baldwin, after her Lydia and Charles passed away. Most such stories are inevitably mixtures of fact and fiction, the products of selective and possibly faulty memory, romantic imagination, and other agents of alteration and embellishment that change or distort a story each time it is told.
1907-1910 Lincoln Nebraska directories
Like most such stories, however, Lennie's account of how her parents met is probably essentially true. As it turns out, her account is on the whole substantiated by listings in the Lincoln Nebraska Directory, Compiled and Printed by Jacob North & Company, Printers and Binders, Lincoln, Nebraska.
The 1907 Lincoln Nebraska Directory shows "Ellen Baldwin" and "Neuton B. Baldwin" [sic = Newton] both working and residing at the "Asylum" -- referring to the Nebraska Hospital for the Insane (see details below).
Charles Ansttine, about 24 in 1907, is not listed, presumably because he is working elsewhere.
By 1907, when the 1908 directory was compiled, Charles Williams, and Sadie and Faye, are living in Nebraska. Sadie gave birth to Claude in Lincoln, Nebraska, on 28 November 1907.
The 1908 Lincoln Nebraska Directory shows the following three listings.
1908 Lincoln Nebraska Directory
The 1907 directory (but not the 1906 or 1908 directories) lists the following boarding houses in the classified business directory section. This would have been the edition available to people looking for accommodations in late 1906 or early 1907.
1907 Lincoln Nebraska Directory
Charles Anstine, about 25 in 1908, is a locomotive fireman for the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad. He is residing at a boarding house a block away from the passenger depot.
The 1908 Spokane Washington Directory shows N.B. and Ellen Baldwin, and Ida and apparently also Meda, living and studying there. So presumably they left Lincoln sometime in 1907 -- and Lydia remained with Charles and Sadie Williams, who had come to Lincoln, Nebraska from Knoxville, Iowa, after Sadie gave birth to Faye in 1906.
The 1909 Lincoln Nebraska Directory shows the following listing.
1909 Lincoln Nebraska Directory
Presumably Sadie and the children are living with him at what appear to be better accommodations. The address is found in the "Furnished Rooms and Lodgings" section of the classified pages of the 1908 directory, which shows Kynett Mrs Agnes, 1113 P as the landlady.
Charles F. Williams is not listed in the 1910 directory. The 1910 census shows Sadie and the children -- but not Charles -- living in St. Maries, Idaho, with the Baldwins and Meda.
720 Q Street boarding house
The neighborhood immediately around Lincoln station had many hotels, boarding houses, eateries, bars, and other such accommodations for railroad hands and people in transit. The blocks to the east of the station, south of the college campus, had many vocation schools and more hotels, boarding houses, and furnished rooms and lodgings for students and others in need of places to live.
Q Street runs parallel to R Street, which originally marked the southern boundary of the University of Nebraska Campus (today parts of the campus extend as far as Q street).
Editing Lennie's story
Lennie Severns's story of how her parents met turns out to be essentially true. It is difficult to verify such stories, after the passage of so much time, when the principals have long gone, and even those who heard them from the lips of primary witnesses have passed away.
"Fact checking" is limited to available independent sources of information. The 1908 Lincoln Nebraska Directory is hardly an infallible source, but it sheds new light on a number of details in Lennie's account.
The 1908 directory, compiled in 1907 and probably published late that year, reflects 1907 circumstances. We know from other sources that Charles Anstine and Lydia Baldwin married on 12 February 1908, and that Velma, their 1st daughter, was born on 30 November 1908 in Seward County, Nebraska.
We also know a bit about the lay of the land -- the geography of Lincoln at the time they were living there -- where they lived in relation to where they worked or sent to school. We also know more from the city directory than we do from Lennie's account about the nature of Charley Anstines relationship with the Williams and Baldwin families and their residential arrangements.
Based on everything we can conjecture about Lydia's circumstances in 1907, Lennie's story could be edited like this.
My parents, Lydia Baldwin and Charley Anstine, met in Lincoln, Nebraska, when Lydia was rooming with mom's sister, Sadie Williams, and her husband, Charles Williams, and their two infant children, Faye and Claude, at a boarding house in a rather wild part of town near the train station. Daddy, who was rooming at a boarding house next door, and Sadie's husband, Charles, both worked as firemen for the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, and mom was attending Lincoln Business College a few blocks away. Their courtship was brief. The Baldwin family was moving to Spokane, Washington, and refused to let mother stay there because she was not married, even though she was 21 years old. My, how times have changed!"
In 1912 and 1913, just 5 five years after Lydia and the Williams family left the boarding house, 720 Q Street became the stage for a number of incidents involving prostitution, disturbing the public, and assault. The following articles, clipped from the Lincoln Daily News, speak for themselves.
Meda (Baldwin) (Aunt Meda) and Clifford Ure
The 1908 city directory for Spokane, Washington shows a "Madge Baldwin" boarding at the same address with "Ida M. Baldwin" while attending North West Business College. "Newton B. Baldwin" is shown running a restaurant. The 1909 Spokane directory shows both "Meda Baldwin" and "Ida M. Baldwin" living at the same address as "Newton B. Baldwin". Ida is attending Blair Business College and Meda is a cashier at a restaurant, presumably her father's, which is next door to their residence.
The 1910 census shows Meda living with her parents in St. Maries, Kootenai County, Idaho and working as a milliner at her own shop. She is still single. Clifford Ure is living by himself in Fernwood, Kootenai and working as a barber at his own shop.
The 1911 St. Maries directory shows Clifford Ure, a barber, and Meda Ure, an operator for the Interstate Telephone Company, at the same address.
The 1916-1917 directory shows Clifford Ure working for Ure and Lawing, possibly a barbershop.
The 1920, 1930, and 1940 censuses shows Clifford Ure working as a mail carrier in St. Maries. By 1945, however, he and Meda were residing in Spokane, Washington. The 1945 Spokane city directory lists his occupation as creamery worker. The 1950 and 1952 directories do not show an occupation. By 1950, their son H. Dale Ure and his wife Carol L. are also residing in Spokane but at a different address.
Clifford died in 1953, Meda in 1971, both in Spokane, but they are buried together in St. Maries. Greta and her husband Harlan Lemmer died in Spokane, Harlan in 1985, Greta in 1999, and they are buried together in East Hope, Idaho. See the section below on Baldwin-Steele graves for details.
Baldwin-Steele and Wetherall-Hardman families meet in Idaho
Several of William B. Wetherall's Baldwin-Steele relatives met his future mother-in-law, Ullie Hardmen, and very likely also his future father-in-law, Owen Hardman, sometime between 1936 and 1938, when he and my mother, Orene Hardman, were courting in Idaho. Shortly after my left for San Francisco to work as a clerk for the 9th District Court, my mother went to San Francisco to marry him. The marriage, which had the blessings of Orene's parents and WBW's relatives, was witnessed by only a few of my father's local friends. No relatives from either side were present.
WBW's first job after graduating from law school and passing the Idaho bar in 1937 was in Orofino, on the Clearwater river a few miles upstream from Peck, Idaho. His mother, Ida (Baldwin) Wetherall, had been committed to the insane asylum in Orofino around 1912 and had died there in 1923. Orene was born at the Hardman ranch on Central Ridge though the birth was recorded in nearby Peck. She was raised on the ranch, and when in her teens in Peck, where Ullie and Owen had settled after selling the ranch in the mid 1920s. Orene graduated from high school in Peck then went to college in Moscow. From 1935 to 1936 she taught at Yellow Rose School, a one-room all-grade elementary school on Little Bear Ridge near Deary. In 1937, however, she taught at Pierce, which is near Orofino, a bit further up the Clearwater from Peck.
St. Maries photo
The following two pictures record what was probably the first meeting of the Baldwin-Steele and Hardman-Hunter families after WBW and Orene declared their intention to marry. The choice of where to meet would have been Peck (where the Hardman-Hunters lived) or St. Maries (where the Baldwin-Steeles lived).
My mother's recollection was that the photographs were taken in St. Maries. Interestingly, Ullie Hardman, who was in the photographs, wrote identifications on her copies of the prints -- on two different occasions three or so decades later in her life, probably in the mid 1960s and early 1970s -- in which which she makes a number of mistakes, suggesting that she was experiencing the sort of memory loss that, by the mid 1970s, led to her move to a convalesent home, where her dementia continued to worsen.
WBW, a Wetherall-Baldwin, was raised by his mother's Baldwin-Steele family for the first several years of his life in St. Maries, Idaho, then by his father's Wetherall-Beaman family in Knoxville, Iowa, and finally by his father's new Wetherall-Van Houton family in Des Moines, Iowa. While going to college in Idaho, however, he lived with the Ure-Baldwin family of his maternal aunt, Meda, in St. Maries. His maternal grandmother Ellen Baldwin, and at times also his maternal aunt Sadie Williams, also lived in St. Maries, as did Sadie's daughter (WBW's 1st cousin) Faye Mathews (later Faye Rebenstorf) and Faye's daughter Marilyn Mathews (later Marilyn Disrud).
Neither Owen Hardmen (Orene's father, Ullie's husband, my grandfather) nor Faye Mathews (Sadie's daughter, WBW's 1st cousin, my 1st cousin once removed) are in the photographs, which appear to have been taken in turns WBW and Orene Hardman. At the time the pictures were taken (1936-1937), WBW was living in St. Maries with the Ures. According to the 1940 census, Ellen was in St. Maries in 1935. Sadie was in Spokane, Washington, in 1935, but by 1940 she was with Ellen in St. Maries. Faye and Marilyn were living in Spokane, and Ullie Hardman was in Peck, Idaho.
Marilyn was born on 22 December 1934, and I would guess that the photographs were taken in 1937 rather than 1936. Sadie was probably carrying for Marilyn, who was not yet of school age, while Faye, by then a single mother, worked. I would guess that Owen, too, was probably working.
Lois (Lemmer) Slater, the daughter of Meda and Clifford Ure's daughter Greta Ava (Ure) Lemmer, confirmed my tentative identifications of Clifford, Dale, Meda, and Marilyn. She characterized her Ure grandparents -- and Claude Williams, Sadie's son and Faye's brother, and my father, WBW -- as follows (email, 13 February 2014, [bracketed remarks] mine).
From left to right Clifford (Daddy Cliff, my grandfather), Dale, Almeda Jane (Danny, my grandmother), the next two people [Ellen Baldwin and Ullie Hardman] I do not know, then Aunt Sadie and Marilyn. The one on the right is your father then? What a handsome man!! I thought maybe it was Claude but he wasn't as good looking.
Of interest here is that, in the mid 1960s or so, when Ullie sat down and identified the people in many family photos, she wrote on the back of her copy of the print to the left -- "At St. Maries / Bill's family / Aunt Meda, husband & son / Grandma Baldwin / myself / Aunt Sadie / Marilyn / Claud [sic = Claude]". However, on the front of her copy of the photo to the left, which was found in the small red album she carried in her purse, she wrote "Stanleys -- early 50's" -- and on the back "In Calif. -- / The Stanleys / early 50's".
In the first case, she recognized that she was looking at "Bill's family", and recalled the names or relationships of most -- but took her (future) son-in-law "Bill" for his 1st cousin, Claude, Sadie's son and Marilyn's uncle. In the second case, she associates the place with California, and the people with the Stanleys -- perhaps someone she knew in Idaho who had moved to Califoria -- apparently not wondering why she and her daughter Orene look too young to be in California in the 1950s.
Lois's testimony was the first I had from anyone in the Baldwin-Steele family on the identity of people in Baldwin-Steele photographs. But Lois, my 2nd cousin, did not recognize her maternal (and my paternal) great grandmother Ellen Baldwin.
Lois, born in 1939, undoubtedly met Ellen Baldwin before Ellen died in 1943 -- when Lois was only 3-1/2 years old. I probably also met Ellen and Sadie, and Meda and Clifford, in the summer of 1941, when I was only a few months old. My parents brought me to Peck that summer to meet my Hardman grandparents and Hunter grandfather, and I can't imagine my father not taking us to St. Maries, which is not far away, to show me to his Baldwin-Steele kinfolk there, who were directly responsible for his upbringing. . But of course I have no memories of that summer other than those created by the numerous photographs that were taken of me in Peck.
It remains unclear as to whether Faye met Ullie on the occasion the above photograph was taken. However, she clearly got to know Ullie, well enough in fact to drop in on her when she visited Lewiston from Coeur d'Alene later in Ullie's life. Faye also knew my maternal aunt, Ullie's older daughter Babe, who lived in various communities in eastern Idaho and western Washington, and was entirely at home in the larger Spokane, Coeur d'Alene, St. Maries, and Lewiston-Clarkston area.
William R. and Ida (Baldwin) Wetherall
See Wetherall-Baldwin-Van Houton and related families page for details.
5.1 Sadie's children
Faye (Williams) (Mathews) (Nelson) Rebenstorf (1906-1995)
Faye in censuses
Faye was born in Knoxville, Iowa, according to her obituary (see below).
The 1910 census shows Fay [sic = Faye] M. Williams (3), living with her mother Sadie E. Williams (26), and her brother Claud [sic = Claude] J. Williams (2), in the St. Maries, Idaho, with her maternal grandparents, Newton B. Baldwin (47) and Martha E. Baldwin (46),
I have not found Faye, or Sadie or Claude, in the 1920 census. But stories passed down by descendants of Sadie's sister Lydia Anstine, who lived in Utica in Seward County, Nebraska, have Faye and Claude living with Sadie in Nebraska.
The 1930 census shows Faye working as a teacher in Lincoln, Nebraska.
The 1940 census shows Faye living in Spokane, Washington, as Faye Mathews (33), divorced, a book keeper at a bus transportation company. She was living at the same place in Spokane in 1935.
Faye in city directories
Faye is listed as a student in the 1928-1930 Lincoln Nebraska city directories. She is not listed in the 1927 or 1931 directories.
Both the 1928 and 1929 Lincoln Nebraska Directories show Williams Faye stu r1541 S.
The 1930 Lincoln Nebraska Directory shows Williams Fay [sic = Faye] stu r341 N 12th apt 2.
The 1930 directory was compiled in 1929. Presumably Faye completed her normal school education and was teaching by the time of the 1930 census (see above).
Note that neither Lennie nor Aura Anstine are shown in the 1928-1930 Lincoln directories. They, too, would have been enrolled in teacher training courses, presumably in Lincoln, about this time. Perhaps they commuted to the city by bus or by car. They may also, at times, have stayed with Faye. In the meantime, Sadie was the resident head nurse of a home for unwed mothers in Seward (1930 census).
Spokane directories show Faye as "Mathews" in 1937 (Faye), 1938 (Mrs Faye M), 1939 (Mrs Fay M), 1940 (Mrs Faye), and 1941 (Faye M). She is typically described as a bookkeeper for Auto Interurban, a bus transportation company.
A 1947 Idaho city directory shows her living and working in Coeur d'Alene as the wife of Howard C. Rebenstorf, who apparently she met and married in the early or mid 1940s.
Faye and William B. Wetherall
The 4 Baldwin sisters bore 9 cousins, 8 of whom survived their childhood.
William B. Wetherall (WBW) was partly raised by, or lived in the same household with, all of his aunts -- Sadie, Lydia, and Meda -- and he had a practically sibling relationship with Faye and Claude, who were a few years older, but also with Lennie and Greta, who were the nearest to him in age.
Faye seems to have been WBW's closest cousin in terms of how much contact they continued to have during their adult lives, both in terms of correspondence and visitations. Faye and Claude were also the only cousins whose names were familiar to WBW's children, including this writer. Their mother, Sadie, as also the most familar "aunt" in our family, and we have more photographs of Sadie, Faye, and Claude.
Faye visited us a number of times in both San Francisco and Grass Valley, usually in conjunction with trips she made to California related to her work and other activities. During one such visit, all members of WBW's family, except my sister Mary Ellen, met Faye in San Francisco while she was attending a convention in the city. Faye taped a conversation we had over dinner in Chinatown -- her first encounter with Chinese food. And after her death, her daughter Marilyn sent the tape to my father. I now have the tape, which includes gossip about the extended Baldwin-Steele family.
Faye died on 25 November 1995 in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, where she had lived most of her adult life. She is buried in Coeur d'Alene Memorial Gardens Cemetery, Kootenai County, Idaho (see below). The following obituary is a reformatted version of an obituary published in The Spokesman-Review on 28 November 1995. The [bracketed] clarifications and red highlighting are mine.
A private service and burial was held for Faye Rebenstorf, 89, who died Saturday [25 November 1995].
Howard C. Rebenstorf (1898-1966)
Howard C. Rebenstorf was born on 30 August 1898 in Wisconsin. A Bonner County, Idaho marriage record shows that he married Hedwig H. Weiss, in Sandpoint, Idaho, on 20 September 1920. Bonner County and Sandpoint are immediately north of Kootenai County and Coeur d'Alene, which are just west of Spokane County and Spokane in Washington. Hedwig H. [Helene] -- who appears in most other records as "Hattie" or "Hattie H." -- was born in Wisconsin on 11 June 1898 to Austrian-born parents.
The 1930 census shows Howard and Hattie, both then 31, but 22 when married, living in Coeur d'Alene, apparently without any children. He is a laborer working for the state highway department, and she is a switchboard operator at the telephone company.
The 1938 directory for Coeur d'Alene shows Howard and Hattie living together at 207 N 10th. He is working for Potlach Forests, she at the Tenth Street Grocery. The same directory shows a "Cora Rebenstorf (wid Edgar B.)" living at 818 Garden Avenue. Cora was his mother (Cora Stella Rudsell), and Edgar B. had been his father ("Ed" Rebenstorf).
I have not found either Howard or Hattie in a 1940 census record. But the 1940 Coeur d'Alene directory shows Hattie living as "Mrs. Hattie H. Rebenstorf" at the same 207 N 10th address and still working at the same grocery, while Howard is listed immediately below her as a millworker residing at 502 Foster Avenue. Apparently they are separated.
The 1947 census shows "Mrs. Hattie H. Rebenstorf" living at the same address and working at the same grocery store. Immediately below her is "Howard C. Rebenstorf (Faye M.)" residing at 1033 N 2d. No occupations or places of work are noted for either Howard or Faye.
The 1949 directory shows Hattie at the same address and place of work. Howard and Faye are residing at 902 N 4th, and Faye is said to be working at the Camp Joy Grocery.
The 1952 directory shows Hattie at the same address and place of work. Faye and Howard are separately listed, she as "Mrs. Faye M. Rebenstorf" working as a bookeeper for Hall Plumbing and Heating, he as "Howard C. Rebenstorf" working at Howard's Market, his own store. Both Faye and Howard are residing at 1928 N 4th -- yet another address.
Howard died in Coeur d'Alene on 27 September 1966. Faye died on 25 November 1995, also in Coeur d'Alene. Both are buried in Coeur d'Alene Memorial Cemetery. Howard's headstone has a simple cross above his name, and shows his rank and occupation as a "World War I" veteran. Faye's headstone refers to her as "Beloved Mother, Grandmother, and Great Grandmother" and has strongly Christian motiffs."
A "Hattie Hel Rebenstorf" died on 12 July 1982 in Monument, Grant County, Oregon, according to a transcribed Oregon death index. She is buried at Monument Cemetery, where her headstone name is Hattie N. Rebenstorf and she is memorialized as "Aunt" in quotation marks.
Assuming that the Hattie Rebenstorf who died in Orgeon is Howard's 1st wife -- and she seems to be -- the significance of the different middle initial on the headstone is unclear. The "quotation marks" around "aunt" suggests that she was an "aunt" by address but not by blood or law to the person(s) who buried her.
Marilyn A. (Mathews) Disrud (1934-2013)
Marilyn Anne Disrud was born Mathews in Spokane, Washington, on 22 December 1934. Legally, at least, she appears to have remained Mathews when her mother remarried in the 1940s, and she became Disrud when she married in the 1957. She died in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, on 21 July 2013 and is buried at Riverview Cemetery there. Her headstone, which also has strongly Christian motiffs, includes the name and date of birth of her surviving husband, Norman K. [Kenneth] Disrud -- 13 April 1929.
An obituary, possibly posted by her husband or their son, Todd Lee Disrud, states that she was "preceded in death by her parents Howard and Faye Rebenstorf".
Norman Kenneth Disrud (1929-2016)
Marilyn's husband, born 13 April 1929 in Fosston in Polk County, Minnesota, passed in Idaho on 9 June 2016 at age 87. He was buried at Riverview Cemetery in Coeur d'Alene in Kootenai County, Idaho, with Marilyn.
Marilyn's family history work
In December 1973, the Wetherall family spent a few days in Lewiston, Idaho for a Christmas reunion with Orene's relatives. On Christmas day, Faye, Marilyn, Norman, and Todd drove down from Coeur d'Alene to visit with the Wetheralls at their motel for a couple of hours. Orene's mother Ullie, who also knew Faye and had met several other relatives on Bill's Baldwin side, and Orene's sister Babe, who had met Faye, were also there.
Marilyn kept in touch with the Wetheralls in Grass Valley after Faye's death in 1995, and until sometime after Orene's death in 2003. Around 1979, she sent my father some family information that survives among his papers. I have not yet had an opportunity to see it. It may answer some questions and raise others. It may partly account for the extent and quality of the information my father conveyed to me about his ancestors when talking to me about them in 2010 and 2011.
Claude J. Williams (1907-1977)
Claude Williams has left relatively few traces of his existence. Like Aunt Sadie and Faye, he was well known to the Wetherall-Hardman family in both Idaho and California.
My father, William Bascom Wetherall, partly grew up with Claude and Faye when the three children were living with their Baldwin grandparents in St. Maries, Idaho, during the early 1910s.
Faye was born in Knoxville, Iowa, where the Baldwin-Steele family lived for a while after leaving Kentucky. Ida Mae Baldwin met William Riley Wetherall, my future paternal grandparents, during this stay in Knoxville in 1906. Claude was born the following year in Lincoln, Nebraska, the next stop on the Baldwin-Steele northwest migration.
Both Faye and Claude later lived with their mother in Seward, Nebraska, near Utica, where Lydia Margaret Baldwin had settled with her husband Charles Andrew Anstine. The Anstine farm was a sort of midwest port for Baldwin-Steele family members. Martha Ellen Baldwin stayed with Lydia for a while and helped care for the Anstine girls for a while after Lydia died in 1929, and my father worked on Uncle Charlie's farm during summers while going to high school in Des Moines in the mid 1920s.
My father remained in touch with the Anstine sisters later in life. Claude, too, was close to his Anstine cousins and is known to have visited them during his travels.
After serving in the Navy during the Pacific War, Claude lived mainly in Spokane, where he had partly grown up. Spokane is geographically close to St. Maries, where my father lived with Aunt Meda's family, and with Grandma Baldwin, while attending college in Moscow, Idaho. After my father began courting my mother, who he met at college in Moscow, his Baldwin relatives in St. Maries, and Aunt Sadie and Faye and Claude, who were then in Spokane, had opportunities to meet my mother and her parents and relatives, who lived in Peck and elsewhere in the Lewiston-Clarkston area, which is close to St. Maries, Coeur d'Alene, and Spokane.
Claude appears in a number of photographs in the Wetherall family collection in California, and in photographs in the possession of Lydia Anstine's great granddaughter, Darci Severns, in Washington.
Claude's military service
Several photographs in the Wetherall and Severns family collections show Claude the uniform of a U.S. Navy sailor. The Severns Family Collection includes photographs he took in China after the end of the Pacific War. The Wetherall Family Collection includes a novelty souvenir associated with China (see Baldwin-Steele Galleries below).
Claude registered for Selective Service in St. Maries on 16 October 1940 (right) and appears to have enlisted on 15 February 1942. He seems to have served until sometime in October 1945 -- a month or so after Japan formally surrendered in Tokyo on 2 September 1945, and 2 months or so after 15 August 1945 when Japan agreed to surrender and ended hostilities. U.S. and other Allied warships began entering Chinese ports during late August, and it appears that Claude was able to go ashore.
The nature of Claude's service in the Nave is not clear. He was reportedly involved in construction with a Seabees unit. However, I have seen no military records.
When beginning to flesh out this family history after my father died in 2013, I was able to confirm the date and place of Claude's death but not the disposition of his remains. Baldwin-Steele cousins I crossed paths with in Washington, who had either known him or heard of him, and had seen photographs of him in their family albums, said they didn't know where he was buried.
Then on 4 March 2021, I found a Find a Grave memorial that had been created on 11 September 2019 by Peter Joseph ("PJ") Braun, a U.S. Navy veteran and member of MIAP -- Missing In America Project -- the mission of which is to locate unclaimed cremains of veterans and render them proper military honors. MIAP volunteers found Claude's cremains "sitting on the shelf" in the "Community Storage" vault in Seattle's Lake View Cemetery, and facilitated their transfer to a columbarium at Washington State Veterans Cemetery in Medical Lake in Washington. See Baldwin-Steele graves (below for an image of his memorial plaque and other particulars.
5.2 Meda's children
Greta (Ure) Lemmer (1912-1999)
Greta Ava Ure, born and raised in St. Maries (see Table 5.3), married Harlan Lemmer, whose parents had also settled in St. Maries during the 1920s.
William Harlan Lemmer (1904-1985)
William Harlan Lemmer was born on 13 September 1904 in Antigo, Langrad County, Wisconsin, to William F. Lemmer and Lina L. Freese.
The 1910 and 1920 censuses show the Lemmers, including Harlan's older sister Cecilia, living in Hope, Bonner County, Idaho, where William Lemmer, the father, is working as a saw filer at a lumber mill. The 1930 census shows Harlan's parents, William Lemmer (57) and Lena L. Lemmer (49), living without their children in St. Maries, Idaho, where Harlan's father is working as a saw filer in logging. The Lemmers were born in Wisconsin, he to a German father and Pennsylvania mother, she to a German father and German mother.
The 1930 census, enumerated in April, shows Harlan as William H. Lemmer (25), married at age 18, working as a saw filer at a lumber mill in Emmett, in the South Precinct of Gem County, Idaho. He and his parents were born in Wisconsin, and he was boarding at a boarding house.
A marriage return filed in Asotin County, Washington, certifies that, on 7 September 1931, Greta Ava Ure (19) -- a spinster stenographer, born in St. Maries, Idaho, to Iowa-born C.M. Ure and Kentucky-born Almeta [sic = Almeda, Meda] Baldwin -- married William Harlan Lemmer (26) -- a divorced salesman, born in Intiago [sic = Antigo], Wisconsin, to W.F. Lemmer and Lena Freese, both born in Wisconsin. He signed "Harlan Lemmer" and she signed "Mrs. Harlan Lemmer".
The 1939-1940 city directory for Rexburg, Idaho, shows Harlan Lemmer (spouse Greta A.) working as a chauffeur for the Shell Oil Company.
The 1940 census shows "Wm. H. Lemmer" (35) and Greta (27) living in St. Anthony, in Fremont County, Idaho, where he was working as a salesman of gas and oil, and she as a clerk at a county agency. At the time they had two children, a son Harlan (6) and a daughter Lois (6/12). William had completed 3 years of college and Greta 4 years of high school. According to the census, the Lemmers were living in St. Maries in 1935, but had moved to Fremont County by the time Lois was born in 1939.
By 1950, Greta and her family were living in Spokane, where they are listed in the city directory at an address next door to Greta's parents, Meda and Clifford Ure. Later, Greta and [William] Harlan would reside on Hawthorne Street in the northern part of Spokane with their children, Harlan E. [Eugene] "Gene" Lemmer (see below) and Lois C. Friedlander (see below).
The 1950 Spokane directory shows Mrs. Greta Lemmer working as a bookkeeper for Soft Water Service Co., and Harlan Lemmer (Greta) working as a clerk for an unspecified employer. She is residing at 723 [sic] Knox Avenue, and his (her) home is at W. 733 [sic] Knox Avenue. [Presumably the two Knox addresses are meant to be the same.] Clifford M. Ure (Meda J.) are listed as living [apparently] next door at W. 731 Knox Avenue. H. Dale Ure (Carol L.), a clerk for an unspecified employer, are living at E. 1311 Bismark Avenue.
By 1955 or 1956, Greta and Harlan moved into a home at 4928 N. Hawthorne Street, where they would live the rest of their lives.
The 1960 Spokane directory lists Mrs. Greta A. Lemmer as an office manager for Soft Water Service, and as the spouse of William H. Lemmer (Greta A.), a salesman for Headlight Oil. Meda (Baldwin) Ure is residing at S. 206 Post. Lois C. (Lemmer) Santa Rosa is listed as a typist for Pacific Telephone, and as the spouse of Arth [Arthur Anthony] Santa Rosa, of Santa Rosa's Body & Fender Works, which is separately listed as a shop owned by Arth Santa Rosa. The Santa Rosas are residing at E. 1207 Rich Avenue. Arther Anthony Angelo Santa Rosa, born in Idaho on 21 June 1936 to Italian immigrants, passed away on 30 April 2016.
William Harlan Lemmer appears to have suffered from a serious stroke or a series of strokes in the late 1960s or very early 1970s, according to Faye Rebenstorf, Greta's 1st cousin. Faye described their difficulties in some detail in a coversation over dinner at a restaurant in Chinatown in San Francisco on 5 September 1973, with my parents, William B. and L. Orene Wetherall, my brother, me, and my then wife Etsuko. Faye's daughter, Marilyn, sent the tape to my parents after Faye died in 1995, and I digitized it in 2013.
Faye related that Harlan was able to hear and understand everything you said to him, but he couldn't speak well enough to make himself understood. Apparently he'd get angry when people didn't understand him and become beligerent toward them. He'd gotten to the point that he didn't like seeing anyone, didn't want people to come to their place, and didn't want to go any place. He shuffled around with the help of a cane but couldn't use his right hand very well. Fortunately, though, he was left-handed.
Faye occasionally had business in Spokane and would have liked to take Greta out to lunch. But Greta, who had a full-time job, went home every day at noon -- a five-mile drive -- to make Harlan's lunch. And Faye said, in 1973, that frankly she did not want to visit Greta when Harlan was there because of his belligerence.
Faye also said, in 1973, that she had last visited Greta and Harlan at their summer home in a resort town on the other side of Lake Pend Oreille, about 60 miles from Coeur d'Alene (where Faye lived), and 100 miles from Spokane (where Greta and Harlan lived). Greta had put in a garden there and drove up every weekend to see that everything was watered. The home was in the vicinity of Hope in Bonner County, Idaho, where Harlan had grown up and worked after his family moved to Idaho from Wisconsin.
Greta and Harlan celebrated their 50th wedding anniversary in 1981.
Harlan passed away in Spokane on 1 May 1985. Greta passed away on 9 October 1999. They are buried at Hope Cemetery in East Hope, Bonner County, Idaho, on the northeastern shore of Lake Pend Oreille.
In 2000, their son Harlan Lemmer (Harlan Eugene "Gene" Lemmer), and the Greta A. Lemmer Estate, granted a quit claim deed on the 2-bedroom, 1-bath house and 6,200 square-foot lot at 4928 N. Hawthorne Street in Spokane, where Greta and Harlan had lived out their lives. They had moved from their Knox Street home to the Hawthorne Street home in 1955 or 1956.
Gene Lemmer (1933-2014)
Harlan Eugene Lemmer was born on 4 September 1933 in St. Maries, Idaho. The 1940 census shows him living in St. Maries with his parents, Greta and Harlan Lemmer, and his sister Lois.
Gene graduated from North Central High School in Spokane in 1951. The Tamarack 1950-1951 yearbook states that he liked math, had transferred from Coeur d'Alene, and played football and belonged to the Spanish Club among several other activities (page 54). He graduated from the State College of Washington in Pullman in 1959 with a degree in mechanical engineering (Chinook '59 yearbook, page 81).
In the conversation she taped while dining with the Wetherall family -- in Chinatown, San Francisco, on 4 September 1973 -- Faye Rebenstorf said that Gene and Pat Lemmer and their 5 children had visited Greta and Harlan that summer. She characterized Gene as a good son.
William B. Wetherall, who also knew Greta's son as Gene, said during the 1973 conversation that he had never met Pat. He knew they were settled in southern California and asked Faye if Gene was working in electronics. Faye didn't know but thought he was working for Kaiser, and she said they were doing well.
Orene Wetherall, who had a talent for connecting disparate dots in casual conversations, observed that, with 5 kids, it's good to do well.
Gene and Patricia settled in Upland, California. They celebrated their 50th wedding anniversity in 2013. Patricia reported that Gene had been in California for 54 years and had worked for Kaiser Steel, and that they had 5 children, 14 grandchildren, and 2 great grand children (email, 21 January 2014).
Gene passed away on 14 December 2014 after a long bout with Parkinson's disease.
Lois (Lemmer) (Santa Rosa) Slater
Lois, Gene's sister, was born on 17 October 1939 in St. Anthony in Fremont County, Idaho. Washington marriage records show that she married Arthur A. Santa Rosa on 16 November 1957 (license 15 November, recorded 22 November) in Spokane. The signing witnesses were Marilyn Disrud and Edward Santa Rosa. Marilyn, nee Rebenstorf (originally Mathews), was Faye (Williams) (Nelson) (Mathews) Rebenstorf's daughter, hence Lois's and this writer's 2nd cousin.
Lois reported to this writer that she married Arthur A. Santa Rosa in 1957 after graduating from high school at age 18, and between 1959 and 1966 they had 4 children -- Brenda, Shelly Ann, Bret Anthony, and Patricia Sue. Lois later married a man named Friedlander, then in 1990 she married Jerry Slater, who had a daughter Bonnie and a son Warner. Lois has 12 grandchildren, including those of Warner's 2 children (email, 8 February 2014).
Lois Slater is my 2nd cousin. Her daughter, Patricia Sue Santa Rosa, a 3rd cousin of my children, married Roger W. Flint in Spokane, Washington, on 22 August 1987 and they have 2 children, Michael and Ashley, who are 4th cousins of my grandchildren.
On 26 December 2020 I received email from my son, Tsuyoshi Sugiyama, with an attachment of a "DNA Ethnicity Estimate & Health Report", the result of a "My Heritage DNA" test. I had not had such a test and had never discussed such tests with him. He did this on his own. Out of curiosity, I immediately ordered a similar test.
Then on New Years Day 2021, in Japan where live, Tsuyoshi sent me a screen capture of a message he had received from "Patricia Santa Rosa", apparently sent on New Years Eve 2020, from America where she lives. The message began like this -- "Dear Tsuyoshi, / I was happy to see a dna match from Japan this morning. I knew immediately that it was likely you or your sister." Patricia then introduced herself as "Patricia Santa Rosa-Flint" and said she was a "distant cousin" -- which translates straight-up 3rd cousin, though as relatives they are also an ocean and generation apart.
I sent Tsuyoshi a summary of the parallel lines of descent in his and Patricia's branches of the Baldwin-Steele family. I have also been in touch with descendants of the keeper of the family history keys in the other two lines -- Todd Disrud and Darci Severns -- as follows.
0. Baldwin-Howard Steele-Grubb John R. ___ Margaret Jonas ___ Elizabeth Baldwin | Howard Steele | Grubb | | | Baldwin-Steele | 1. Newton Martha Bascum __________________ Ellen Baldwin | Steele _________________|_______________________ | | | | 2. Sada Lydia Almeda Ida Elizabeth Margaret Jane Mae Baldwin Baldwin Baldwin Baldwin (Williams) (Anstine) (Ure) (Wetherall | | | | 3. Faye Lennie Greta William Marguerite Lee Ava Bascom Williams Anstine Ure Wetherall (Mathews) (Severns) (Lemmer) | (Nelson) | | | (Rebenstorf) | | | | | | | 4. Marylin Tex Lois William Anne Lee Cecelia Owen Mathews Severns Lemmer Wetherall (Disrud) | (Santa Rosa) | | | (Friedlander) |_____________ | | (Slater) | | | | | | | | Baldwin-Steele 3rd cousins | Siblings | | | | | | 5. Todd Darci Patricia Saori Tsuyoshi Lee Eileen Sue Orene Owen Disrud Severns Santa Rosa Wetherall Wetherall | | (Flint) Sugiyama Sugiyama | | | -> Ogawa | | | -> Sugiyama | | | -> Kasubuchi | | | |_____________ | | | | | 6. Children Children Children Anri | Ogawa | -> Sugiyama Tatsuki -> Kasubuchi Kasubuchi
A century ago, descendants of families that didn't migrate might actually have known some of their 3rd cousins. When I was growing up, I barely knew my 1st cousins. A few years ago, I began to cross paths with various degrees of cousins I had never heard of, but might have known had our grandparents and parents now scattered all over the map and fallen out of touch.
DNA tests appear to be credible as measures of possible genetic connections down lines of biological descent. 3rd cousin matches seem to be fairly reliable, and reliability increases up the kinship chart, to the point that matches with half and full siblings, and parents, approach 100 percent certainty.
But contrary to the claims of companies that market DNA tests for ancestry purposes, DNA is not a measure of "ethnicity" or "heritage" -- which are social, not chemical, conditions.
Herbert Dale Ure (1928-2004)
H. Dale Ure, William B. Wetherall's 1st cousin, married Carol Trappe on the evening of 30 April 1949 (Spokane Chronicle, Saturday, 30 April 1949, page 14) at St. John's Lutheran Church in Spokane. The bridegroom was described as the son of Mr. and Mrs. C. M. Ure, W731 Knox Street, Spokane. The ushers included James Trappe (a brother of the bride), and Gene Lemmer (Harlan Eugene Lemmer, Dale's nephew, then about 15 years old). Those assisting at the reception included Mrs. Harlan Lemmer (Dale's sister Greta) and Miss Lois Lemmer (Greta's daughter, Gene's sister, and Dale's niece, then about 9 years old).
Dale and Carol visit San Francisco
In May 1950, a year after they married, Dale and Carol visited the Wetherall family in San Francisco. A picture postcard showing "The Golden Trail, Scotch Broom in Blossom, Oregon Coast Highway" is addressed to "The Wetheralls' / 1558 33 Ave. / San Francisco / California". A standard green 1-cent Washington stamp is postmarked Florence, Oregon, 20 May 1950. Carol wrote the following message.
Picture postcards were the contemporary equivalents of text messages with attached images -- except that postcard messages were anything but instant. You needed, first of all, a postcard. And a pen with ink or a sharp pencil or both. And a proper stamp. And then you had to find a post box -- and trust that the card would be picked, routed, and delivered in two or three days -- rain or shine, snow or sleet.
This writer began to collect picture postcards, beginning those I got from my maternal grandmother and parents, in my early teens, growing up in San Francisco during the early 1950s. I usually wrote my name "Bill Wetherall" at the tops of cards I added to my collection with the intention of keeping them. I did this to make sure that other people, particularly classmates and neighbors with whom I traded stamps and postcards, knew who they belonged to. I never got higher than a complimentary "C" in penmanship. After learning the art of printing in high school and college drafting classes, I lost the ability to write in longhand other than to sign my name. Notes and memos I write for myself are always odd mixtures of printing and cursive.
Dale's and Carol's obituaries
Dale and Carol would live the rest of their lives in Spokane.
The following is a cut and paste of an obituary re-posted by Ancestor.com from SpokesmanReview.com. The obituary reportedly appeared in the 10 July 2004 edition of the paper but the copy on the website shows 9 July 2004. It was probably run in the classifieds on both days.
Dale's wife, Carol Louise (Trappe) Ure, born on 6 November 1928, apparently in Spokane, passed away in Spokane on 9 April 2010. Her obituary was published in the classified ads section of The Spokesman-Review from 14-15 April 2010, according to the following Legacy.com version. The portrait was published with the obituary. The caption below the portrait, and the portrait's approximate date, are mine. The date is based on information in the image's file name.
The 4 surviving children as of the time of the above obituary were Douglas Ure of Salem, Oregon; Diane Richards and Janice (Jan) Christensen, both of Spokane, Washington; and Wendy Davis of Spangle, Washington.
Douglas Ure (1950-2014)
Douglas Ure, born on 31 July 1950, died on 28 January 2014. He had been an instructor at Chemeketa Community College in Salem, Oregon. He taught courses in life sciences, and his research interests were vertebrate biology and terrestrial and forest ecology.
5.3 Lydia's children
Lennie Lee (Anstine) and William Archie Severns
Lennie Severns's family saga
Lennie Lee (Anstine) Severns wrote a brief account of her life for the following publication.
Alma Nix and John Nix, editors
The following text is a reformatted version of Lennie's story from a text file created from scans of a part of this work and posted on USGenWeb Archives by Wesley Cox in February 2003. Lennie's account is found on page 326 in Part 9 of the 10-part work. The title is mine. The comments in (parentheses) are as received in the scanned version, but the comments in [brackets] are mine.
The photo of Lennie and Archie Severns in the original source was omitted in the USGenWeb Archives extract. The graduation portrait of Lennie, and the snapshots of Lennie, Archie, and Imogene with the children, Tex and Billie, belong to the Severns family. The scans were kindly provided by Lennie's granddaughter, Darci Severns, the Anstine-Severns family historian.
Darci Severns's tales
Lydia and Charley Anstine's great grandaughter, Darci Severns, recalled a number of tales she heard from her grandmother Lennie (Anstine) Severns, her great aunt Aura (Anstine) Dey, and her mother Eileen (Greer) Severns. Darci is the daughter of Lennie's and Archie's son Tex Severns, who was my 2nd cousin, and so she and I (William O. Wetherall) are 2nd cousins once removed. Darci shared the following account of her memories with me (email, 23 October 2013).
Uncle Charley stories
Charles Andrew Anstine (1883-1932) was the son of a farmer, and he himself became a farmer, in Utica, Seward County, Nebraska. He married Lydia Baldwin, who he had met in Lincoln Nebraska, in 1906, and they were the parents of three daughters when he registered for 2nd draft on 12 September 1918 near the end of the World War or Great War, now know as World War I.
Charles Anstine's enlistment card describes him as a resident of Utica, Seward, Nebraska, 34 and white, a native born citizen and self-employed farmer. He gave Mrs. Lydia Anstine, at the same address, as the name of his nearest relative. The Seward County Local Board official agreed that Charles was short and stout, had brown eyes and light brown hair, and had no obvious disabilities that would have disqualified him from service.
Darci Severns remembers that her grandmother Lennie (Anstine) Severns, and her great aunt Aura (Anstine) Dey, said that Charley "had very small feet and fit into Lydia's shoes. And he could wear her gloves." (Email, 8 November 2013)
Charles Anstine was "Uncle Charley" to William B. Wetherall, who -- especially in his later years -- told his children, including this writer, and a few of his friends, what we children dubbed "Uncle Charley stories".
My dad rarely talked about himself when we, his children, were growing up. He told his Uncle Charley stories late in his life, almost always at the dinner table. He was a disciplinarian when it came to eating. We had to clean our plates. No food was ever thrown out. Failure to eat something on our dinner plates meant eating it the next morning.
Our mother, raised on a farm, shared our father's distaste for waste. She had all manner of ways to remake leftovers into tasty meals. Both of our parents impressed on us the austerity they had experienced when they were growing up.
My dad told his Uncle Charley stories partly out of nostalgia, and partly to impress on us how hard -- but good -- life was in his youth. We knew how he felt about farming, for he always had a huge vegetable garden after moving from San Francisco to Grass Valley in 1955.
While living in San Francisco, we went camping practically every summer and "roughed" it with a tent, sleeping bags, and a Coleman stove and lanterns. After moving to Grass Valley, we never again went camping. In fact, my parents took only two family trips during the years we were growing up in Grass Valley -- in 1958 to Iowa, and in 1959 to Idaho -- both related to family reunions.
William B. Wetherall's 2011 testimony
On 8 March 2011, William B. Wetherall was interviewed at his home by Gregg Schiffner, a local cinematographer and good friend, who was preparing for a presentation of Bill's life at his 100th birthday party. In the course of the interview, Bill talked a bit about his experiences working on his uncle's farm in Nebraska during the summers when he was going to high school.
Gregg wondered if Charley was on his father's side, and my father said yes, and then corrected himself. He was on his mother's side, he said, but he never did clarify that Charley was the husband of his mother's sister Lydia.
He emphatically stated that he had worked on the Nebraska farm 6 summers. The first summer, he said, was after completing the 8th grade of grade school in Knoxville, which agrees with his 2010 oral account to this writer, his son. And he stressed that he had also worked the summer after he graduated from high school, which he hadn't mentioned in 2010.
In 2010, he related that he graduated from the 8th grade in Knoxville in 1924, and from high school in Des Moines in 1928, in what was a conventional 8-4 system. In Knoxville he lived with his paternal grandfather's family, and in Des Moines he lived with his father's new family. This, too, suggests that he worked only 5 summers -- unless he also worked the summer of 1923 (which is possible), or perhaps the summer of 1929 (which is possible but less likely).
In 2011, he did not go into detail about his life on the farm in Nebraska. It started talking about Nebraska in the course of explaining what he did after graduating from high school, and he ended up telling four stories, about (1) his plans to go to college in Iowa the next fall, (2) his work on Charley's farm that summer, (3) Charley's offer of an interest in the farm if he stayed and went to college in Nebraska, and (4) his decision to Idaho instead. And parts of all these stories are confusing.
Though he seemed confused as to when he first worked on Charley's farm, he clearly stated that the first time, someone -- presumably Charley -- came to Knoxville to pick him up, and camped at the fair grounds. "That's what they did in those days," he said. He didn't say how Charley came. Possibly he drove. The distance would have been about 250 miles or 400 kilometers. While not an especially long distance by today's standards, in the early 1920s it would have been a long and arduous day on the road, with a pit stop or two to gas up and check the water and oil, and pray that there be no flat tires, broken fan belt, or blown gasket.
My father said in the 2011 interview that the farm was 360 acres -- "half a section" he added, a section being 640 acres. He said that Charley offered him "a quarter" of the farm or "produce" -- apparently meaning a quarter of the income from the farm, since Charley didn't own the land -- if he would join him on the farm. However, he told his uncle he planned to go to college.
It's not clear from the interview how big Charley's farm was, and I have no idea how large a typical farm in Seward might have been. By the 1920s, it was probably a partly mechanized operation, as by then mechanization was sweeping the country. But many farmers, including Charley, farmed on land belonging to someone else.
My mother was raised on an Idaho farm her grandparents had homesteaded from the late 1890s and her parents then operated until the mid 1920s, about the time my dad began working on Charley's farm in Nebraska. My grandparents sold their farm in the face of rapid mechanization, which radically changed the economics of farming, as the more successful farmers bought up smaller homesteads and merged them into larger mechanized operations.
The 1900 to 1940 censuses for the Anstine family tell the following story.
1900 census shows Richard and Helen Anstine (Charley is 16) renting farm land.
Charley thus appears to have been a tenant farmer -- which means that he stood to prosper only if production was good and the market was strong. I would guess that he made the offer to my dad in 1928 because he felt his farm would produce enough to make it worth both his and my dad's while.
Having 3 surviving daughters, 2 of them marriageable, the 3rd not yet 2 years old, with Lydia suffering from cancer, Charley was definitely in need of reliable help. I imagine he saw my father -- his nephew-in-law -- as a sort of son, born the year between his 2nd and 3rd daughters, Lennie and Aura. And he must have been impressed by Bill's work during previous summers.
Charley would have understood my father's desire to go to college. Lennie, his daughter, was then going to the University of Nebraska in Lincoln to become a teacher. His suggestion that my father go to college in Lincoln, instead of Penn College in Oskaloosa, Iowa, would have put my father close enough to Seward (30 miles), and the farm in Utica (40 miles), that he could have worked there at least part time.
The depression, triggered by the market crash a couple of months after Lydia's death in 1929, probably contributed to the difficulties Charley had as his own health declined. Lennie married Archie Severns in 1931, and they attempted to make a go of the farm before and after Charley's death from cancer in 1932. But as Lennie relates in her 1985 account (see "Lennie's saga"), they decided to restart their lives in Washington.
Farming life in the 1920s and 1930s
Darci Severns has shared similar stories she recalls hearing from Lennie, her paternal grandmother, and Aura, her paternal great aunt, of life on the Anstine farm in Utica during the 1920s and 1930s.
William B. Wetherall, when telling his Uncle Charley stories, sometimes said the family was poor but they had lots of food and ate well -- and all the food you could eat. He said they had some cows, hogs, and chickens, and his chores included feeding and caring for them every day, begining every morning before breakfast. Other work involved the crops. I can't remember what he said they were. I would guess they grew a little bit of everything, larger crops for sale, smaller crops for family consumption or bartering with neighbors, which included other Anstines.
My dad's work on Charley's farm spanned the mid and late 1920s, before Lydia's death and the Wall Street crash two months later. By the time Charley died, the Great Depression was in full swing, making tenant farming even more difficult.
William B. Wetherall laced his Uncle Charley stories with the idioms of times. "A dollar a day plus found" was a standard refrain, and he often repeated "Found. Food." -- stressing both words -- and sometimes added "All you could eat." Life on the farm was mainly about food, as perhaps life is everywhere.
In the 2011 interview, he said Charley had always given him a little money when he went home at the end of summer. And the last two summer, he had paid him 30 dollars a month, the standard wage for farm labor at the time.
Baldwin-Steele family galleries
Sadie Baldwin -- Williams, Mathews, Disrud
Sadie Baldwin had 2 children, a daughter Faye, whose father appears to have been Ambrose Powell Williams, and a son Claude, whose father seems to have been Charles F. Williams. Whether these are the same men who went by different names is not clear to me at the time of this writing (March 2021).
Faye married 3 times -- to men named Mathews, Nelson, and Rebenstorf. Her only child, Marilyn, was fathered by Mathews in 1934. Marilyn was nearly 10 when Faye married Rebenstorf in 1944. He passed away in 1966. Claude, who appears to have never married, passed away in 1977, and Faye passed away in 1995. Marilyin passed away in 2013, and her husband, Norman Disrud, passed away in 2016. Their only child, Todd, and his children, now carry the torch of Sadie's Baldwin-Howard line.
Lydia Baldwin -- Anstine, Severns
Lydia, the 2nd of the 4 Baldwin sisters, met Charley Anstine in 1907 in Lincoln, Nebraska, and they married there on 12 February 1908 and settled in Utica in Seward County, Nebraska, near Charley's parents. Velma, the 1st of their 4 daughters, was born in Seward County on 30 November 1908.
Lydia's parents, with Meda (3rd Baldwin sister) and Ida (youngest sister), moved to Spokane in Washington, and to St. Maries in Idaho. Sadie (1st sister) also lived in the northwest for a while before returning to Seward, where her children -- Faye, born in Knoxville, Iowa in 1906 and Claude, born in Lincoln, Nebraska in 1907 -- grew up close to their Anstine cousins.
Velma, the oldest Anstine sister, died in 1919, leaving Lennie and Aura, the 2nd and 3rd sister. The 4th sister, Imogene, was born 14 years after Aura.
Lennie, the oldest surviving sister, helped her grandmother Ellen Baldwin raise Imogine after Lydia died in 1929. Lennie married Archie Severns in 1931, and they adopted Imogene when Charlie died in 1932.
Ure and Lemmer families (Meda Baldwin)
Meda Baldwin, the 3rd of the 4 Baldwin sisters, remained geographically and socially the closest to their mother Ellen Baldwin. She married Clifford Ure in 1911 and they had 2 children -- Greta, born in 1912 -- and Dale, born 16 years later in 1928. Because my father, born in 1911, was raised in St. Maries during his first few years of life, and lived with the Ure's while going to college and law school in the early 1930s, he was as close if not closer to his Ure cousins -- especially Greta, but also Dale -- as he was to his cousin's Faye and Claude Williams in Sadie's line, and Lennie and Aura Anstine in Lydia's line.
I had more opportunity to meet Sadie and Faye because they -- like Ellen, who died before I was born -- were the travelers in the family.
The keepers of the keys of Meda's Ure-Baldwin line are Greta's daughter Lois (Lemmer) (Santa Rosa) Slater, and her daughter Patricia Santa Rosa Flint.
Wetheralls (Ida Baldwin)
For Ida (Baldwin) Wetherall's family, see Wetherall-Hardman family page.
1959 Baldwin-Steele family reunion
The following photographs show two family reunion dinners with different mixes of the descendants of 3 of the 4 Baldwin sisters -- Sadie, Meda, and Ida. Sadie's and Meda's families were in Idaho and Washington, and Ida's family (this writer's Wetherall family) was in California. Lydia's line was not represented, though the families of a couple of her daughters were in Washington.
The Wetherall family traveled to Idaho during the summer of 1959 for the purpose of reunions on both my father's Baldwin-Steele side and my mother's Hardman-Hunter side. I didn't make the trip because I had just graduated from high school and started a full-time summer job in San Francisco.
Of the two gatherings shown here, the one with the most attendants was held at the home of Greta and Harlan Lemmer in Meda's line in Spokane, Washington. The smaller gathering met at the home of Faye and Howard Rubenstorf in Sadie's line in Coeur d'Alene in Idaho.
The images are scans of 3-1/2in square glossy color prints with 1/4in borders in the Wetherall Family Collection. There are similar prints in the collections of some of the other families.
See keys to identifications below the panel of photographs
John R. Baldwin and Rebecca and Margaret Howard
Chronology of Baldwin-Howard family
10. John R. Baldwin, Rebecca and Margaret Howard, and their children
John R. Baldwin seems to have fathered 3 children with his 1st wife, Rebecca Howard, and 12 (or 14) with his 2nd wife, Margaret Howard, Rebecca's younger sister. All of the 15 children listed in the table -- except Sarah -- are found on censuses. Their full names and many other particulars have been culled from various sources. Many but not all details have been confirmed by scans of official records.
Margaret Baldwin's children
Rebecca and Margaret were sisters. Rebecca had at least 3 children between 1849-1853. Margaret raised Rebecca's children in addition to the at least 12 she had with John.
"Heaven Sent", whose genealogy research includes the Baldwin line, has posted a scan of Margaret Baldwin's death certificate on the Internet. She also posted the following information about Margaret, which I have slightly edited and reformatted. The numbers, which are those I assigned the children in the above table, and the underscoring of the children who do not appear in the table, are mine.
Margaret Anne Baldwin was the daughter of John F. and Elizabeth Mark Howard. She married John R. Baldwin on 13 June 1855 in Harlan County, Kentucky. God blessed this marriage with the following children: (1) William Henley, (2) Robert Eqing [sic = Ewing], Clayton, Anne, (4) Newton Bascum, (5) James Alfred, (6) Elihu Joseph, (7) Henry Clay, (8) Martha A., (9) George F., (10) Samuel I. B. [sic = L.B.], (11) Archelus Fernando, and (12) Charles Nelson.
Heaven Sent appears to have listed the children in the order of their birth. Only Clayton and Anne are not found on any census. William Henley was born in March 1856 and Robert Ewing around 1858. And Newton Bascum was born in December 1862, James Alfred in April 1864, and all subsequent children only a year or two apart. This leaves roughly 4 years -- 1859-1863 -- between which to bear and lose two children.
Some lists of Baldwin children include a "(3) Sarah", who apparently was born and died in 1859. If "Clayton" and "Anne" or "Sarah" were in fact children of John and Margaret, then they died before the 1860 census (when they would have been about 1 year old), or before the 1870 census (when they would have been going on 10).
The 1900 and 1910 censuses state that Margaret had respectively 14 and 12 children of whom 11 survived. In addition to the children he had with with Margaret, John fathered 3 children (Elizabeth, John, and Mary) with Margaret's older sister Rebecca. A couple of the 14 children reported in the 1900 census may have been Rebecca's.
John R. Baldwin's family in 19th century censuses
The 1850 census for District 31 of Lee County, Virginia, shows John R. Baldwin (22) farming with his wife Rebecca (22) and their daughter Elizabeth (1). Other sheets from the same Lee County census show Margaret (14) still living with her parents, John F. Howard (48) and Elizabeth (38), and 2 older and 5 younger siblings. Margaret in John F. Howard's household is shown as born in Virginia. Rebecca in John R.Baldwin's household was born in Kentucky.
Rebecca Baldwin died on 3 April 1855 according to Margaret's 1909 widow's pension eligibility declaration.
John R. Baldwin and Margaret Baldwin married on 13 June 1855 in Harlan, Kentucky.
The 1860 census for "Free Inhabitants" of the Jonesville post office area of the Western District of Lee County, Virginia, shows "John R. Balwin" [sic = Baldwin] 31, Farmer, with his wife "Margret" [sic = Margaret] 22, Housekeeper, and 5 children -- "Elisabeth L." 10, "John M." 8, "Mary E. D." 7, "Wm. H." 4, and "Robbert E." 3 -- and John R. Baldwin's younger brother "Thos. N." 16, Farm labor. Everyone in the household -- including Margaret -- is said to have been born in Lee County, Virginia. Elizabeth, John, and Mary are Rebecca's children. William and Robert are Margaret's children. "Thos. N." is John R. Baldwin's younger brother Thomas Newton Baldwin (1843-1924).
Family moves to Kentucky during Civil War
The Baldwin-Howard family moves from Virginia to Kentucky around 1863.
The 1870 census for the Gray Hawk Post Office area of Sturgeon Precinct No. 6 in Jackson County, Kentucky, shows "John R. Baldwin" 41 with is wife "Margaret" 35 and 8 children -- "John M." 18, "Mary E." 17, "William H." 14, "Robert E." 12, "Newton B." 8, "James A." (6), "Elihu J." 3, and "Henry C." 2. Two others -- "James N. Howard" 23 and "Sarah E. Thomas" 14 were also living with the family. John R. Baldwin is a farmer and Margaret is keeping house. Sons John, William, and Robert were farm laborers. James Howard, probably Margaret (nee Howard's) brother, was also a farm laborer. Sarah Thomas was a domestic servant. The household's real estate and personal property were valued at 400 and 250 dollars. Margaret and her youngest sons James A., Elihu, and Henry C. were born in Kentucky. All others in the household were born in Virginia. The two oldest children -- John M. and Mary E. -- are John R. Baldwin's children with his 1st wife, Rebecca (Howard) Baldwin (1828-1855), Margaret's deceased older sister.
The same enumeration sheet of the 1870 census for Gray Hawk Post Office area in Sturgeon Precinct No. 6, in Jackson County, Kentucky, shows John R. Baldwin's younger brother, Virginia-born "Thos. N. Baldwin", 24 years old, with his Kentucky-born wife "Emily C.", 21, farming and keeping house with 2 Kentucky-born children, "John C.", 3, and "Elizabeth A.", 1, and a Tennessee-born domestic servant, "Susan A. Thomas", 13.
By the 1880 census, Thomas N. Baldwin has moved to Raccoon Precinct No. 2 of Laurel County, Kentucky, where he is enumerated as "Newton Baldwin" 34, with his wife "Emily C." 33, and 6 children -- "John C." 14, "Elizabeth" 11, "Steven M." 9, "Lissie C." 7, "Martha" 11, and "Joseph" 2. Newton is a farmer, Emily C. is keeping house, John C. works on farm, and Elizabeth is at home.
Thomas Newton Baldwin was born on 29 October 1843 in Lee County, Virginia. He died on 10 March 1924 in Laurel County, Kentucky, where he is buried as "N. B." under a plain tombstone in Carrier Cemetery. His wife, Emily C. (Carrier) Baldwin, was born in 1847. She died in Laurel County in 1908, and she too is buried in Carrier Cemetery under a plain tombstone marked "E. B."
The 1880 census for Precinct No. 5, Enumeration District No. 50, Jackson County, Kentucky, shows "John R. Baldwin" 51 with his wife "Margaret" 44 and 9 children -- "Newton B." 19, "James A." 16, "Elihur J." 13, "Henry C." 12, "Martha A." 9, "George F." 7, "Samuel L. B." 5, "Archelus F." 3, and "Charles N." 8/12 year old. All but 2 of the surviving children John R. fathered with Margaret are enumerated here. John R., Newton B., James A., Elihur J., and Henry C. are "laborers" presumably on the family farm. Margaret is keeping house.
Enumerated immediately after John R. Baldwin's household is the household of "Elizabeth Steele", who is widowed, and 2 children, "John M. and "Martha E." Martha Ellen Steele would become the wife of Newton Bascum Baldwin on 15 December 1881 the following year. They would eventually settle in St. Maries, Idaho.
Margaret Baldwin's 1st son, William Henley Baldwin, is enumerated in another household on the same sheet as "William Baldwin", with his wife "Nancy J." and 3 children. They would eventually settle in Stites, Idaho.
Their 2nd son, Robert Ewing Baldwin, is enumerated in the 1880 census for Precinct No. 5, Magisterial District No. 7, Jackson County, as "Robert Baldwin", 22, the son-in-law of "Phiarzina Ketron" (57), who is widowed. He is shown after Phiarzina's son Nelson (17), and before his wife, Phiarzina's daughter "Liddia L." (31). Liddia died, leaving no children, and Robert would remarry Eliza Jane King. They lived in Jackson county for a while but resettled in Laurel County.
The 1890 census was mostly destroyed in a fire.
Neighboring Baldwin families in 1900 and 1910 censuses
The first two censuses of the 20th century show several children of the Baldwin-Howard family living as adults in separate households next door to each other.
The 1900 census for the 3rd Magisterial District, Pond Creek, of Jackson County, Kentucky shows -- on the same enumeration sheet -- three Baldwin households in a row.
John R. Baldwin died on 10 March 1909. Margaret would live with a grandson next door to the households of other sons.
The 1910 census for the 3rd Magisterial District of Jackson County, Kentucky shows shows Margaret Baldwin living in the family of a grandson apparently next door to the households of two of her other sons. All three families were living on Terrell Creek Road, which was listed after Pond Creek Road.
Margaret Baldwin died on 3 June 1912.
Baldwin, Howard, and other family names
In the English-speaking world, family names are acquired through birth from the father, and through marriage and adoption from the husband or adopting father. And family historians tend to focus on "lines" defined by the family names of parents, hence "Baldwin" and "Howard" if speaking of the "Baldwin-Howard" family. Yet John R. Baldwin was a "Baldwin-Steale" descendant, and Rebecca and Margaret Baldwin were "Howard-Mark" descendants. Hence every union of 2 parents represents unions of 4 grandparents, which represent unions of 8 great-grandparents, which represent unions of 16 great-great-grandparents, ad infinitim. There is no biological reason to focus on only one name, but social biases -- in particular the dominence of male lines -- lead many people to focus on the history of only their (usually) patrilineal family name.
Dictionary of American Family Names, Edited by Patrick Hanks and Flavia Hodges (1990, 2003, 2006), 3 volumes, Oxford University Press, gives the following description of the family name "Baldwin" (as cited by FamilySearch, viewed and copied 25 December 2019).
Wikipedia gives the following account of "Howard" as a family name (viewed and copied 25 December 2019).
Some writers report that "Howard" as either a family or given name is a conflation of two distinct but now homophonic names with a history of other pronunciations and spellings -- one "Hayward" from the title of a parish officer or warden in charge of the hedges (hay), fences, or other enclosures around a ward, parish, village or town, or public pastures -- the other from elements meaning heart, mind, and spirit (hug) and hardy, brave, and strong (hard) -- to put it most simply without several pages of obscure geographic and linguistic history. In other words, on its surface today, the name "Howard" reveals nothing about its origin or history, but is merely a fairly recent conflation of several spellings representing different origins and histories.
Most family names in English-speaking countries are not exclusively English. Many have origins in other languages, and those that originated in English make their way into other languages, where their spellings may change. The following table shows a few of the variations of "Baldwin" and "Howard" in other languages.
Baldwin Howard Dutch Boudewijn English Baldwin Howard < eowu (ewe) + hierde (herd) As name of keeper of female sheep French Beaudoin Huard < OG Hugihard "heart brave" Baudouin German Howard / Howart < ON "high (chief) warden" Hereward "army guard" Icelandic Baldvin Italian Baldovino Spanish Balduino
William Oconnel Bradley Baldwin
Who were Bradley Baldwin's parents?
According to a 1963 death certificate for "William Oconnel Bradley Baldwin", his mother was "Ann Baldwin" and his father was "? Taylor". This would suggest that, if he was in fact Margaret Baldwin's grandson, that his mother was Martha Ann Baldwin -- who did not marry Samuel Moore until 11 April 1889, about 14 months after Bradley Baldwin's birth on 22 February 1888. However, the death certificate does not establish that "William Oconnel Bradley Baldwin" is the "Bradley Baldwin" identified as Margaret Baldwin's grandson in the 1910 census. And a few other matters need to be considered. So let's pursue the trail of evidence -- back from the 1910 census, then forward to the 1963 death certificate -- and see where it leads us.
If Bradley Baldwin was a grandson of John R. Baldwin's widow Margaret Baldwin -- as stated in the 1910 census -- then he is either a a son of one of her sons, or a son of her only surviving daughter Martha Ann Baldwin.
If Bradley Baldwin was 21 at the time of the 1910 census, then he was born around 1888-1889, and so he should be in the 1890 and 1900 censuses with his parents or guardians. But the 1880 census data is not available. And there is no Bradley Baldwin -- or Brad or William or William Oconnel or other likely person in a 1900 census for any of the Baldwin-Howard households that I can find.
Marriage dates of Baldwin-Howard children
Bradley Baldwin with Maude and Margaret on Terrell Creek Road
In 1910 census for Jackson County, Magisterial District 3
Copped and cropped from Ancestry.com
This is the first appearance of a "Bradley Baldwin" associated with the Baldwin-Howard family.
The datum for this census was 15 April. Hence Bradley -- if 21 as of this date -- was born between 16 April 1888 and 15 April 1889.
If born on or before 15 April 1888, Bradley would have been 22 years old or older
Margaret Baldwin died on 3 June 1912.
Baldwin fixing to move away"
Right Article reporting community news from Bond, Jackson County in the "Eastern Kentucky Correspondence" column of the Thursday, 11 February 1915 edition of The Citizen (page 5). Copped and cropped from Newspapers.com
William Oconnel Bradley Baldwin
Below 1942 Selective Service Registration Card for "William Oconnel Bradley Baldwin". The earliest document on Ancestry.com to show "William Oconnel" in addition to "Bradley Baldwin". See his 1963 death certificate (bottom of this column) for another example. Whether Bradley Baldwin was given this longer name at the time of his birth, or whether he acquired it later in life, is not clear. It may have been inspired by the name of the late 19th-century Kentucky politician William O'Connell Bradley (see main text). Copped and cropped from Ancestor.com
Nancie Maudie Baldwin's 1950 death certificate informed by Bradley Baldwin
Copped and cropped from Ancestry.com
William Oconnel Bradley Baldwin's 1963 death certificate informed by Audrey Music
Copped and cropped from Ancestry.com
Death certificate informants are generally family members or friends close enough to know more than just the name of the deceased. Audrey Music's relationship with W.O.B. Baldwin is not known, but she appears to have known things about him that a casual friend would not know. She was going on 28 when he died at 77. She could have been anything from a girlfriend to a caretaker. The death certificate states that Bradley Baldwin died in West Liberty Hospital. Audrey Music might have been a nurse or other hospital staff member that had reason to know enough about the circumstances of his life and death to act as informant.
The 1940 census for Floyd County shows (1935-1994) is "Audrey Joe Music" (4) as the 1st of then 3 children of "Theodore Music" (47) and his wife "Sara" (24). Theodore was a laborer doing government work, Sara was doing housework, and they were renting a non-farm home. He had 4 years and she 1 (one) year of schooling. Her name on Social Security records is "Audrey Jewell Music". She died in Paintsville, the seat of Johnson County, just north of Floyd, but is buried in Akers-Music Cemetery in Bonanza in Floyd County as "Audrey J. Music". She was born in Bonanza and her mother's maiden name was Sarah Akers. The bottom of her headstone reads "I Love You Mom".
1915 newspaper article An article datelined Jackson County, Bond, 6 February 1915 -- published in the 11 February 1915 edition of The Citizen, a Berea County weekly paper, reported that "Bradley Baldwin is selling out and fixing to move away" (page 5 continuation of "East Kentucky Correspondence Column" beginning on page 8).
Berea is the county seat of Madison County, which shares a border with the northwest part of Jackson County The Citizen reported local community news for Jackson and other nearby counties in a column called "East Kentucky Correspondence".
Bond is less than 2 kilomters (about 1 mile) east of Annville, or roughly 10-11 kilometers (6-7 miles) north-northeast of Terrells Creek or Baldwin Branch.
When and why did Baldwin move?
Assuming the Bradley Baldwin of Bond in the 1915 article is the Bradley Baldwin who was farming on Terrell Creek Road in the 1910 census -- when and why did he move to Bond? Did he stay at the farm on Terrell Creek Road until Margaret died in 1912? And why is he leaving Bond only a few years in 1915?
1917 draft registration A Form 1 Registration Card, signed on 5 June 1917 in Floyd County, Kentucky, show a "Bradley Baldwin" as a "Natural Born" citizen, born on 20 February 1888 in "Moores Creek" in Kentucky, USA, then living in Beaver in Floyd County. He was "Farming & Teaching" and self-employed. He was married claimed an exemption [from military draft during the Great War] on the grounds that he had a "Dependant wife" (original card). He was tall, of medium build, had brown hair and eyes, was not bald, and had no missing limbs or other disabilities. His "Race" was "Caucasian" and the "If person is of African descent, tear off this corner" tab in the lower-left corner of the form was intact on both forms.
There are two versions of Form 1 Registration Card for Bradley Baldwin -- the original and a "true copy" of the original. The original is in two hands. Bradley's hand is evident in the "Name in full" and on the "Signature or mark" line. The "true copy" in an entirely differen cursive hand. The original has "Dependant wife" and the copy has "Dependent wife". British usage differentiates the condition of being dependent (adjective "dependent") and a dependent person (noun "dependant") the two. American usage generally uses "dependent" for both. So the "True copy" was has what is called a "copiest error" -- possibly an intentional "correction", possibly an inadvertent "error".
Floyd County is in the heart of Eastern Kentucky coal country, to the east of Jackson County, between Jackson County and Tennessee.
Beaver is an unincorporated community in Floyd County.
Moores Creek is about 5 kilometers (roughly 3 miles) southwest of Annville in Jackson County.
1920 census I can find no likely candidate for Bradley and Maude Baldwin in any Kentucky census.
The 1930 census for Magisterial District 4, Paint Precinct, in Morgan County, Kentucky, shows "Bradley Baldwin" 42 with his wife "Maud" 44. He was 20 and she was 22 when they married. They were renting their home, and he was working as a farmer on a general farm on his own account. Living with them was a niece "Mildred Mathews" 11.
"Mathews" was Maude's maiden name.
Morgan County northwest of Floyd County. Morgan County originated from parts of other counties, including an earlier larger incarnation of Floyd county, but is separated from Floyd County by Maggofin County. These and other adjacent counties are in the heart of Eastern Kentucky's coal mining region.
The 1940 census for Magisterial District 3 of Floyd County shows a "Bradley Baldwin" 52 with his wife Maude 54. They were renting a home on Clear Creek and he was employed as a "tiple [sic = tipple] worker" in a coal mine. Both had completed 8 years of schooling.
The tipple of a mine is where coal or ore extracted from the mine is loaded onto railroad hopper cars or other vehicles for transport. The census also specified jobs like "coal loader" and "mine forman".
Age difference discrepancies
The 1910 census shows Bradley to be 1 year older than Maude, whereas the 1930 and 1940 censuses show Maude to be 2 years older than Bradley.
1942 draft registration A Department of Selective Service D.S.S. Form 1 Registration Card signed 27 April 1942 shows "William Oconnel Bradley Baldwin", age 54 [sic = 53], born on 22 February 1988 in Jackson County. His wife is "Maud" and they were residing in Fed in Floyd County. He was working for "Panes Babes Coal Co." He was 5'10-1/2" tall, weighed 200 lbs, had brown eyes and gray hair, a light complexion, and a "Scar side of right eye". The card is specifically for "Men born on or after April 28, 1877 and on or before February 16, 1897".
As is commonly seen on official forms filed by people with limited writing skills, all items on this form -- except the name box and the signature -- are written in a smooth cursive hand. "Bradley Baldwin" is printed in the name box in an awkward hand that confuses upper- and lower-case letters -- BRɑDley BalDWIN -- which uses the closed single-story "script ɑ" (more common in writing) in Bradley, and the open double-story "Latin a" (more common in printing) in Baldwin. "WilliAM OCONNel" is written above Bradley in the "First" part of the "Name (Print)" box. He has no "Middle" name, and signed his name "Brɑdley Bɑldwin" with closed spript style "ɑ" and only "B" is upper case, but the cursive has an angular quality about it.
The Department of Selective Service (DSS) oversaw thousands of draft boards in states and territories of the United States.
Nancie Maudie Baldwin dies on 13 March 1950 in Dungus in Morgan County, Kentucky.
A Commonweath of Kentucky Certificate of Death, informed by "Bradley Baldwin", states that "Nancie Maudie Baldwin" died in Dungus in Morgan County on 13 March 1950 from "Hypertensive H. [Heart] disease" due to "apoplexy". The typed certificate states that she had been living in Dingus for 21/2 years, was married, and was occupied as a housewife doing housework. She was said to have been born on 9 April 1887 in Clay County, Kentucky, and had lived for 62 years 11 months and 4 days. Her father's name was "Moses Mathew" and her mother's maiden name was "? Goforth". The funeral home was in West Liberty and her body was removed for burial in a family cemetery in Dingus on 15 March 1950.
1963 death certificate A Commonweath of Kentucky Certificate of Death filed in Morgan County, Kentucky, on 14 January 1963 states that "William Oconnel Bradley Baldwin" died in West Liberty, Morgan County, on 10 January 1963, of "Cong. [congestive] failure" due to "Ca- [cancer] intenstines". His marital status was "widowed" and his occupation was "retired miner". He'd been residing in a home on a farm. His mother's name was "Ann Baldwin" and his fathers name was "? Taylor". He was born on 22 February 1888 in simply "Kentucky". The informant was "Audrey Music". His Social Security No. was "unknown" -- although other data shows that a Social Security claim was made by him, or in his name, on 25 February 1953. The death certificate states that he was buried in Baldwin Cemetery in Dingus on 14 January.
West Liberty is the county seat of Morgan County. It is roughly 130 kilometers (80 miles) northeast of Annville in Jackson County.
Dingus is an unincorporated community in Morgan County about 16 kilometers (10 miles) to the east of West Liberty.
William Oconnel Bradley Baldwin's 1963 death certificate confidently identifies his mother as "Ann Baldwin" and equivocally names his father "? Taylor". Whatever the relationship between his parents, he appears to have gone by his mother's maiden name -- which suggests that he was an out-of-wedlock child of Martha Ann Baldwin, who went by "Ann" and "Annie".
The chronology makes the out-of-wedlock scenario plausible. Bradley was born on 22 February 1888, when Martha -- who was born on 3 July 1870 -- would have been 17 years, 7 months, and 15 days old. She married Samuel Moore on 11 April 1889, some 13 months and 10 days later.
Would the lost 1890 census have shown Bradley in the household of Samuel and Martha Ann Moore, as a child she brought to the marriage? Or in the household of his Taylor father? Or in the household of another relative, possible John R. and Margaret Baldwin?
William Oconnel Bradley Baldwin's namesake
Bradley Baldwin's full given and middle names -- William Oconnel Bradley -- appear to have been inspired by the name of the Republican politician William O'Connell Bradley (1847-1914) -- the Governor of Kentucky from 10 December 1895 to 12 December 1899, and a U.S. Senator from 4 March 1909 until his death on 23 May 1914. Bradley had served in the Union Army during the Civil War, and rose to political fame as a champion of the causes of Abraham Lincoln's Republican Party in Kentucky, which had tired to reamin neutral at the start of the war but by 1863 had declared itself on the Union side.
Kentucky in many ways symbolizes the divide in various opinions over questions of slavery and secession. It was the birthplace of both Civil War presidents -- Abraham Lincoln on the Union, and Jefferson Davis of the Confederacy. Kentucky was the site of a number of skirmishes, while the vast majority of the battles in the war took place to the east in Virginia, to the south and southeast in Tennessee and North Carolina, and in states further south.
Some non-governmental groups in Kentucky sided with the Confederacy, but the state of Kentucky itself always remained in the Union and essentially backed the Union cause.
The following article offers a particularly interesting perspective on Kentucky's role in the Civil War.
A. C. Quisenberry
Kentucky Union Troops in the Civil War
Register of Kentucky State Historical Society
Published by Kentucky Historical Society
Volume 18, Number 54, September 1920
Quisenberry estimates that "Kentucky furnished many prominent men to the Confederacy, as well as about thirty five thousand soldiers" (page 13), and that "Kentucky furnished 51,000 white volunteers and 23,000 colored-volunteers to the Union army -- a total of 74,000 troops" (page 13). Later in the article, after adding more troops to the Union side of the ledger, he concludes that, "If accurate figures could be obtained, it is believed that the number of Kentuckians who served the Union in the Civil War would not fall far short of 125,000" (page 14) -- which means (1) accurate figures cannot be obtained, and (2) the number would fall short of 125,000 -- qualifications which have been lost on Wikipedia and other sources which tend to stress inflated figures.
The question of Cherokee blood
Are Baldwin-King descendants part "Indian"?
The Baldwin and King families of Jackson County, Kentucky, appear to have been socially as well as geographically close. Two Baldwin-Howard sons, Robert Baldwin and George Baldwin, married King-Nichols daughters, Eliza and Emeline, and several King-related Baldwins are buried in the King Cemetery in Peoples in Jackson County.
Someone posting to a Baldwin message board claimed that "Emmaline King's mother was a full blooded Cherokee." The claim was made in reference to the wife of George F. Baldwin, a son of John R. Baldwin and Margaret Howard.
The 1870 and 1880 censuses do not support the "Cherokee" thesis.
The 1870 and 1880 censuses had 5 "Color" classifications -- White (W), Black (B), Mulatto (M), Chinese (C), and Indian (I).
1870 censuses for Eliza's and Emeline's parents
The 1870 census for Pond Creek, Jackson County, Kentucky, shows "Woodson T." (23), a farm laborer, as the oldest of 5 children still at home with "George W. King" (53), a farmer, born in Tennessee, and "Tabitha" (53), keeping house, born in Virginia. Everyone in the family is classified "W" under "Color".
The 1870 Pond Creek census also shows "Josephine" (18) as the 3rd of 9 children of "R.E. Nichols" (62), born in North Carolina, and "Emaline" [sic] (44), born in Tennessee. Everyone in the family is classified "W" under "Color".
1880 census for Eliza and Emeline with their parents
The 1880 census for "Ex. Dist. No. 57" of "Precinct No. 7" of Jackson County, Kentucky, shows "Eliza J." (6) and "Emaline" [sic] (5) among 3 other children of "Woodson T. King (33), a laborer, and "Josephine" (30), keeping house. The census states that Woodson was born in Tennessee to Tennessee-born parents, while Josephine was born in Kentucky to a father born in North Carolina and a Kentucky-born mother. Everyone in the family is classified "W" under "Color".
Josephine, born in 1851, died on 22 January 1941. Josephine's mother, Emeline Shiplett, born in Tennessee in 1835, died in Pulaski County, Kentucky, on 15 January 1905.
Woodson T. (1846-1931) and Josephine (1951-1941) share an erect King headstone in King Cemetery in Peoples in Jackson County, where both Eliza and Emeline are buried as "Baldwins" with "K" middle initials.
As for the "full blooded Cherokee" allegation -- the census "Color" classifications ascribed by census takers are "colored" by their own impressions and claims by informants, and not in and of themselves proof of biological descent. However, in the absence of positive evidence of Cherokee ancestry, the census classifications weigh against the claim that Josephine (much less her mother) was an "Indian" in the eyes of census enumerators.
One would think that a "full blooded" Indian of any tribal origin would have been physically distinct, and that -- according to the racialist principles of the "Color" classification scheme -- someone who was known to be, or seen or regarded as being, a "full blooded" Indian would have been classified as an Indian, and that halfbreeds would have been classified as Mulatto -- a common practice at the time.
Indians were not racially identified in the 1790-1840 censuses, which classified people by their status and/or color.
1810 Free whites, All other free persons, Slaves
The 1850 and 1860 censuses were the first to identify people by color -- white, black, or mulatto. 1870 and 1880 censuses added Chinese and Indian, and the 1890 and 1900 censuses added quadroon, octoroon, and Japanese.
The 1850 census and subsequent censuses included "Indians" living in the general population. Most Indians in the general population were citizens of the United States -- unlike the "non-taxed" Indians who usually lived on reservations within tribal jurisdictions, or were otherwise enrolled as members of a Federally-recognized tribe and subject to special Indian censuses. Non-taxed Indians were nationals but not citizens, until the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924, which recognized all Indians as citizens.
Whether someone was tallied as "Indian" or as something else depended a lot on the enumerator, the community, the family, and the person. Indians in some southern states were apt to be classified as "mulatto", especially if they were perceived as being mixed, as the word was broadly used to mean anyone of mixed race. But an Indian might also be classified as "black" or "white" depending on perceptions. Some people who might have been classified as other than "white" passed as white, or were said to be white by their families.
Not a few family-tree genealogy enthusiasts search "in vain" for blood ties -- and now DNA links -- with history's famous and infamous, or with yesteryear's victims of discrimination and oppression. States like Kentucky -- through which many Cherokee and other Indians passed after the Indian Removal Act of 1830 -- especially on the mass exodus in 1838 along the fabled "Trail of Tears" -- are supposed to have witnessed many unions between Indians and whites and blacks.
On 7 July 2017, a member of the Baldwin Genealogy group on Facebook, of which I became a member from 22 November 2018, posted an image from an Ancestry.com message board stating that "Emmaline King's mother was a full-blooded Cherokee." Another member replied that "My gr gr grandmother was Josephine Nichols, mother of Emiline [sic = Emeline] (Shiplett) King. My line is via Eliza Jane King, sister to Emiline, and wife of Robert E., Baldwin. Ancestry shows no Indian in me. However if you had seen my grandfather, her son you would swear to differ, but no Indian shown for me on Ancestry dna testing."
These are familiar experiences. There were "Cherokee blood" stories in a collatoral line of my Hardman-Hunter mother's Hunter-Thomas side -- not my Wetherall-Baldwin father's Baldwin-Steele side -- based on the stature, black hair, and high cheek bones of her first cousin once-removed Eleanor Theodosia (Thomas) Vincent (1916-2007). The cousin, more like a sister to my mother and an aunt to me, did extensive research on her family history, including trips back to North Carolina, Missouri, and Kentucky -- and ruled out Cherokee connections.
Appearances, too, can be deceptive. People seeing my maternal grandfather Owen Hardman when a younger man, and his his wedding photograph with Ullie Hunter, think he looks "Indian". But he's not of Indian descent so far as I can tell, and there are no stories to that effect in the family. His oldest daughter, my aunt, characterized him as "Black Irish", through his mother, alluding to his black hair, steel gray eyes, and skin that deeply darkened from the sun. I to had dark hair and deeply tanned, to the point that I once played Pocahontas in a cub scout skit when living in San Francisco. Later in life, a passenger at a shuttle terminal in San Francisco asked me if I was on 60 Minutes, thinking I was Ed Bradley -- on account of stubbly salt-and-pepper hair and beard, and a tan and other facial features that the man had seen as Negroid.
The faces of racialism
No case better dramatizes the pathological consequences of racialism -- the belief that there are races, and the formation, expression, and defense of racial identities.
The belief that there are races is passively acquired while growing up in the language of a society of people who have learned to racialize themselves and others. Racialization becomes both habitual and customary -- reflexive, expected, and accepted -- and socially, politically, and economically exploited.
Critics of Warren's behavior made three points.
Warren never questioned the "legitimacy" or "validity" or "appropriateness" of race boxes. She grew up with them -- took them for granted. She denies that she "gamed" them -- "played" them to her advantage in a system that ranks some races higher than others on a scale of favourability. But on a scale of fashionability -- she publicized her family story and took pride in its implications of ancestry -- which was racialist if not racist.
Warren based her claims on family lore -- a story told her by her mother, apparently by way of explaining high cheek bones in the family. When Donald Trump called her "Pochohantas" and challenged her to prove her claim, she took a popular discover-your-roots DNA test and posted the results -- which, on the surface, suggested that she had a fraction of Cherokee blood in her veins.
"What do the facts say?" she asked one analyst on camera. "The facts suggest that you absolutely have a Native American ancestor in your pedigree," the analyst replied. The ancestor was said have been in the range of from 6 to 10 generations ago.
So there it was. Being Cherokee was reduced to a question of DNA. Never mind that the reduction of identity to DNA took the form of guesswork based on racialized assumptions about what constitute "Cherokee" genetic traits, compounded with statistical speculation about when the ancestor whose bloodline putatively had such traits mated with someone from another bloodline and created the bloodline that eventually contributed to Warren's bloodline.
Enter representatives of the "Cherokee nation", who strongly objected to Warren's citation of her DNA profile as a vindication of her claim to be of part Cherokee descent -- as though to say DNA tests, and not tribal vetting and recognition, determined whether she had to the right to identify as Cherokee. If so, then the very existence of genealogical DNA tests, which reduce genetic data to "ethnicity" and "heritage", threatens to usurp the sovereign right of every tribe to determine its own membership.
Legally, recognized Native American nations, as self-governing semi-sovereign entities, have the right to determine who belongs to the nation or tribe. This right is equivalent to the right of every sovereign state to determine who qualifies for its nationality and a passport. Just as no sovereign state would tolerate another state or 3rd party telling it who belongs to its affiliated nation, no legally recognized Native American tribe can countenance DNA test results as evidence of membership.
Warren, however, has countered -- fairly I think -- that she has never sought or claimed affiliation or membership. She has only claimed ancestry, based on family lore and what she perceives as DNA evidence that -- though it fails to absolutely corroborate the family story -- stops short of debunking it.
Cherokee representatives acknowledge Warren's public admissions that she identifies as a "white woman", has never claimed to be a "tribal citizen", that only tribes can determine membership, and that DNA is not a token of native identity. In other words, being Cherokee -- Cherokee identity -- is not a matter of race or ancestry, but a status determined by sovereign tribes based on treaty and other formal arrangements with the federal government (in the case of federally recognized tribes).
Some tribal representatives, however, resent the fact that Warren still cherishes the story in her family about having a Cherokee ancestor. They want her to renounce her family story as false -- as an encouragement to other white families with similar stories to denounce them.
The complexity of the Native American DNA controversy echoes the complexities of American-style "identity politics" generally. The commercialization of the rapidly developing science of DNA testing, to exploit the expanding and lucrative genealogy market, which feeds the romanticization of links with victims of genocide and slavery, is a relatively minor issue. The most emotional issues are these.
But here's the rub . . .
Reducing identity to a matter of tribal sovereignty is fine -- if one overlooks a few demographic facts that favor the Warrens of the world. Tribal memberships today are largely based on kinship trails leading back to 19th-century and early 20th-century "Indian Rolls". The rolls were created by federal government agents, who registered Indians when removing them from their homelands to a reservation, or Indians residing on a reservation, or Indians residing off a reservation but enrolled as a member of a tribe in order to benefit from Bureau of Indian Affairs and other programs available only to enrolled members.
These are the most salient problems when it comes to understanding the limitations of "Indian rolls" as a necessary and sufficient requisite for claiming ancestry -- speaking only of ancestry and not ethnic (sociocultural) competency or legal (political) affiliation.
The ultimate questions, then, are these.
John R. Baldwin in the Mexican War of 1846-1848
John R. Baldwin (1828-1909) served in the Mexican War from 1847 to 1848
Military records show that John R. Baldwin (1828-1909), born in Lee County, Virginia, died in Jackson County, Kentucky, served as a Private in a U.S. Army infantry regiment from 1847-1848 during the Mexican War of 1846-1848, mustering in when 18 and mustering out when 19. Veteran records show that he qualified for a pension from 1887 until his death in 1909, and that Margaret Baldwin (1835-1912), as his widow, continued to receive 3/5ths of his pension until she died in 1912. Records show that John R. Baldwin applied for certification as an "invalid", though the grounds for his claim, and when it was recognized, is unclear.
John R. Baldwin in Mexican War
Enlistment 24 April 1847 to 5 August 1848
U.S. military records (above and right) show that John R. Baldwin (1828-1909), age 18, Hazel eyes, Sandy hair, Fair complexion, 5 feet 11 inches tall, born in Lee County, Virginia, enlisted in the U.S. Army, in Manchester [Kentucky], on 24 April 1847, which practically a year to the day that the war began on 25 April 1846. Baldwin served in Company E of the 16th Infantry Regiment, and he was discharged as a private at Newport, Kentucky, on 5 August 1848 -- 6 months after the end of the war on 2 Febraury 1848 (see above and right images of records).
Note that "Race" is not recorded on the Mexican War enlistment register.
John R. Baldwin's Mexican War time line
The above profile of John R. Baldwin, when he was 18 and 19, fits within the following time line.
22 Sep 1828 (0) Born in Lee County, Virginia. Some records say Kentucky, and one says Tennessee, but most say Virginia.
12 Apr 1861 (32) Civil War begins at Fort Sumter in South Carolina
1868 (39-40) John R. Baldwin "removed from [Laurel County Kentucky] to Jackson County Ky.", according to Margaret Baldwin's 1909 widow's pension eligibility declaration. See John R. Baldwin in the Mexican War of 1846-1848.
The enlistment record states that John R. Baldwin was born in Lee County, Virginia, which is in accordance with most census and other records. Later records show his presence in Harlan County, Kentucky, which is immediately north of Lee County. Manchester is the county seat of Clay County, a hop west and skip north of Harlan and Lee counties. Annville, in Jackson County, is another hop west and skip north from Manchester. Jackson County was created in 1858, a decade after the Mexican War, from parts of Madison, Estill, Owsley, Clay, Laurel, and Rockcastle counties, which surround it. John R. Baldwin mustered out at Newport, Kentucky, in Campbell County, on the Ohio river, which marks Kentucky's northern border with Ohio. Presumably he made his way back to Virginia, where he married Rebecca Howard, who appears to have been from Harlan. He was living in Owsley County, immediate north of Clay County and east of Jackson County, when registered during the summer of 1863 as a person subject to military duty during the Civil War (see below). In other words, John R. Baldwin's "niche" was a relative tight cluster of counties where Western Virginia shakes hands with Eastern Kentucky.
Mexican War and politics
Today, in the United States, the Mexican War (1846-1848) -- as it was long called in America -- is better known as the "Mexican-American War", while in Mexico it may be called "Intervención Estadounidense en México" (United States Intervention in Mexico). The later is closer to the geopolitical truth, given America's territorial ambitions and the willingness to achieve them militarily. Both the United States and Mexico, of course, represented expansionist colonial interests that originated in Europe. It was very much a "survival of the fittest" clash of raw military power. In many senses, the borderlands between the United States and Mexico are still contested territories, in an age in which migration, language, and culture "trump" police and military force.
The nature of John R. Baldwin's military duties in the 16th Infantry are not clear. The regiment did not exist at the start of the Mexican War and did not survive the war. And it appears to have been the 3rd U.S. Army unit to be dubbed the 16th Infantry, according to Monte Sourjaily Jr. ("The Question of CARS: Can the Combat Arms Regimental System be made a useful tool that provides a link with the past and a stake in the future?", in Army, Vol. 11, No. 1, August 1960, page 24, highlighting mine).
There have been five 16th Infantry regiments since 1798, with no historical connection between them.
In other words, the "16th Infantry" regiment to which John R. Baldwin was assisgned as a soldier in E Company was a one-off deal, unrelated to similarly designated units in earlier or later periods. The dates on which he is recorded to have mustered in and out of the 16th Infantry of the Mexican War era are neatly bracketed by the reported dates of creation and disbandment of the regiment.
Mexican War in National Archives
The National Archives of the United States has a webpage guide called "Records of United States Regular Army Mobile Units, 1821-1942". The guide includes the following items (my highlighting).
391.5 RECORDS OF THE INFANTRY
1906 Private Act for John R. Baldwin
The private act raising John R. Baldwin's Mexico War pension is listed on page xlviii (48) of cx (100) pages of (110) pages of list of private acts. John R. Baldwin's act is 1 of 66 acts listed on the page, all of which involve pension increases effective from 6 June 1906. Some of the pension recipient have female names, presumably of qualified widows. Most of listed private acts are for pensions, and the vast majority are effective from 6 June 1906. And there are other lists. John R. Baldwin is not being singled out for special congressional recognition. He is merely a name on a list of veterans already receiving pensions.
Relevant Mexican War pension laws appear to have given the Secretary of the Interior discretionary authority to approve pension increases. Local pension officials could not grant increases on their own authority, assuming automatic application of pension laws. They had to refer applications to the Department of Interior for departmental vetting and pro forma approval by the Secretary of the Interior. Hence the requirement that Congress pass private bills authorizing the Secretary of Interior to grant the requested increase. And private bills -- like public bills -- had to be promulated by notification in the Congressional Record.
Today any number of similar private bills could be batched processed electronically using a pensioner data base and a program to generate a suitable official notice for each pensioner. At the turn of the 19th-20th centuries, battalions of typesetters and proofreaders were employed to produce the lists, which were ultimately published by the Government Printing Office, as follows.
The Statutes at Large of the United States of America
Bureaucracy in action
The federal government approved or disapproved about 36,000 Mexican War pension applications between 1887 and 1926. Surviving records are housed by the U.S. National Archives and Records Administsration (Nara) in 946 linear feet, 8 linear inches of materials in 2164 Standard Legal Archives Boxes (the figures seem odd). The Mexican War archives are described in part as follows (see National Archives Catalog for details).
The paper trail shown in the above images, copped and cropped from genealogy websites, represents only a fraction of the paper generated in the labor intensive bureaucratic process of keeping track of the pensions received between 1887 and 1912, first by John R. Baldwin as a surviving veteran of the Mexican War, then by Margaret Baldwin as a surviving spouse of a deceased veteran.
Multiply the numbers of application forms and benefit payout records by 36,000 Mexican War veterans and widows, and by the number of pensioners in earlier and later wars, and you get some idea of what "government" actually is. In some sense, the costs of all past wars continue to increase in the budgets required to maintain the archives of their records and provide public services to family history and other reseachers today.
John R. Baldwin and the War of the Rebellion of 1861-1865
No evidence (yet) of John R. Baldwin (1828-1909) in military service during the Civil War
As of this writing (2021), only about 20 percent of surviving Civil War pension records have been digitalized on specialized military record websites like Fold3. Currently available records show many John Baldwins and several John R. Baldwins in Union and Confederate military units -- but no John or John R. Baldwin corresponding to John R. Baldwin (1828-1909) of the Baldwin-Seale and Baldwin-Howard families of Virginia and Kentucky. There is speculation that he served, and that his service was rewarded by grants of land in Kentucky. But available documents support only his service in the earlier Mexican War before he married Rebecca Howard.
After Rebecca's death, John R. Baldwin married her sister Margaret Howard, and they were living in Lee County, Virgina, when the Civil War started. But his war pension records, and records of payouts to Margaret as his widow, show only the Mexican War.
A military service eligibility record for Kentucky, however, shows that in July-August 1863, at the age of 34, while residing in Owsley County in the 8th Congressional District of Kentucky, a Union state, "John R. Baldin" from Virgina -- presumed to be "John R. Baldwin" of the Baldwin-Howard family -- was registered as a Class A male "subject to do military duty between the ages of twenty and thirth-five".
Civil War records also show that John R. Baldwin's younger brother, Thomas N. Baldwin (1843-1924), enlisted in a Confederte infantry regiment in Virginia, served all but the first few weeks of the war, and witnessed the end of the war as a corporal.
Selected Civil War participation cases
The following cases of Civil War participation are introduced in this section.
Other John R. Baldwins (Confederacy)
Neither of these John R. Baldwins is the John R. Baldwin of the Baldwin-Seale and Baldwin-Howard families.
John R. Baldwin's youngest brother (Confederacy)
Thomas Newton Baldwin is John R. Baldwin's 3rd younger brother in the Baldwin-Seale family.
John R. Baldwin's brother-in-law and nephew (Union)
James Alvin Thomas is the husband of Mary Ann Baldwin, hence John R. Baldwin's and Thomas Newton Baldwin's brother-in-law.
Husbands of Baldwin and Grubb widows (Confederacy, Union)
William Moles is the husband of Archibald Grubb's 2nd widow Nancy (Markham) Grubb.
John R. Baldwin in Civil War
Did John R. Baldwin (1828-1909) of Lee County, Virginia and Jackson County, Kentucky -- the husband of first Rebecca Howard (1828-1855) and then her sister Margaret Howard (1835-1912) -- serve in either a Union or Confederate military unit during the "War of the Rebellion" -- later the "War Between the States" -- today just the "Civil War"?
The short, provisional answer is "No." As of this writing (January 2020), no documentary evidence has come to light that John R. Baldwin was involved in military activites during the Civil War. He does, however, seem to appear in an 1863 register of men in Kentucky eligible for military service.
There are numerous soldiers named "John Baldwin" and not a few named "John R. Baldwin" or "Jno. R. Baldwin" or "J.R. Baldwin" in military records. None, though, appear to be the John R. Baldwin that was residing in Lee County, Virginia with Margaret and several children in the 1860 federal census.
The stories of two other John R. Baldwins from Virginia, as told through Confederate military records, exemplify the experiences of Virginians who served the Confederacy during the war. And the military records of John R. Baldwin's younger brother Thomas N. Baldwin (1843-1924) show how he served the Confederacy after enlisting in Lee County the 2nd year of the war.
See William E. Wetherall in Civil War
John R. Baldwin enrolled
The images to the right show the cover and a leaf from the following register of Civil War enrollments.
RG-110 RECORDS OF THE PROVOST MARSHAL GENERAL'S BUREAU (CIVIL WAR) Records of Office Subdivisions, 1862-66. Enrollment Branch, General Records, Enrollment Lists and Reports Enrollment Lists and Corrections to Enrollment Lists, 1863-65 VOL 861 NM-65, E. 172 Ky. [Kentucky] Vol. 1 of 3 8 C.D. [Congression District] Class 1 A-K
Consolidated List Class 1. 8th District Kentucky
Page 23 defines the record as follows ([underscoring] and [bracketed information] mine).
Class I comprises all persons subject to do military duty between the ages of twenty and thirth-five, and all unmarried persons subject to do military duty above the age of thirty-five years and under the age of forty-five.
Baldwin, Balwin, and Balden
The 1860 census for Jonesville Post Office in Lee County, Virginia, enumerated John R. Baldwin as "Balwin". Margaret is "Margret", and the spellings of the given names of a couple of the Baldwin children also differ from how their names were spelled in the family. Such descrepancies abound in historical documents.
John R. Baldwin was written "John R. Balden" in a register of Class 1 males enumerated in Kentucky District 8 in 1863. I first saw an image of the register on the Baldwin Genealogy Facebook page, which focuses on the Baldwin-Howard family.
There was some discussion among the Baldwin-Howard descendant "cousins" on the page, including yours truly, as to whether "John R. Balden" was "our" JRB. The consensus was that the age and date and place fit JRB, and that "Balden" was probably an error for "Baldwin".
I chipped in as follows with my usual "over-kill" analysis (Facebook, Baldwin genealogy, 9 January 2018.
Yes, it looks like our JRB, though there are a few problems.
Pronunciation of "Baldwin"
After all my blather, Ross Murray -- a straight-up 3rd cousin of mine in the line of John R. Baldwin, James Alfred Baldwin, Walter Eldon Baldwin, and B.J. Baldwin Rudder -- sealed the deal with the observation that his grandfather pronounced his name "Walder Rawlee Balden" (Facebook, Baldwin Genealogy, 22 November 2018).
As with most names, Baldwin has a variety of spellings. And since no spelling of any word pronounces itself, the "Baldwin" spelling is subject to different pronunciations. Ross's mother, too, remarked that "I still [hear] people say Bald-en and Bald-un instead of Bald-win."
John R. Baldwin in the "War of the Rebellion"
Did John R. Baldwin participate, in any manner militarily, in the "War of the Rebellion" as the "War Between the States" and the "Civil War" was called in his time? He appears to be the "John R. Balden" enumerated as a "Class 1" enrollee in the 8th Congressional District of Kentucky, while living in Owsley County in July-August 1863. By then, Kentucky -- which had always voted to remain in the Union but seems to have waxed neutral for a while -- had clearly declared itself on the side of the Union.
If the "John R. Balden" in the 1863 "Class 1" list is John R. Baldwin of the Baldwin-Howard family, how do we account for "Balden"? If he wrote his name "Baldwin" on the original record, then "Balden" would be a copyists error -- i.e., an error made by a clerk when copying the name from the original record to the list. But this would mean that the copyist read "wi" and wrote "e" -- an unlikely mistake. What, though, if the original record was made by a clerk writing what he heard John R. Baldwin orally report? If Baldwin pronounced his name "Balden", then the clerk might have written "Balden" -- without suspecting that the speaker himself would have written "Baldwin". But given the commonality of the name "Baldwin", you would think that an alert clerk would confirm the spelling.
Assuming that "John R. Balden / Baldwin" was later called to serve in Kentucky, through the agency of the 1863 enumeration, he would have served in a Union uniform. If for any reason he wanted to join a Confederate unit, he could found a Confederate recruiter operating in Kentucky, or crossed the border to a Confederate state -- to the east into Virginia, where he had come from -- or gone to Tennessee, even closer to the south. But as of this writing (November 2020), I have not seen any evidence that he did so -- or any evidence that he wore a Union uniform either.
This does not mean that John R. Baldwin did not militarily participate in the Civil War on one side or the other. It means only that no military or other contemporary records have turned up to support the contentions or insinuations in various "war stories" that he participated militarily. See Baldwin-Howard lore (below) for examples of such stories.
It is even possible that John R. Baldwin moved to Kentucky, in the earlier months of 1863, before his July-August enrollment in the 8th District register, by a desire to get away from the "politics" of of his home state, Virginia, where his younger brother, Thomas N. Baldwin, had enlisted on 22 May 1861, barely a month after the war started.
Even today, the Civil War war is being fought in the hearts and minds of descendants of some of its survivors. And even today, historians and teachers are likely to be caught in the crossfire of personal and public opinon about the causes and purposes of the war -- and controversial issues like how, or even whether, to memorialize Confederate heroes or fly the Confederate flag (see Kentucky in the Civil War (below).
Civil War records
Civil War records are mostly hit and miss. Many records -- perhaps most -- simply didn't didn't survive. And surviving records of the kind that are being scanned for access through family history websites, rarely provide insight into the nature of a soldier's duties, or even his presence, at a given place and time, such as a battle.
The website of the National Archieves and Records Administration (NARA) of the United States summarizes Union and Confederate records as follows (Civil War Records: Basic Research Sources (NARA).
Ancestry and Fold3 records
Confederate records of the kind shown to the right are of the "compiled service record" type, consisting of a simple paper cover that, when folded, holds several chits or cards on which information has been abstracted from a soldier's original muster, hospital, deserter, and prisoner of war rolls and other records. In other words, the information in this records has been manually copied from other, usually more detailed records.
Such "compiled records" are akin to a database which merely "indexes" the most salient information of interest to the people compiling the record, database, or index. All the records cited here include at least the following three items.
While no records were found for John R. Baldwin of the Baldwin-Howard family, I have chosen to digest the contents of 3 records -- those of 2 other Virginian "John R. Baldwins" -- "Halltown John R. Baldwin" and "Richmond John R. Baldwin, so-called according to the place where they enlisted -- and John R. Baldwin's younger brother Thomas N. Baldwin, who enlisted from Rose Hill in Lee County, the county in which John R. Baldwin could easily have enlisted in the Confederate Army had he wanted to.
Other John R. Baldwins (Confederacy)
John R. Baldwin's youngest brother (Confederacy)
John R. Baldwin's brother-in-law and nephew (Union)
Halltown John R. Baldwin
The John R. Baldwin most commonly confused for the Baldwin-Howard family John R. Baldwin enlisted in Halltown, Virginia a week after the outbreak of the Civil War.
A "Company Muster Roll" shows that John R. Baldwin Enlisted in Halltown, Virginia, on 18 April 1861 by Captain Buttler for a period of 12 months -- which ended up 4-1/2 years.
Confederate. B / 2 / Va. Jno. [John] R, Baldwin Pvt / Captain Vincent Moore Butler's Co. (Hamtramct Guards), 2nd Regiment Virginia Infantry.* Age 23 years. Appears on Company Muster Roll from the organization named above, from Jefferson County, for Apr. 18 to June 30, 1861. Dated June 30, 1861 Occupation Laborer ======================================== Enrolled for active service: When Apr. 18, 1861 Where Halltown [Virginia] Note By whom Capt. Butler ======================================== Mustered into service: When May 11, 186 Where Harpers Ferry [Virginia] Note 1 By whom Capt. Botts Note 2 ======================================== No. of miles to place of muster-in 10 Note 3 * This company was known at various times as Captain Butler's Company, Captain Moler's Company and Company B, 2d Regiment Virginia Infantry.
Halltown John R. Baldwin's pay chit for Sept-Oct 1861 notes that he was detailed as a "teamster" on 9 Oct 1862 by order of Col. Allen. As such he would have been invovled with driving wagons pulled by teams of horses. These
Company Muster Roll chits for Halltown John R. Baldwin's 2nd year of service show that, from 30 June 1862 to 30 June 1863, he was detailed as a "Forage Master" then "Forage Master for Brigade".
Quarter Master Sergeant
Company Muster Roll chits for Halltown John R. Baldwin's 3rd year of service show that, from July 1863 to 30 April 1864, he was detailed as "Quarter Master Sergt" under "Maj. Mercer, Q.M. [Quarter Master]" -- although his chit rank was "Pvt."
Quarter master sergeant
Surrender and parole
A chit (see image to right) states that Halltown John R. Baldwin's name
Appears on a list Confederate soldiers "belonging to the Army of Northern Virginia, who have been this day surrendered by General Robert E. Lee, C.S.A. [Confederate States of America], commanding, said Army, to Lieut. Genl. U.S. Grant, commanding Armies of the United States" was "
On the surface of the revision by hand of "Done" to "Paroled", Halltown John R. Baldwin was both surrendered and paroled on or shortly after the day of the surrender -- perhaps as in this imaginary scene.
Alright, men, listen up! The war's over. You're free to go home -- after you do three things. One, park your artillery, stack your arms, and drop your ammo at the designated places. Two, give your name, unit, and rank to the officer in charge of compiling a final roll of officers and men. And three, pick up a Paroled Prisoner Pass, which you will need to prove that you are not a deserter, and to obtain food and transportation on your way home.
Terms of surrender
The terms of surrender, as written by Grant and accepted by Lee, read as follows, according to one transcription.
APPOMATTOX COURT-HOUSE, VA.
Lee asked, and Grant agreed, that not only officiers but all men in surrendered Army of Northern Virginia artillery and cavalry units, who owned their horses, be allowed to keep them.
Paroled Prisoner's Pass
It is clear from other documents that the paroling of Confederate soldiers who became prisoners of war as a result of the surrender at Appomattox took time, as POWs were processed in the sort of systematic manner that one would expect of legalist and bureaucratic entities like the United States and the Confederate States of America. Paroled POWs were issued a "Paroled Prisoner's Pass" which permitted them to travel and remain home with being disturbed (see image of such a pass on the right).
Such passes were also intended to help a parolled soldier obtain food and transportation on the way home. To what extent this was actually possible probably depended on the route home.
Richmond John R. Baldwin
Another John R. Baldwin enlisted in Richmond, Virginia, about 6 weeks after the start of the Civil War and participated in the war until his release from Union Army captivity in Farmville, Virginia unit at the end of the war.
Baldwin, John R. Co. D, 25 Battalion Virginia Infantry. (Richmond Battalion Virginia Infantry.) (City Battalion Virginia Infantry.) (Confederate.) B / 25 Battalion / Va. ======================================== Jno. R. Baldwin Pvt., Co. D, 25th Batt'n Virginia Inf. Appears on Company Muster Roll of the organization named above, for July 26 to Oct. 31, 1862. dated Oct. 31, 1862. ======================================== Enlisted: When Aug. 26, 186 Where Richmond [Virginia] Note By whom Capt. Potts Period 6 mo
Records show that, on 16 July 1863, John R. (Jno. R., J.R.) Baldwin was admitted to C.S.A. [Confederate States of America] General Hospital in Farmsville, Virginia, with a complaint of "Convalescent". He was admitted on 17 July 1863, the following day, with a complaint of "Debilitas" [weakness; lameness, debility, infirmity].
Farmville, which today straddles the boundaries of Prince Edward and Cumberland counties in Virginia, is the seat of Prince Edward. Located in the center of Virginia, it fell into Union hands during the final battles of the Civil War, which culminated in the surrender of General Robert E. Lee (1807-1870) on 9 April 1865, at Appomattox Court House, a village near the present town of Appomattox, about 27 miles from Farmville.
One Company Muster Roll chit states he was "Absent sick". Another states he was "Absent without leave".
A C.S.A General Hospital, Farmsville, Virginia chit states he deserted on 30 July 1863.
Paroled as Prisoner of War
Presumably Richmond John R. Baldwin returned to his unit, or was found and brought back, for his name and rank, and B Company, 25th Battalion, Virginia affiliation, appear on a "List of Confederate Prisoners of War paroled by T. L. Barker, Lieut. Col. 36 Mass. Vols., P.M., at Farmville, Va., between April 11 and April 21, 1865, by order of Brig. Gen'l Masey, Provost Marshal, Army of the Polomac."
Note the range of dates between which POWs were paroled at Farmville -- beginning 2 days after Lee's surrender to Grant at Appomattox and taking 11 days.
Thomas N. Baldwin
Thomas N. Baldwin was enumerated with the household of his older brother John R. Baldwin in the 1860 census for the Jonesville Postoffice area of the Western District of Lee County.
The town of Jonesville is today the seat of Lee County. The town is about 8 miles, a 10-minute drive by car today, west of Pennington Gap on U.S. Route 58 toward Rose Hill, another 16 miles or 20 minutes further west. 1859 and 1861 birth and Christening records, which bracket the 1860 census, show John and Margaret in Poor Valley, on the outskirts of present-day Pennington Gap as one heads north on U.S. Route 421 toward Harlan, Kentucky.
Thomas enlisted in Rose Hill, Lee County, Virginia on 22 May 1861. He served until paroled at Appomattox Court House by the Union Army shortly after General Robert E. Lee formally surrendered there to General U.S. Grant on 9 April 1865, which ended the War of the Rebellion.
Baldwin, Thomas N. Co. E / Co. K, 37 Virginia Inf'y. (Confederate) Private / Corporal ======================================== (Confederate) B / 37 / Va. ======================================== Thomas N. Baldwin Pvt., Co. E, 37 Reg't Virginia Inf. Appears on Company Muster Roll of the organization named above, for July & August, 1861, dated Aug. 31. ======================================== Enlisted: When May 22, 186 Where Rose Hill [Virginia] Note By whom Capt. Gibson Period 12 mo ======================================== The 37th Regiment Virginia Infantry was accepted into the service of the Confederate States July 1, 1861, and reorganized April 22, 1862. Companies G and I were consolidated under Captain Bussey after the October 31, 1862, muster, but each company appears to have been mustered separately. Most of the members of the regiment were captured in May, 1864, and the remnants of all the companies were later assigned to Companies H and K.
Descrepancies in date and place of enlistment
8 Company Muster Roll chits -- representing 3 series of chits, each series in a different hand -- characterize the place and date of Thomas N. Baldwin's enlistment in three ways.
The date variations in the 2nd series -- 27, 27, 22, 21 -- are probably transcriptions errors. They compare with "May 22" in the 1st series, whereas the 3rd series has "April 10" -- an entirely different date.
The undated first Company Muster Roll chit in the 3nd series -- for Apr 30 to Oct 31 1864 -- describes "T.N. Baldwin" as a "Corpl" of "K" rather than "B" Company of the 37th Regiment Virginia Infantry. This series states that Baldwin was enlisted by Capt. Gibson in "Walnut Hill Va." on "Apr 10, 1861". Remarks state "Transferred from Co. B to Co. E by order Brig. Gen Terry."
A "Bounty Pay and Receipt Roll" chit dated Camp Mason, Feb. 18, 1862, shows that Thomas N. Baldwin, of Co. E, 37 Reg't Va. Infantry, recieved a bounty of $50-00/100 authorized for men who reenlisted in the unit. This may have been the Fort Mason near Graham, the county seat of Alamance County in North Carolina.
Thos. N. Baldwin is admitted to Lovington Hospital, Winchester, Virginia, on Aug. 8, 1862, for "Diabetes".
Thomas R. Baldwins records His records also include a very detailed pay statement which shows that, on 6 June 1864, at Richmond, Virginia, T.N. Baldwin, Corpl Co E 37 Regt Va, was paid $52 by Major John Ambler for the period 1 January to 30 April 1864, computed at the rate of $13 per month.
Pvt, 2 Corpl, Corpl
Company Muster Roll chits from Jul-Aug 1861 through Mar-Apr 1862 show Thomas N. or Thos. N. Baldwin as a Private. However, the Mar-Apr 1862 chit, while reporting that his "Present or absent" status is "Not stated", remarks that he was "Elected Corpl. April 23, 1862". Chits from May-Jun 1862 through Nov-Dec 1862 show his rank as "2 Corpl" or "2 Corp", but chits for Apr 30 to Aug 31, and for Apr 30 [sic] to Oct 31 1864 -- 2 years later -- show him as a "Corp".
Are "2 Corpl" and "Corpl" different ranks?
Surrender and parole
An undated record states that Thomas N. Baldwin, Corpl, Co. E., 37 Virginia Regiment, Residence Lee Co. Va., appeared on a list of Confederate soldiers paroled following the surrender of their units by Confederate General Robert E. Lee to Union General Ulysses S. Grant at the end of the war.
Appears on a List of Prisoners of War in the Army of Northern Virginia,
On the surface of the revision by hand of "Done" to "Paroled", Thomas N. Baldwin was both surrendered and paroled on the day of surrender at Appomattox Court House. However, processing the POWs and issuing each a "Paroled Prisoner's Pass" took time. See notes on Terms of surrender and Paroled Prisoner's Pass for details and an image of such a pass (above).
See Thomas N. Baldwin in Confederate service (below) for Thomas N. Baldwin's Civil War time line and a newspaper "war story" about his life.
James Alvin and Henry Clay Thomas
A father and son on the home front
Civil War Veteran, Union. Enlisted at age 14 (lied about his age) in Co. E. 2nd East Tennessee Infantry on Feb. 10, 1862, at Cumberland Ford, and was honorably discharged September 17, 1862 after receiving a gunshot wound in left thigh. Re-enlisted in Co. A., 10th Illinois Vol. Infantry at Nashville, Tennessee on January 2, 1863, and was honorably discharged July 4, 1865 at Louisville, Kentucky. Husband of Martha Jane Brown. Father of 12 children. I have four sources for Henry's birth date:
October 7, 1854, Powell Valley, Lee Co., Virginia, USA. Source: James Alvin Thomas, NARA Form 85D, Full Pension File-Civil War, WC178.061.
1848, Powell Valley, Lee Co., Virginia. Source: Deposition Of Henry Thomas, Deposition A, Pg. 7, No. 649009, Feb. 7, 1889, National Archives. Alternate birth date October 1846.
1846, Precinct 2, Powell, Kentucky. Source: Marriage Records, 1865-1868, Marriage Book E, Pg. 182 & 183, London, Laurel Co., KY, Clerk of the County Court, LDS Family History Library, Film # 0965810.
October 3, 1845. Source: James Alvin Thomas, NARA Form 85D, Full Pension File-Civil War, WC178.061, Jesse Rogers, Guardian, Sworn Declaration, March 17, 1873.
I think the most logical birth date for Henry was 1848 as he would have been 14 if he enlisted in 1862. The date on his stone, 1837, was an guesstimate I made before I ordered his headstone, and before I had access to Henry's and Matha's pension files.
Russell Thompson also created the Find a Grave memorial for Henry C. Thomas's wife Martha J. Thomas. The memorial states that she was "Buried in an unmarked grave until late 2014. Headstone purchased by her great grandson Russell G. Thompson" (viewed 24 February 2020).
Henry Clay Thomas, as a son of Mary Ann (Baldwin) Thomas, was a 1st cousin of my paternal maternal paternal great-grandfather Newton Bascum Baldwin, a son of Mary Ann's 1st younger brother John R. Baldwin. According, Russell Gordon Thompson and I are straight up 4th cousins with common Baldwin-Seale great-great-great-great grandparents John M. and Elizabeth Baldwin.
Thompson's tombstone "guesstimate" date of birth is "JAN 1 1837" but he (or somesome) gives "7 Oct 1854". The "1854" could be a typo for "1843", the year stated on the 1900 census, which shows "Oct 1843".
Censuses show Thomas's ages as follows (all enumerated as of 1 June).
5, 1850 census for District 31 of Lee Co, Va
15, 1860, First Sub-Division, Claiborne Co, Tn
25, 1870, Raccoon Post Office, Raccoon Voting Precinct, Laurel Co, Ky
34, 1880 (1 Jun), Voting Precinct No. 2, Powell Co, Ky
56, 1900, born Oct 1843, Georgetown Precinct, Georgetown, Scott Co, Ky
10 Sep 1862 Henry Clay Thomas enlisted in Company C, Kentucky 2nd Cavalry Regiment, in Lexington, Kentucky, at the rank of private.
The 1870 census for the Raccoon Post Office area of Raccoon Voting Princinct in Laurel County, Kentucky, shows "Henry Thomas" (25) with "Martha J." [no age recorded], "Lillia B." (2), "Rosa L." (5/12), and "Marimon [tentative] E." (21). Lillia and Rosa appear to be their daughters. Marimon E.'s identity is unclear. The 1870 census says she was born in Kentucky, unlike Henry, who was born in Virginia. Henry's younger sister -- "Elizbeth" (3) on the 1850 census and "Elizabeth" (12) on the 1860 census -- was also born in Lee County, Virginia. If born in 6 August 1849 as some family trees claim, however, she would have been 9/12 and 10 on the 1850 and 1860 censuses, and should have been 20 on the 1870 census. In any event, it is not impossible that "Mariomon E." is Henry Clay's sister.
Henry Clay and Elizabeth lost their father to measles in 1862, during the Civil War, and their mother, Mary Ann (Baldwin) Thomas remarried in 1867. Mary Ann appears to have left her Thomas children under circumstances in which the older children fended for themselves, but the younger children became wards of a guardian -- who testified to the circumstances in a disposition dated in 1873 (see image of transcription to right).
The 1900 census for "Georgetown Precinct" in "Georgetown town" in Scott County, Kentucky, shows the household of "Henry C. Thomas" (56), born "Oct 1843", with his wife "Martha J." (52), May 1848, and 8 children from "Jno. A. Thomas" (28), Dec 1871, to "Susie" (7), Feb 1893. Thomas and Martha have been married 32 years and all 12 of her children are still living. He was born in Virginia to Virginia-born parents, she in Kentucky to Kentucky-born parents, and all enumerated children were born in Kentucky. Henry was a "Pensioner" and owned his own home free of mortgage. John A. is a "Soldier, Co. D., U.S. Inf." Susie is "at school". Only Martha is unable to read and write English.
The 1910 census for Precint 12, part of Muncie City in Delaware County, Indiana, shows "Martha J. Thomas" (61), as a widowed head of household, residing with only her daughter "Susan A." (17). 10 of Martha's 12 children are still living. Martha has her "own income". Susan is a "machine operator" in a "Tin shop". Martha is unable to either read or write. She is renting the home in which she resides.
Martha J. Thomas, born Martha Jane Brown on 28 May 1848, in Kentucky, died on 15 September 1912 in the village of Shelbyville in the township of Adisin, Shelby County, Indiana, of "Septic poisoning result of slight injury of hand". She is buried in Forest Hill Cemetery in Shelby County.
William and Elihu Moles
Different fates of brothers who married Baldwin and Grubb widows
Marriages between children of neighboring families were common. My paternal maternal grandparents, Newton Bascum Baldwin (1862-1919) and Martha Ellen Steele (1863-1943) were fence neighbors. Remarriages with sibling of a deceased spouse were also fairly common. Newton Bascum Baldwin's father, John R. Baldwin (1828-1909), married Margaret Anne Howard (1835-1912), the younger sister of his 1st wife, Rebecca Ann Howard (1828-1855), when Rebecca died. As the children of his aunt, Bascum's older half-siblings were also his half-cousins, and their step-mother was also their aunt.
Siblings from one family marrying siblings from another family were unusual but not rare. Newton Bascum Baldwin's younger brothers -- Robert Ewing Baldwin (1858-1942) and George Finley Baldwin (1873-1946) -- married sisters -- Eliza Jane King (1873-1938) and Emeline King (1875–1961). Their paternal great uncle and great aunt -- William Baldwin (c1830-c1854) and Sarah Jane Baldwin (1833-1888) -- married fence neighbors Harriet Grubb (1836-1907) and Lorenzo D. Grubb (1833-1893).
Of interest here are the remarriages in the late 1850s of Nancy Ann (Markham) Grubb (c1828-1880/1900) and her step-daughter Harriet (Grubb) Baldwin -- both of whom were left widows in the early 1850s -- to younger, never married brothers -- William Hamilton Moles (1834-1864) and Elihu Harden Moles (c1838-1890) -- who during the Civil War met very different fates on opposite sides.
William H. Moles (1834-1864) enlisted in Company I, Virginia 27th Cavalry Battalion, a volunteer component of the Army of the Confederate States of America. He was a private and died of measles at a Union prisoner of war camp.
Elihu H. Moles (1837-1890) enlisted in C Company, 19th Kentucky Infantry Regiment, a volunteer component of the Army of the United States of America. He was a 2nd lieutenant when discharged during the war as a casualty.
Private William H. Moles
Company I, Virginia 27th Cavalry Battalion
Captured at Jonesville, died at Rock Island
Several original manuscript records establish the timeline of William H. Moles's life and death as private in Company I, 27th Virginia Cavalry, a battalion or regiment in the Confederate Army. The following transcriptions of information in the manuscript records are mine.
Record Book of /
National Cemetery, at Rock Island, Illinois
Moles, Wm. H. Pri I 27 Va Feby 5 1864 [Sec A] 378
Record Book of Interments in Confederate /
National Cemetery, at Rock Island Arsenal
Moles, William Pvt I 27 Va Feby 5 1864 378
Record of Interments in Confederate Cemetery 1864
(59) 58 Wm Moles [Pri] I 27th Va. Feby 5  Variola 378
Roll of Prisoners of War at Military Prison, Louisville, Ky [manuscript image]
Moles William H. Private 27 Va Cavy I
Where captured Jonesville Va
When captured Dec [sic] 9 63
Date discharged Jany 17 64
Where sent Rock Island
Record of Prisoners of War Who Have Died at Rock Island Barracks, Illinois
Barrack No. 58 Moles William H. Pri 27 Va I
Where captured Jonesville Va
When captured 1863 Oct 9
When joined station 63 May 20
Died 1864 Feby 5 Variola
Grave 378 South of Prison Barracks
An index card, created sometime after 1 October 1961, reflects the following information from one of the manuscript records (my transcription).
U.S. National Cemetery Interment Control Form
DA Form 2122 [1 Oct 1961] [typescript image]
MOLES, Wm. H. Pvt Rock Island Conf Cem / Rock Island, Ill
Co I 27 Battn. Va. Cav. Death Mo 2 Day 5 Year 1864 Grave 378
A transcript (not a scan) of a Virginia Death and Burial Index record shows the following information, which presumably was culled from contemporary records.
William H. Moles
Born abt 1835 Virginia
Died 15 Feb 1864 Rock Island, Illinois
Age at death 29
Farmer, Married, Male
Father William Moles
Mother Lizzie Moles
Spouse Nancy Moles
William Hamilton Moles is buried as "Wm. H. Moles" with an undated tombstone inscribed "378 / WM. H. MOLES CO I / 27 BATTN VA CAV / U.S.A." in Rock Island Confederate Cemetery in Rock Island, Rock Island County, Illinois. He died on 2 February 1864.
A scans of a contemporary grave register shows him listed as "Wm. Moles" in Barrack "(59) 58". The Rank column is blank. He was in Company "I" of Regiment "27th Va.", died on "Feby 5" of "Variola" [smallpox], and was buried in Grave "378".
A "Record of Prisoners of War who have died at Rock Island Barracks, Illinois" shows him as "Moles William H." in Barrack "58", a "Pvt" in Regiment "27 Va", Company "I", Captured in "Jonesville Va" on "Oct 9" , having Joined Station in "May 20" , Died "Feby 5 / 1864", Cause of Death "Variola", Buried in grave number "378 / South of Prison Barracks".
Yet another prisoner of war record states that he was a "Private", qualifies his regiment as "Cavy" (Cavalry), and says he was captured in Jonesville on "Dec 9 [sic] / 63" and discharged in Rock Island on "Jany 19 64". The "Private", "Dec" and discharge date are "ditto" entries.
The 27th Cavalry Battalion, Virginia, was organized with 6 companies, A-F, on 1 September 1862. Companies G, H, and I were added on 27 September 1862, 3 October 1863, and 18 April 1863. A 10th company was added and the unit redesignated the 25th Cavalry Regiment on 8 July 1864.
Birth, marriage, and life of William H. Moles
5 February 1834 William Hamilton Moles was born in Patrick County, Virginia. He is the older brother of Elihu H. Moles (1837-1890).
Nancy Ann Grubb, also known as "Annie" and "Anna", became Archibald Grubb's 2nd wife. She was the daughter of Josiah Markham [sometimes "Marcum"] (1790–1842) and Mary Polly Bales [sometimes "Beals" or "Boles"] (1795–1877), a younger sister of Jane (Bales) Seale (1787-1841), the wife of Fielding Seale (1790-1838) and the mother of John M. Baldwin's wife Elizabeth. Mary was also an older sister of Robert M. Bales (1807-1893), who figured in the administration of the estates of both Archibald Grubb and John M. Baldwin. Nancy Ann Grubb relinquished the administration of Archibald Grubb's estate to Robert M. Bales on 18 October 1852, which puts a "no later than" limit on his Archibald Grubb's death. On 21 March 1853, the Lee County court assigned the guardianship of Nancy Ann's children -- Martha J., William, and Archibald (Junior) -- to Robert M. Bales. See Grubb brothers vs. Robert M. Bales for legal actions taken against Bales in the late 1880s by William and Archibald (Junior) concerning his handling of their father's property and their share of the inheritance.
The 1850 census for Snow Creek District of Stokes County in North Carolina shows "William Moles" (17), the 2nd of 11 children and 2nd of 8 sons of "Wm. [William] J. Moles" (38) and "Elizabeth [(Lewis)] Moles" (37). Elihu H. Moles is enumerated as "Harden Moles" (12), the 4th child and 4th son. Everyone in the family was born in Virginia to Virginia-born parents. William H. Moles, possibly alone, returned to Lee County, Virginia, where he married the widowed Nancy Ann (Markham) Grubb on 26 June 1856.
1851-1852 Harriet Grubb, Nancy Ann Grubb's step daughter, marries William Baldwin, a neighbor. William Baldwin is Milton M. Baldwin's son and John R. Baldwin's 1st younger brother.
October 1852 Archibald Grubb dies.
1852-1853 Harriet (Grubb) Baldwin bears William Baldwin's son, William L. Baldwin, called "little William" in his grandfather Milton M. Baldwin's 2 March 1855 last will and testament.
About 1854 William Baldwin dies.
26 May 1856 Harriet (Grubb) Baldwin remarries Elihu Harden Moles (c1838-1890).
Harriet brings William L. Baldwin, her son with William Baldwin, to the marriage. She would have at least 3 more children with Elihu Moles. Little William grew up a Moles and then a Baldwin. He married as a Baldwin, and in 1903-1905 his daughter, Lulu May (Baldwin) Posterwait, with the help of her grandmother Harriet Moles, won an equity case in Lee County Chancery Court, in which she claimed to be the legal heir of 1/6th of her great-grandfather John M. Baldwin's Rose Hill, Lee County farm. See John M. Baldwin's last will and testament (above) for details.
26 June 1856 Nancy Ann (Markham) Grubbs, Harriet (Grubb) (Baldwin) Moles's step-mother, remarries William Hamilton Moles (1834-1864), Elihu H. Moles younger brother. A step-mother and step-daughter thus become sisters-in-law.
The Moles brothers were sons of William S. and Elizabeth Moles. The Moles family is enumerated in Stokes County, Virginia, in 1850 with 11 children, and in Pulaski County, Kentucky, in 1860 with 9 children -- 2 new children, minus William and Elihu, and Elbert Leander Moles. William and Elihu had married widowed Grubb and Baldwin wives. Elbert, born on 17 November 1839 in Palmer County, Virginia, had died on 19 August 1855 in Martins Creek, Lee County, Virginia. His parents were "Wm. S. Moles" and "Elizabeth Moles".
During his sojourn in Lee County, William S. Moles bought some items from the personal estate of Archibald Grubb in 1852, and sold his Martins Creek property to Jacob Wolfenbarger in 1857. These may mark the dates his family arrived in and left Lee County. Jacob's daughter, Nancy C. Wolfenbarger, married Archibald Grubb's grandson, Archibald Grubb (Junior), who Nancy Ann (Markham) Grubb bore in January 1853, about 3 months after Archibald Grubb's death around October 1852.
During the 1850s, between the 1850 and 1860 censuses, the Moles family was sojourning in the western part of Lee County. One family tree cites a Lee County record which shows that, on 23 October 1857, "William S. Moles and Elizabeth, his wife, Sold for the sum of $1050 to Jacob Wolfenbarger, Sr. 'A certain tract of land lying in Lee County on the waters of Martin's Creek'" (Ancestry.com).
Contact between the Moles, Grubb, and Baldwin families is suggested in records which show that on 9 November 1852, "William S. Moles" purchased a couple of items from the personal estate of Archibald Grubb -- as did both John M. and John R. Baldwin and other Grubb and Baldwin neighbors. See Grubb brothers vs. Robert M. Bales (below) for details.
The 1860 census for the Mt. Veron Post Office area of Rockcastle County in Kentucky shows the houseold of "Wm H. Moles" (26) with "Ann Moles" (31) and 4 children -- "Martha Grubb" (13), "Wm. Grubb" (11), "Arch Grubb" (7), and "Sarah A. Moles" (1). All were born in Virginia except Sarah, who was born in Kentucky. Nancy Ann brought the 3 Grubb children to the marriage. Legal actions taken in the late 1880s by Archibald and William Grubb suggest that Robert M. Bales continued to be their legal guardian.
18 April 1863 William H. Moles enlists in Lee County, Virginia, in Company I or the 27th Virginia Cavalry Battalion.
20 May 1863 William H. Moles joined station, apparently in the vicinity of Lee County, Virinia.
9 October or 9 December 1863 William H. Moles is captured at Jonesville in Lee County, Virginia, according to one manuscript record (date not dittoed). Another manuscript record says 9 December 1863 (date dittoed). October and December are a toss up. Union forces gained control of Cumberland Gap in September and mounted raids in Lee County, including Jonesville, its seat, in October and November 1863, and there were battles in Jonesville in January 1864. William H. Moles was sent to a Union prisoner-of-war camp in Louisville, Kentucky. The distance from Jonesville, Virginia to Louisville, Kentucky, through Cumberland Gap, today, is roughly 240 miles (385 kilometers). By automobile it would take about 4 hours non-stop. On foot it would take 8-12 days (20-30 miles/day) more or less. 100 days elasped between his capture at Jonesville and his 17 January 1864 "discharge" at Lousiville, Kentucky if captured on 9 October 1863 -- 39 days if captured on 9 December.
17 January 1864 William H. Moles is "discharged" from the prisoner-of-war camp in Louisville, Kentucky, and "sent to" a camp in Rock Island, Illinois. The distance from Louisville, Kentucky, to Rock Island, Illinois, today, is roughly 420 miles (670 kilometers). By automobile it would take about 6-1/2 hours non-stop. On foot it would take 14-21 days (20-30 miles/day) more or less. 19 days elasped between his "discharge" at Lousiville Kentucky and his 5 February 1864 death at Rock Island, Illinois. William H. Moles probably took sick enroute.
5 February 1864 William H. Moles died of smallpox while in captivity at a Union prisoner-of-war camp in Rock Island in Illinois.
William H. Moles, bunked in Barrack 58 (one record suggests 59) in the prisoner-of-war facility at Rock Island, Illinois, dies of "Variola" (smallpox). He is buried in grave 378 in Section A "south of prison barracks". The vertical gravestone appears to bear only the grave number, and his name and military unit.
Nancy and children after death of William H. Moles
28 August 1864 John Hamilton Moles was born in Lee County on or about this date, around 7-1/2 months after his father's death. Assuming he is William's son, if his mother carried him for 9 months, then he would have been conceived around November 1863. If, as it appears, William was stationed in Lee County, he would have been able to visit his wife. Conception between late October and early December supports a 9 December rather than 9 October date of captivity. He might even have been captured while visiting his wife.
The 1870 census for Rose Hill Township in Lee County Kentucky shows the household of "Nancy A. Moles" (43) with a personal estate worth $200 and 4 children -- 2 Moles children, "Sarah A. Moles" (12) and "John W. Moles" (6) -- and 2 Grubb children, "William Grubb" (21) and "Archibald Grubb" (17). Nancy is keeping house, her 2 children are at home, and the Grubb boys are working the farm. All were born in Lee County, Virginia, except Sarah, who was born in Rockcastle County, Kentucky. Among those the older household members, all can read, but Nancy and Sarah Moles, and Archibald Grubb, cannot write.
The 1880 census for Rose Hill Township in Lee County shows "Anna Moles" (50), keeping house, with her son "John Moles" (15), the last of at least 4 children she had with William H. Moles before his death on 5 February 1864.
I find no unambiguous records of Nancy Ann (Markham) (Grubb) Moles's existence after this -- hence the provision "aft 1880". Records regarding John H. Moles (1864-1923) show the usual problems with spellings of names and birth and death dates, but clearly establish his descent from William H. and Nancy Ann Moles.
Children after death of Nancy Ann (Markham) (Grubb) Moles
20 January 1887 "John H. Moles", age 22, born in 1865 in Lee County, Virginia, father "W.H. Moles", mother "N. Moles", married "Rachael Gollahan", age 23, born in 1864 in Lee County, Virginia, father "Jas Gollahan", in Lee County, Virginia, on 20 January 1887, according to a transcription (not a scan) of a Virginia marriage record.
The 1900 census for the Bales Forge Voting Precinct of Rose Hill in Lee County shows "John H. Moles" (35), born Aug 1864, with his wife "Rachel" [nee "Rachael A. Gallohan] (35), born Sept 1864, and 2 children. They have been married for 13 years and 2 of her 4 children are still living. All were born in Virginia to Virginia-born parents. He is a farmer on a rented farm. Rachel cannot read or write. The surviving children were their 1st and 2nd born, James Henry Moles (1888-1956) and Florence Mae "Flossie" Moles (1890–1970).
The 1910 census for the Bales Forge Precinct in the Rose Hill District of Lee County shows "John H. Moles" (46) and "Rachel A." (46) with 1 son, "Henry J." (21). They have been married 22 years and 2 of her 4 children are still living. John is a farmer on a general farm he owns free of mortgage. Henry is a farm laborer, presumably working for his father.
The 1920 census for Rose Hill Magisterial District of Lee County shows "John H. Moles" (54) with his wife "Rachel A." (54) farming on a general farm he owns free of mortgage and operates on his own account.
John Hamilton Moles is "John Ham Moles" on his Rose Hill Magisterial District death certificate, which says he was born in Virginia on "August 28th 1864" and died on "April 13th 1923". His father was Virginia-born "William Moles" and his mother was Virginia-born "Annie Marcum". The certificate was filed on 13 April 1923, and burial was slated for 14 April 1923 in "Sloane Graveyard" in Rose Hill. However, his tombstone in "Trent Cemetery" in Rose Hill reads "JOHN H. MOLES / "born / Aug. 15, 1865 / died / Apr. 22, 1923 / Gone but not forgotten". His wife is buried in the same cemetery as "RACHEL MOLES / Sept 16, 1864 / Nov. 15, 1940 / GONE HOME".
If John H. Moles was his father's son, and if his father died on 5 February 1864 as several contemporary records show, then John H. Moles was born in or about August 1864 as the 1900 census and his 1923 death certificate state. However, Union military records show that William H. Moles was in captivity in Louisville, Kentucky, and then at Rock Island, Illinois at the time it would seem that John H. Moles was concevied. See Private William H. Moles (below) for details.
John H. Moles is also "John Ham Moles" and Rachael is "Rachel Golhorn" on the Rose Hill, Lee County death certificate of their son "James Henry Moles" (1888-1956). The cause of death was certified by "Thomas S. Ely, M.D., Coroner" of Jonesville. James Henry Moles (1888-1956) and his wife, Laura Bradford (Brock) Moles (1901-1972), are buried at Bradford-Daniel Family Cemetery in Rose Hill.
2nd Lieutenant Elihu H. Moles
C Company, 19th Kentucky Infantry Regiment
Discharged during the war
Elihu H. Moles's older brother, William H. Moles (1834-1864), died a Confederate soldier in Union captivity in 1864, a year after Elihu was discharged from a Union Kentucky volunteer regiment as a casualty (see right).
Elihu would live a fairly long life with his wife, Harriet (Grubb) (Baldwin) Moles, the step-daughter of William's wife, Nancy Ann (Markham) (Grubbs) Moles.
Life and death of Elihu H. Moles
10 May 1837 Elihu H. Moles is born in Virgina a younger brother of William Hamilton Moles (1834-1864).
The 1850 census for Snow Creek District of Stokes County in North Carolina enumerates Elihu H. Moles as "Harden Moles" (12), the 4th child of 11 children and 4th of 8 sons of "Wm. [William] J. Moles" (38) and "Elizabeth [(Lewis)] Moles" (37). His older brother is listed as "William Moles" (17), the 2nd of 11 children and 2nd of 8 sons. Everyone in the family was born in Virginia to Virginia-born parents.
The 1860 census for the Stanford P.O. area of Lincoln County in Kentucky enumerates "Elihu H. Moles" (23), a carpenter, with "Harriett" [sic = Harriet] (24) and 2 children -- "Wm. L. Moles" (5), who is actually "William L. Baldwin", the deceased William Baldwin's son and John M. Baldwin's grandson -- and "Edmond Delany" (12). All were born in Virginia. Harriet is unable to read or write.
9 April 1862 Elihu H. Moles enlists in the 19 Kentucky Infantry Regiment, a voluneer component of the Union Army, which was organized on 2 January 1862 at Harrodsburg, Kentucky. He appears to have enlisted at Camp Harwood in Harrodsburg.
19 September 1862 Elihu H. Moles appears to have been discharged about this date as a 2nd lieutenant in C Company after becoming a casualty.
The 19th Kentucky participated in the Battle of the Cumberland Gap in June 1862 in a campaign that was carried out from 28 March to 18 June 1862. The regiment was at Cumberland Ford until June, and occupied Cumberland Gap from 18 June to 16 September 1862, after which it evacuated Cumberland Gap and retreated to Greenupsburg (presentday Greenup in Greenup County, Kentucky).
Elihu's older brother William H. Moles enlisted as a private in Lee County, Virginia, in Company I, Virginia 25th Cavalry Regiment, a Confederate unit, on 18 April 1863 about half a year after his brother was discharged as a casulaty. He was captured by Union forces at Jonesville on 5 October 1863, and he died of smallpox at a Union POW camp in Rock Island, Illinois, on 5 February 1864.
1870 census for Jefferson Townswhip in Owen County in Indiana shows "Elihu Moles" (33) with "Harriett" (34), "William" (15), "John H." (9), and "Mary E." (7). Elihu is preaching, Harriett is keeping house, and William "has no employment". Elihu, Harriett, and William were born in Virginia, John in Kentucky, and Mary in Indiana." Harriet can neither read or write.
The 1880 census for "Buck-Creek Township" in Hancock County, Indian, shows the household of "Elihu H. Moles" (43) with his wife "Harriet" (44), a daughter "Ada I." (9), and a "S Son" [step son] "William L. Baldwin" (25). Elihu is a preacher and Harriet is keeping house, while William, who was single, is a roof painter. All were born in Virginia to Virginia-born parents except Ada, who was born in Indiana.
30 September 1881 William L. Baldwin, William Baldwin's son with Harriet Grubb, was married to Phoebe Isabell Williams in Putnam County, Indiana, by Babtist minister Alexander S. Mayhall, according to their marriage license.
27 January 1885 Lulu May Baldwin was born in Mineral Springs in Barry County, Missouri, according to a delayed certificate of birth, an application for which was signed, subscribed, and sworn to before a notary public on 14 November 1953 by "Lulu May (Baldwin) Murray". The application was supported with an affidavit by F.G. Wilkenson, a friend, dated 25 November 1953, and it was filed on 4 December 1953 in the Division of Health, Jefferson City, Missouri.
20 January 1888 William L. Baldwin dies in Barry County, Missouri.
5 April 1890 Elihu H. Moles died in Indiana. He is buried in Yeoman Cemetery in Yeoman, Carroll county, Indiana. His monument says he was born in Virgina and was "AGED 52Ys. 10Ms. 25Ds" when he died. The inscription at the bottom says he was a "2nd LIEUT Co C 19th REGT / KY VOL INF" (?)
31 July 1890 Harriet Moles filed for benefits as the widow of Elihu H. Moles, from Indiana, where she was then residing (Application 467,591, Certificate 308,228) (see image to right).
1901 Lulu May Baldwin marries Charles Postelwait (b1877) in Pawnee County in Oklahoma Territory.
1903-1905 Lulu May Postelwait files a legal action in Lee County, Virginia, to recover equity in her father's (William L. Baldwin's) share of John M. Baldwin's land. See John M. Baldwin's will (below) for details.
17 July 1907 Harriet Moles died in Muncie in Delaware County, Indiana, of "Acute Gastro-enteritis". She had been a widow of "Rev. E.H. Moles". Her father was Virginia-born "John Grubb" and her mother was "Unknown" according to the death certificate. The informant was "John Moles" -- her son. She was slated for burial in Monticello in White County in Indiana. The death certificate of Archibald Grubb's last son, born shortly after his father's death (nlt November 1852), gives his name as "John Grubbs". Apparently he was also known as "John" -- his father's name, as well as the name of his 2nd son John Grubb (1838-1900).
16 November 1907 Oklahoma Territory becomes the 46th state. The contiguous "sea to shining sea" empire would become complete with the addition of New Mexico and Arizona on on respectively 6 January and 14 February 1912. Alaska and Hawaii joined were admitted to the Union on respectively 3 January and 21 August 1959.
The War of the Rebellion
The Civil and Pacific Wars
As I write this in 2021, the Civil War is 160 years old, and the Pacific War is 80 years old -- as am I. The "Civil War" was not very civil, except in the manner in which it ended, with a formal, by-the-book surrender and laying down of arms -- the same way the not-so-peaceful Pacific War ended.
The last witness of the Civil War died before I was born, and practically all witnesses of the Pacific War have also died. Collective "memories" of the wars today are essentially reliant on handed-down historical accounts, which greatly vary in point of view, quality, and truthfulness.
Each generation has found reason to revise existing histories, and each newer version raises objections from those who prefer earlier versions. Attempts to alter current "official" or "standard" views of the Civil War and the Pacific War are condemned by defenders of orthodox or "politically correct" views as "revisionist".
Many issues are at stake. For example:
Was the Civil War fought mainly to end slavery or to reunite a divided United States? Does a statue of General Lee in a town square today constitute a defense of slavery, or just a memorialization of a man who led the defense of his homeland?
Did Japan not have a right to try to drive Euroamerican colonial powers out of Asia? Did America provoke Japan into a war it needed to justify both chastising Japan for its encroachments on China, and joining the war in Europe against Japan's Axis allies?
Very little new evidence is coming to light regarding either war. Preserving surviving evidence is becoming increasing expensive. But such documents and other artifacts that survive have become more accessible, even to amateur historians. And professional historians have come up with increasingly critical and creative ways to impute new meanings to the evidence.
But clearly, neither the Civil War nor the Pacific War began spontaneously. Both exploded only when fuels that had accumulated over the years were set off by political and military sparks. And, as wars, they have a lot in common.
- Both wars were fundamentally territorial conflicts, never mind the multiple issues that fueled hostilities.
- There would not have been a "Civil War" -- a "War of the Rebellion" -- if slave states had not seceded from the Union and formed a rival Confederate States of America. The resolve of the non-slave states to emancipate slaves did not materialize until the 2nd year of the war. And the proclaimed emancipation was binding only on Confederate states or localities therin that failed to quit the war by the end of 1862. In other words, the war did not begin in order to end slavery, but slavery ended as a consequence of political developments during the war.
- The Pacific War between primarily Japan and the United States germinated from conflicts over China and other hegemonic interests in Asia and the Pacific. However, the Allied Powers did not resolve to "liberate" Japan's colonial territories, which they had recognized were legal, until the 2nd year of the war, and the demand for unconditional surrender was made only in the 4th and last year of the war when Japan seemed bent on fighting to the finish.
- Despite their formal ends, neither war is over. Both continue to be fought in academia and the press, in town halls and on the streets.
- The descendants of victor veterans are allowed, even encouraged, to take public pride in the military actions of their ancestors and their patriotic motives.
- But the descendants of vanquished veterans are apt to be censured if they publicly memorialize the military feats of their ancestors, or justify their participation.
For a fuller comparison of both wars, see
The Civil and Pacific Wars:
Two continuing conflicts 160 and 80 years later
under "History" on the "Yosha Bunko" website.
What's in a name?
A lot -- when in comes to implications of uonconstitutionality, disloyaty, treason, and even immorality. By the end of 19th century, proud Confederate veterans were tired of the federal government's continuing stigmatization of the Confederacy in its treatment of soldiers who had fought on its side.
What people now most commonly call the "Civil War" was called the "War of the Rebellion" in John R. Baldwin's time. Postbellum acts that created pensions for earlier wars -- such as the Act of 29 January 1887, which established benefits for Mexican War veterans -- disqalified veterans whose disabilities were incurred while "in any manner voluntarily engaged in or aiding and abetting the late rebellion against the authority of the United States" (1887 Mexican War pension act).
John R. Baldwin, in ordinary conversation, may have spoken of the "War of the Rebellion" or the "War Between the States" as a "civil war". But he probably did not use "civil war" in the manner of "Civil War" -- the "proper" appelation today.
Some Confederate veterans regarded the federal government's insistance on characterizing the war as a "rebellion" insulting. At the turn of the 19th-20th centuries, both the United Confederate Veterans (UCV) and the United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC) moved to replace "War of the Rebellion" with "War Between the States", which gradually became more common (Gaines M. Foster, Ghosts of the Confederacy: Defeat, the Lost Cause, and the Emergence of the New South, 1865-1913, Oxford University Press, 1987). Only later did "Civil War" become the standard "neutral" label for a war that continues to embattle historians in debates over its causes and its purposes, which are not the same.
Kentucky as a "swing state"
Kentucky in many ways symbolizes the divide in various opinions over questions of slavery and secession. It was the birthplace of both Civil War presidents -- Abraham Lincoln of the Union, and Jefferson Davis of the Confederacy.
Kentucky was the site of a number of skirmishes during the early months of the war. The vast majority of the larger battles in the war, however, took place to the east in Virginia, to the south and southeast in Tennessee and North Carolina, and in states further south.
Some non-governmental groups in Kentucky sided with the Confedercy, but the state of Kentucky itself always remained in the Union. Even its short-lived "Resolution of Neutrality" on 18 May 1861 was essentially a vote for the Union cause.
The Great War or World War came half a century after the Civil War. During "the war to end all wars" -- now called World War I -- a number of scholars were thrashing through the archival ruins of the Civil War, trying to answer old and new questions about its causes and purposes. The following article is a 1916 look at the geographical and political conditions behind Kentucky's vote against secessionists (see 1st page to right).
Wm. T. McKinney
The Defeat of the Secessionists in Kentucky in 1861
The Journal of Negro History
(Association for the Study of African American Life and History)
[The University of Chicago Press]
Volume 1, Number 4, October 1916, pages 377-391
McKinney begins his article with a look at the all-important prelude to the secessionist actions that precipitated the founding of the Confederate States of America in 1861. The decisive votes to secede came after years of heated discussion in all nominally Southern states, including Kentucky -- a "border state" which, had it voted to bolt the Union fold and join the Confederacy, might well have tilted the balance of geopolitical power to the South.
Kentuckians in Union and Confederate uniforms
The following article offers a particularly interesting perspective on Kentucky's military role in the Civil War (see 1st page to right).
A. C. Quisenberry
Kentucky Union Troops in the Civil War
Register of Kentucky State Historical Society
Published by Kentucky Historical Society
Volume 18, Number 54, September 1920, Pages 13-18
Quisenberry estimates that "Kentucky furnished many prominent men to the Confederacy, as well as about thirty five thousand soldiers" (page 13), and that "Kentucky furnished 51,000 white volunteers and 23,000 colored-volunteers to the Union army -- a total of 74,000 troops" (page 13).
Later in the article, after adding more troops to the Union side of the ledger, Quisenberry concludes that, "If accurate figures could be obtained, it is believed that the number of Kentuckians who served the Union in the Civil War would not fall far short of 125,000" (page 14) -- which means (1) accurate figures cannot be obtained, and (2) the number would fall short of 125,000 -- qualifications which have been lost on Wikipedia and other unnuanced sources, which tend to stress inflated figures.
The Baldwin-Howard family was one of many Virginia families that migrated to Kentucky during the Civil War. Whether they sought refuge from the war, or moved for other reasons, will vary with the family. And many families stayed for a variety of reasons.
Would the Baldwin-Howard family have eventually moved to Kentucky -- or possibly another state -- if not for the war? There is no way of knowing -- without personal testimonies from John or Margaret Baldwin, or from members of related collateral families.
Political issues -- local, state, regional, and national -- probably didn't decide whether a family stayed put or moved during the war. The main concern, for most families, was probably physical safety and the ability to feed itself.
Safety in a herd generally requires gaining the trust of, and cooperating with, others in the herd. A family caught between two herds might survive by remaining neutral, but remaining neutral in times of a civil war in one's own locality can risk the suspicion and enmity of all sides both sides.
My impression from Baldwin-Howard lore is that John R. Baldwin made decisions that could be taken as either pro-Union or neutralist. Given its location in relation to Cumberland Gap and its agricultural productivity -- but perhaps most importantly its political status as part of Virginia, a Confederate state -- Lee County became hostile toward both pro-Union and neutral families.
Cumberland Gap became the object of several battles, and Lee Valley farm produce and other goods attracted military foragers. But above all, most Virginians -- regardless of their political stripes -- were Virginians. The vested interests of most residents of Lee County, including the Baldwin-Howard and related families, were in their farms and communities. When it came to war, most families would herd together to protect their local interests, which meant aiding Confederate forces.
What did it mean to be "Pro-Union" or "neutral" in Lee Valley? Did it mean "anti-slavery" or "anti-Confederacy" or "anti-Virginia" or just "anti-neighbor"?
The dominant "herd" in Lee Valley may simply have been "pro-Virginia". From the viewpoint of a Virginia patriot, the measure of loyalty would have been a commitment to the State of Virginia, less than to the Confederacy. Once the shooting began, the overarching issue for most families would have been to protect their homes and communities -- which meant hanging together as residents of Rose Hill or Jonestown, or of Powell Valley, or of Lee County, or of Virginia -- i.e., being Virginians, never mind the issue of slavery. Reducing the war to one of "anti-slavists" against "slavists" is an artifact of latterday -- not contemporary -- politics.
Once widespread shooting started, provoked by military acts taken in the interest of seizing or protecting a Union military facility in South Carolina, a Confederate state, the question of loyalty in Virginia was not so much to the Confederacy, but to Virginia as part of the Confederacy -- a one-for-all, all-for-one, "if you're not with us, you're against us" stance.
In any event, the Baldwin-Howard family was not alone among Lee County families to pack up and leave for new homes in Kentucky and elsewhere that offered more safety if not also more land and other economic opportunities -- mainly in the interest of the family, not a state, much less the Confederacy or Union.
See The Civil and Pacific Wars for a closer took at
the several "one-cause" schools and their drawbacks.
John R. Baldwin (1828-1909)
July-August 1863, 6th Sub-District, Owsley County, Kentucky
Halltown John R. Baldwin
Cover of file for "Halltown John R. Baldwin" Co. B, 2 Reg't, Virginia Infantry
Virginians gather in Halltown, Virginia, around 5:00 pm on the evening of 18 April 1861
They march of Harpers Ferry, about 10 miles northeast of Halltown, and by 10:00 pm they have attacked and destroyed the U.S. Army arsenal at Harpers Ferry. The blast and flames lit up the night sky and the explosion rocked the surrounding hills.
Sketch by D. H. Strother, copped from Son of the South
2nd Regiment Virginia Infantry and Company B
Images screen captured from
Harlan H. Hinkle
The Confederate Face of West(ern) Virginia
Lincoln (NB): iUniverse, 2003
x, 319 pages, scanned by Google Books
Richmond John R. Baldwin
Cover of file for "Richmond John R. Baldwin" Co. D, 25 Batt'n, Virginia Infantry
Thomas N. Baldwin (1843-1924)
Cover of file for "Thomas N. Baldwin" Co. D / K, 37 Virginia Infantry
Parolled Prisoner's Pass
"Paroled Prisoner's Pass" issued at Appomatox Court House, Va., April 10th, 1865
Copped from National Park Service, Department of the Interior
James Alvin and Henry Clay Thomas
Click on image to enlarge
Mary A. Thomas as widow of James A. Thomas
Served in Company C, 1st Tennessee Infantry
Record of filing for widow benefits in Kentucky
Filed 25 July 1890, Appl 463,037, no Cert No.
Mary A. Thomas (b1826) was widowed in 1862
She remarried John V. Orton (b1895) on 14 July 1867
Both were still alive but living apart in 1870 census
Copped and cropped from Ancestry.com
Click on image to enlarge
Martha J. Thomas as widow of Henry C. Thomas
Served in Company A, 10th Illinois Infantry
then in Company E, 2nd Tennessee Infantry
Record of filing for widow benefits in Kentucky
Filed 11 March 1904, Appl 801,724, Cert 594,862
Henry Clay Thomas died on 2 Jan 1904 in Georgetown, KY
Martha Jane Brown died on 15 Sep 1912 in Shelbyville, IN
All 12 children were alive in 1900, and 10 were alive in 1910
Copped and cropped from FamilySearch
Click on image to enlarge
Henry Clay Thomas during the War of the Rebellion
Part of 27 March 1889 deposition by Henry Clay Thomas
The following transcription was posted by Russell Thompson on Ancestry.com (viewed 22 February 2020).
Transcription of text in document
I was too small to serve, and they [two unreadable words] us to war. I did stay with this regiment awhile but, I did nothing but cook, and fetched water, and waited on the officers. And in fact I did <2 overstruck letters> [unreadable word] things <sic = anything> they asked me to do. I can't say further if not I was enlisted and [unreadable word] into their Tenn. Regiment. I may had a gun. They told me I was too small and had better go back to my mother; and I went back to where my [Transcribers note: compare this word my with other in this document, and the next word is lined out.] mother was, and found she [two unreadable words] of her [unreadable word], and gone to within 5 or 6 miles of Camp Wilson. My mother was then at her sisters Harriet Minks <sic = Mink's>, and I came by and told her I was going to Illinois. My father was in a Tenn. Regiment and died of measles at my mother's sister's house in 1862 I think. And mother was there with Mrs. Minks <sic = Mink> when I came by.
[Signed] Henry Thomas,
[Transcribed by Russell G. Thompson, Sanford, Florida, December 18, 2012, Henry Clay Thomas, National Archive Materials, 52-59, Deposition A, Pg. 8, No. 649009, March 27, 1889.]
[Additional corrections done by Russell G. Thompson, Sanford, Florida, May 25, 2014, with new information from James Alvin Thomas, NARA Form 85D, Full Pension File-Civil War, WC--178.061, Jesse Rogers, Guardian Sworn Declaration, March 17, 1783, that clarified the involvement of Harriet Minks.]
Click on image to enlarge
Widowed wives, orphaned children
Guardian of 5 minor children of James Alvin Thomas, deceased,
The above transcription, by Russell G. Thompson,
Pensions for children of widowed mothers
FORM OF DECLARATION OF
William and Elihu Moles
Click on image to enlarge
William H. Moles as deceased POW at Rock Island Barracks, Illinois
Moles William H. Pri 27 Va I Jonesville Va Oct 9  Jany 20  Feby 5  Varicola 378 South of Prison Barracks
Copped and cropped from Ancestry.com
William H. Moles's tombstone
Confederate Cemetery, Rock Island, Illinois
378 WM. H. MOLES CO. I 27 BATT'N VY. CAV C.S.A.
Photograph by john whitledge copped from Find a Grave
Click on image to enlarge
Harriet Moles as widow of Elihu H. Moles
Served in Company C, 19th Kentucky Infantry Regiment
Record of filing for widow benefits in Indiana
Filed 31 July 1890, Appl 467,591, Cert 308,228
Copped from Ancestry.com
Harriet Moles, 1836-1907
According to this obituary
Click on image to enlarge
2nd Lieutenant Elihu H. Moles discharged as casualty from 19th Regiment of Kentucky volunteers
Official Army Register of the Volunteer Force of the United States Army for the Years 1861, '62, '63, '64, '65, Part IV
West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama,
Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Tennessee, Kentucky
Published by the order of the Secretary of War, in compliance with
the joint resolution of the Senate and House of Representatives, approved March 2, 1865
Adjudant General's Office, Washington, August 31, 1865
Image captured from MyHeritage.com PDF file
Kentucky in Civil War
1st page of Wm. T. McKinney, "The Defeat of the Secessionists in Kentucky in 1861"
The Journal of Negro History (Association for the Study of African American Life and History) [The University of Chicago Press]
Volume 1, Number 4, October 1916, pages 377-391
Image captured from JSTOR PDF file
1st page of A. C. Quisenberry, "Kentucky Union Troops in the Civil War"
Register of Kentucky State Historical Society (Kentucky Historical Society)
Volume 18, Number 54, September 1920, pages 13-18
Image captured from JSTOR PDF file
Civil War issues in 2020
"Children of the Confederacy Creed" plaque in Texas Capitol|
Erected on 7 August 1959, removed on 13 January 2019 on grounds that it made historically false claims
Image of plaque copped from 1 February 2019 web edition of article by Mike Clark-Madison
Racist Confederate Plaque Needs a Forever Home